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Full text of "An annotated bibliography of the pike, Esox lucius (Osteichthyes: Salmoniformes)"

An Annotated Bibliography 
of the Pike, Esox lucius 
(Osteichthyes: Salmoniformes) 






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E. J. Crossman and J. M. Casselman 



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An Annotated Bibliography 
of the Pike, Esox lucius 
(Osteichthyes: Salmoniformes) 



E. J. Crossman is Curator in the Department of Ichthyology and Herpetology, Royal 
Ontario Museum, and Professor in the Department of Zoology, University of Toronto. 

J. M. Casselman is Research Scientist in the Research Section, Fisheries Branch, Ontario 
Ministry of Natural Resources, and Research Associate in the Department of Ichthyology 
and Herpetology, Royal Ontario Museum. 

Richard C. Hoffmann is Associate Professor History and Social Science in the Faculty of 
Arts, York University, Toronto. 



An Annotated Bibliography 
of the Pike, Esox lucins 
(Osteichthyes: Salmoniformes) 




f/^'W w'""" 



E. J. Crossman and J. M. Casselman 



With a foreword by Richard C. Hoffmann 



ROM 

A Life Sciences Miscellaneous Publication 
of the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto 



ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM 
PUBLICATIONS IN LIFE SCIENCES 



The Royal Ontario Museum publishes three series in the Life Sciences: 

LIFE SCIENCES CONTRIBUTIONS, a numbered series of original scientific publications includ- 
ing monographic works. 

LIFE SCIENCES OCCASIONAL PAPERS, a numbered series of original scientific publications, 
primarily short and usually of taxonomic significance. 

LIFE SCIENCES MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS, an unnumbered series of publications of 
varied subject matter and format. 

All manuscripts considered for publication are subject to the scrutiny and editorial policies of the 
Life Sciences Editorial Board, and to review by persons outside the Museum staff who are authori- 
ties in the particular field involved. 

LIFE SCIENCES EDITORIAL BOARD 

Senior Editor: E. J. Crossman 

Editor: J. L. Eger 

Editor: C. Darling 

External Editor: C. S. Churcher 



Canadian Cataloguing in Publication Data 

Crossman, E. J., 1929- 

An annotated bibliography of the pike, Esox 
lucius (Osteichthyes: Salmoniformes) 

(Life sciences miscellaneous publications, ISSN 

0082-5093) 

Includes index. 

ISBN 0-88854-33 1-X 

1 . Pike - Bibliography. 2. Pike fishing - 
Bibliography. I. Casselman, J. M. (John Malcolm), 
1940- . II. Royal Ontario Museum. III. Title. 
IV. Series. 

Z7996.F5C77 1987 016.597'53 C87-093734-0 



Cover art: Peter Buerschaper 

Publication date: 30 June 1987 
ISBN 0-88854-33 1-X 
ISSN 0082-5093 

© Royal Ontario Museum, 1987 

100 Queen's Park, Toronto, Canada, M5S 2C6 




Printed and bound in Canada at the University of Toronto Press 



Contents 



The Protohistory of Pike in Western Culture vii 

by Richard C. Hoffmann 

Acknowledgements xix 

Introduction 1 

Bibliography 9 

Subject Index 335 

Accounts by Geographical and Political Areas 335 

Age and Growth Determination 336 

Age and Growth Studies 337 

Anatomy, Morphology, and Histology 338 

Angling and Record Catches 341 

Behaviour 342 

Commercial Fishing 343 

Creel Census and Angling Statistics 344 

Culture and Artificial Propagation 345 

Distribution and Range 347 

Early Development 350 

Food and Feeding Habits 35 1 

Fossils and Archaeology 352 

General Accounts 353 

Genetics 354 

Habitat and Environmental Factors 354 

Historical Accounts 357 

Hybrids 358 

Identification 359 

Introductions and Stocking 359 

Length-Weight Relationships 361 

Life History and Habits 361 

Management 362 

Marking and Tagging 364 

Movement and Activity 365 

Nutrition 366 

Parasites, Pathology, and Diseases 366 

Physiology and Biochemistry 370 

Popular Accounts 373 

Population Dynamics 374 

Predator-Prey Relationships 377 

Project Reports 379 

Reproduction 381 

Sampling Techniques 382 

Spawning 383 

Taxonomy, Nomenclature, and Systematica 384 

Toxicology and Contaminants 384 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Royal Ontario Museum 



http://archive.org/details/annotatedbibliogOOcros 



The Protohistory of Pike in Western Culture 

Richard C. Hoffmann 



Why in a bibliography of a fish is this foreword an essay about people? Because human 
minds and behaviour are at least as responsible for this book and all it contains as is Eso.\ 
lucius. Bibliographers compile lists of special human cultural products, written and 
printed texts. The texts are intentional records of ways that people have perceived and 
understood something they had identified in the natural world around them. The cons- 
cious identification (''This thing is a pike and not something else") the mode of percep- 
tion ("Examining the gonads of this pike tells me something about this kind ot organ- 
ism** or "If I catch this pike. I have food") and the purposeful keeping of a record 
("Spawning Behaviour of E. lucius in a Mesotropic Estuarian System" or "Ely North 
for Lunker Northerns") are all human activities which tell as much about the cultural 
assumptions of the actors as they tell about pike. So, too, does the idea of compiling and 
publishing an organized list of such published information. As a natural organism the 
pike may be thought to have no "history* * in the normal sense of the term, but the 
encounters of humans with that organism are, at least potentially, part of human history. 
How have people thought about the pike they encountered? 

Most items in this bibliography approach the creature we now call Esox lucius in the 
distinctively modern cultural contexts of fishing arts or ichthyological science. The 
highly self-conscious activity we now know as science emerged slowly from older Euro- 
pean cultural patterns. So, too, did today's understanding of fishing. People in earlier 
Western cultures took cognizance of fish, and specifically of pike, but their con- 
sciousnesses did not produce records easily assimilated to scientific or bibliographic 
modes of presentation. Their cultural mentality and its surviving products were 
prescientific and. in comparison with the subsequent written record of E. lucius. any 
treatment thereof must be protohistorical, a piecing together of unintentional fragments 
of a record. 

This introductory essay thus explores what traces now remain of early Western 
encounters with E. lucius and ascertains what these sources can and cannot tell us of that 
fish's place in European minds up to the 16th and 17th centuries. It aims to recapture 
what those people thought of pike, less for the sake of checking whether their "tacts" 
are now acceptable than for that of reconstructing the contexts and mental frameworks 
which gave meaning to their "facts". The concern is with how Europeans apprehended 
this fish before they established the systematic cultural tradition of writing about ichthy- 
ology, pisciculture, and fishing, which made intellectually conceivable a bibliography 
like this one. 



The entry of pike into European consciousnesses 

The first and most humans who confronted E. lucius left no. or merely indirect, traces in 
the surviving record. In prehistoric and undocumented pasts Europeans treated pike as a 
food object. Pike remains from human occupation sites affirm this for all periods since 
the early Neolithic, but the material' evidence of bones and scales can carry only limited 
information. Early Europeans evidently brought pike to campsites, huts, halls, and cas- 
tles generally across the native range ot the species. At sites where careful modem 
archaeologists have recovered many tish remains, those of pike arc often well 

\ ii 



represented. We may infer that in the minds of the people who once lived there the 
creature we call pike was "food," perhaps even "preferred food,'' but all else can be 
but speculation. Did they distinguish by name this fish from others? Did they intention- 
ally seek this fish rather than just accept the luck of the net, trap, hook, or spear? Did 
they have and use knowledge of its haunts and habits? Analogy with other hunting and 
gathering cultures suggests affirmative answers, but to confirm them requires products of 
human minds more conscious than a garbage heap where a few vertebrae landed after a 
meal. Perhaps because the native European range of E. lucius only slightly overlaps that 
of early literate civilizations in the Mediterranean basin, consciously produced evidence 
to give a sense of what at least some person or people thought about pike comes late. 

When the fish identifiably enters the extant verbal record, it bears a less than flattering 
reputation. A late Roman poet and teacher of rhetoric, Decimus Magnus Ausonius 
(310-393), travelled from Bordeaux northeast to Trier to tutor the future emperor Gra- 
tian. The trip inspired Ausonius to write the Mosella, a Latin poem on the Rhine tribu- 
tary of the same name. When he there catalogued the fishes of the river, he introduced to 
the world of letters what he called lucius} This first known written reference to pike 
deserves quotation in the original: 

Hie etiam latio risus praenomine cultor 
stagnorum, querulis vis infestissima ranis, 
lucius, obscuras ulva caenoque lacunas 
obsidet. Hie nullos mensarum lectus ad usus 
feruet fumosis olido nidore popinis. 

[Mosclla, lines 120-124] 

The precise sense and connotation of such typically stylized late classical Latin poetry is 
hard to put into English. Something like this comes close: 

A dweller in backwaters does enjoy a proper Latin name. 

Lucius besieges the complaining frogs 

in obscure holes among sedges and mud. 

His meat is not for the dining table 

but sold at cheap shops smoky with its reeking stink. 

At the very end of ancient civilization, then, Ausonius first articulated a perception of 
pike as fish and as resource. This creature lives in a swampy habitat and preys, from 
concealment, on other animals. Enmity between pike and frogs will be a regular theme 
of later literature. For late Roman consumers, however, Ausonius thought the pike poor 
fare (a status which some later writers will dispute). 



Along the wake of the "water wolf" 

The two elements in Ausonius's introduction — object of nature and usefulness for 
humans — provide a frame for considering much of the subsequent record medieval Euro- 
peans left of the pike. Scattered references and allusions rank lucius with trout and carp 
among the freshwater fishes best known to humans, but this familiarity and knowledge 
long remained unsystematized. 

Pike and other natural objects or phenomena belonged to what medieval Europeans 
long understood as a material veil which separated them from an ultimately spiritual real- 
ity. Some of them conceived the world of nature as actively hostile to humankind and to 
the divine plan for human salvation; for these any concern for the material was but 

viii 



foolish sin. Others conceded a godly origin to this imperfect creation but thought it worth 
attention only in so far as it might thus dimly reflect the divine plan for ultimate perfec- 
tion. In the latter context things of nature either served the mundane (and hence unin- 
teresting) needs of life in this transient world or signified with their characteristics analo- 
gous powers and truths of the supernatural. 

People who saw signs in nature focused on the fearsomeness and the predatory habits 
of pike. One early text asserts that the great Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, died in 
terror in 326 after seeing in the face of a pike brought to his dining table the visage of his 
recently executed enemy Symmachus. When Ruodlieb, hero of an 11th-century 
Bavarian fairy tale, caught by quasi-magical means a whole list of fishes, pike were 
among the few given more than just a name: "Lucius. ..are the wolves among fishes, for 
they devour fish whenever they can catch them/' 2 

Folk tales and popular practices that perhaps originated in assimilation of Christian 
notions by early medieval Europeans treated in mythic ways the pike and its attributes. 
In a widespread story the markings on the pike's head were seen as displaying the imple- 
ments of Christ's passion: cross, ladder, hammer, nails, thorns, whip, and sponge. The 
tale explained that as Christ carried his cross through a brook where the pike lived, the 
fish looked out and was forever marked by what it saw. One variant of Scandinavian 
provenance listed the pike among the harmful things created by the devil to vex God. 
When angels captured these creatures and brought them before God, he saw on the 
pike's head a cross. So he blessed the fish and made it good and useful to humankind. A 
Latvian legend told how the pike grew very large and, forgetting in its pride God's com- 
mand to eat only fish, caught and ate a fisherman. As a reminder, lest the pike again so 
err, the tale continued, God ordered the pike to carry in its head all the tools of the fisher- 
man: the set net as jaws, the spear as teeth, the hooks as gills. What enters the set net is 
trapped; what the spear grasps is held firm; what reaches the hooks sticks tight. Of fresh- 
water species only the pike appears as a protagonist in any of the family of stories about 
a competition (which collapsed in disorder) to be king among the fishes. Perhaps the 
idea of the pike as a fish of superior standing explains why in 1 177 nobles in charge of a 
great knightly tournament held in Champagne offered a trophy pike to the champion. 

Men of formal learning, who until the 12th century came almost exclusively from a 
monastic environment, used natural history more formally to explicate moral or doctrinal 
points. A late exponent of this approach, the English canon and teacher Alexander 
Neckam, assembled in his De naturis return of the 1 180s many such allegorical interpre- 
tations. For Alexander, lucius was the "aquatic wolf" and "tyrant of the waters" that 
fish could no more escape than humans could old age. When this greedy eater swallows 
fish too big for its stomach, it digests them by halves. In another passage Neckam tells 
how, when the perch sees the pike, it raises its prickly fins in defence while the bream 
flees into the mud; so thwarted, the pike attacks other fishes. As wolfish as the pike, the 
writer continues, are the human despoilers of churches, but their subjects, being neither 
perch nor bream, must suffer their evil deeds. When shaped by a doctrine of signs, 
observations of nature gave understanding in ways alien to modern sensibilities. 

Into (and, in some instances, beyond) the 12th century, then, those literate Europeans 
who thought to write about the pike did so with emphasis on the predatory "water 
wolf." At the same time and for much longer, however, other Europeans, mostly illi- 
terates, were perceiving in wild pike populations objects of use and value. 

Human exploitation of pike drew in the middle ages only occasional literate attention, 
though the record grows from the 12th century onwards. A 10th-century Anglo-Saxon 
schoolmaster, Aelfric of Eynsham, taught his pupils Latin with made-up stories. 

ix 



including one about a fisherman who earned his living taking pike and other species with 
hooks and nets. Just about the same time Aeltric was composing his schoolbook, real 
Fishermen in and around the estuary of the Odra (Oder) River on the south coast of the 
Baltic were angling for pike with iron and bronze spoons. (The shape of those lures 
found by archaeologists is familiar to any modern pike fisher.) Then, too. the Count of 
Anjou reserved the pike for his own use when he donated a fishery to the abbey of Mar- 
moutier. Comparable passing references or incidental local evidence of pike fishing con- 
tinue thereafter. The species was important in the yield of fisheries for which in the late 
14th century the church of Troyes in Champagne kept income accounts. By that time 
pike were mentioned in contracts made between land owners and commercial fishermen 
near Aries and in records of disputes among the same kinds of people in Prussia. The 
earliest medieval sport fisher we can so far document, a late 12th-century canon of 
Chalons-sur-Marne called Gui of Bazoches. listed pike among the fishes he enjoyed 
catching on a holiday at his uncle's country estate. Still, for long thereafter the tech- 
niques of fish capture remained unworthy of coherent and intentional written considera- 
tion by contemporaries. 

The fishing, growth of human populations, clearance of land for farming, and develop- 
ment of the European economy during the 10th through 13th centuries brought wild pike 
populations under noticeable pressure. Expanding state authorities and literate adminis- 
trations took measures to conserve valued fishery resources. In 1289 King Philip IV of 
France issued for all public waters a fisheries ordinance that established general gear res- 
trictions and closed seasons and specified size limits for various fishes. No pike so small 
as to be worth 2 denier or less on the market could be legally taken. Comparable royal 
decrees went out regularly thereafter, though little is known of their enforcement or 
effect. In areas with less precocious central governments than had France, local and 
regional authorities took the lead. In the 15th century communities along the upper 
Rhine closed fishing for small pike from early spring until dates in late July or August to 
give the fish a chance to grow. In 1506 the Emperor Maximilian I, himself an enthusias- 
tic and self-advertised devotee of field sports, decreed in his hereditary capacity as duke 
ot Lower Austria minimum size and season regulations for numerous species in that ter- 
ritory. To invalidate the excuse of misidentification, the copy of the decree used by the 
city government in Vienna included coloured illustrations of each fish. The pike is 
unmistakable. 

Maximilian and other authorities wanted to protect fish populations, including those of 
pike, because these were perceived as important sources of food. Medieval Europeans 
evidently thought pike far better meat than had Ausonius. In excavations of 10th- 
through 14th-century levels at Novgorod, remains of E. lucius ranked second in number 
only to those of zander {Stizostcdion lucioperca). Popes at Avignon had purchasing 
agents obtain pike on buying trips to Burgundy. Inventories and account books kept by 
officials of Teutonic Order houses in late 14th-century Bohemia list pantry supplies of 
pike, both preserved (salted, pickled, dried) and fresh. Contemporaries in France paid 60 
sous for a pike when a carp went for 15. At Eger in western Bohemia the municipal 
price-fixing ordinance of 1465 set fresh pike at 36 heller per pound, below only salmon; 
salt pike at 30 heller per pound were the most expensive preserved fish. These price 
relationships probably explain why, when all prices in Europe rose during the 16th cen- 
tury, pike slowly gave way to carp in the extant menus of hospitals, convents, and 
orphanages, though they continued to grace the tables of the elite. 

By then pike had also appeared in a developing but poorly studied genre of writing 
that offered readers a mix ot medical, dietary, and culinary advice. Hildegard of Bingen 



was a mystic and abbess from the middle Rhine who in the 1 150s carefully investigated 
the foods available for her nuns. She noted that what she called the hecht preferred pure 
water and ate fish rather than mud or weeds and she concluded that it had good healthful 
flesh. She thus recommended pike meat for both the siek and the well, and to promote 
good digestion, the eating o\' pike livers. The housekeeping manual compiled in the 
1390s by an elderly Parisian for his young wife advised male in preference to female 
pike except if she wished to make rissoles from the eggs. He offered particular recipes 
suited to pike in their ascending order of size: "lanterel, brochet. quarrel, lux et 
luceau.' '-* In what is now recognized as the earliest known printed book on fishing, a 
manual done in Heidelberg in 1493 and many times reprinted in German, Flemish, and 
French (sometimes called Dit Boecxken after the Flemish title), the anonymous author 
also favoured the milter (male) over the roe (female), but emphasized that any large pike 
was good eating all year round except when it was spawning. This advice on size and 
seasons — along with the traditional notion that pike was "like a wolf — Gregor Man- 
golt of Zurich copied into his early 16th-century handbook on the purchase and prepara- 
tion of fish from the Bodensee (Lake Constance). The pirated edition of 1557 highly 
recommends a specimen taken in October and cooked whole either in its own juices, in a 
broth of sweet wine and salt, or "blue [s/c]" in vinegar. If we better understood the his- 
tory of such medieval cookbooks and medico-dietary thinking, we might detect therein 
early systematic knowledge about one aspect of the pike. 



The pike enters scholarship 

The institutional and intellectual setting of the 12th century, which yielded some of 
Hildegard's knowledge and in which Alexander Neckam worked, laid the foundations 
for modern scholarly and scientific traditions. New intellectual movements then justified 
the study of man and of nature without necessary reference to the supernatural, so that 
secular learning, though still subordinated to theology, could claim autonomous legi- 
timacy. Scholastics at Paris and elsewhere recovered Aristotle's writings, including those 
on natural history, and compiled and updated what they learned from them. The great 
13th-century natural philosophers like Thomas of Cantimpre, Vincent of Beauvais, and 
Albertus Magnus devoted to fish whole sections of their encyclopaedias. 4 Perhaps more 
significantly, they organized their learning to distinguish between the general and the 
particular and to indicate the sources of their data. High medieval scholasticism thus 
took the necessary first step from mere incidental comment to the accumulation of 
knowledge that is one characteristic of scientific scholarship. 

The authors of surviving 13th-century encyclopaedias copied extensively from one 
another and from an earlier generation of writers (whose works they so effectively super- 
seded as to cause their disappearance). As a result, much the same things were repeated 
in most scholastic discussions of pike. They point out that Indus is known as the 
"aquatic wolf" from its predatory habits. They describe it as a fish of fresh waters, with 
a wide mouth and many sharp teeth, that eats frogs and smaller fishes, preferably those 
without sharp spines and scales, but not sparing even its own kind or fish almost its own 
size. The prey is taken in head first, for otherwise the scales and fins would prevent the 
pike from swallowing it. Albertus, who grew up in the vicinity of the Rhine, adds at this 
point in his treatment that he had seen that the pike first catches its prey crosswise to the 
body and, after carrying it a while and puncturing it with its teeth, releases it to turn it 
about and swallow it whole head first. There is discussion of the shape of the pike's 
stomach and of a crystalline stone to be found in its head. Vincent alleges Aristotle (who 

xi 



had not in fact written about E. Indus) as his source for the claim that female pike are 
made gravid by the south wind and ascend rivers to spawn where they do not live, so that 
their children will not be a burden to them. Other authorities, Vincent continues, see in 
the spawning movement a search for purer water. He and his colleagues did not know 
that, a half century before, Hildegard of Bingen had recorded direct observations of 
spawning behaviour. 

What the high medieval schoolmen had to say about pike must be understood in terms 
of their principal intellectual concern: to assemble statements from authoritative earlier 
writers into a coherent body of learning, which could then be examined through the tools 
of logic. The method had originated in the disciplines of law and metaphysics and sub- 
sequently spread into theology, history, and natural history. Because they achieved that 
purpose, the scholastic encylopaedists dominated learned European understandings of 
nature, of fish, and of pike into the 16th century. 



Towards conscious manipulation and systematic knowledge 

Late 12th- and 13th-century schoolmen were, therefore, the first Europeans to write 
extensively and with broad intellectual purpose about lucius. Rarely, however, did 
medieval intellectuals connect their work directly with observed natural phenomena or 
see it as affecting what people actually did in the world of nature. But during the later 
Middle Ages and the 16th century some Europeans who encountered pike did come to 
link observation, thought, writing, and action in three separate areas: pisciculture, 
fishing, and an emerging science of ichthyology. Though these activities, or at least the 
literatures of them, display occasional interconnections, they mainly evolved and can be 
examined independently. 

Artificial fish culture in medieval Europe differed from the Roman emphasis on warm 
brackish-water coastal store ponds serving the private needs of luxurious epicures. By 
processes not yet well investigated, medieval Europeans established and spread a pisci- 
culture using regulated complexes of artificial freshwater ponds to segregate by year- 
classes large numbers of cyprinids (mainly carp) for reproduction, growth, fattening, and 
subsequent market sale. Incidental references in documents transferring land or report- 
ing court proceedings suggest that the technical features of this system were available in 
northern and central France around 1200. The evidence thereafter becomes voluminous, 
first in western, then in east- central, Europe. 

Intentional use of pike as a biological control agent in and byproduct of carp culture 
by the 13th century in at least some regions of Europe is revealed in incidental and 
administrative records, but, like fish culture in general, is not then the object of 
comprehensive, integrated, or synthetic discussion. A brief passage on fishponds in the 
late 13th-century Anglo-French manual of property management called Flcta recom- 
mended against admission of "aquatic wolves" that would eat other fish. However, 
13th- through 15th-century texts from regions as far apart as England, central France, 
and Bohemia do show pond owners purposely exploiting the pike's piscivorous habits by 
placing a few in their finishing ponds to keep down the numbers of small carp and thus 
encourage growth of the large. In 1258 Count Thibaut V of Champagne stocked 6 large 
pike along with 3520 carp and 10000 bream and roach. Ponds belonging to the Duke of 
Burgundy a century later yielded at harvest numbers like 4638 carp, 650 bream, and 533 
pike from Saree or 5740 parp and 268 pike from TEperviere. In late 14th-century Eng- 
land, where the exotic carp was still very rare or absent and the elaborated multi-pond 
technology likely not common, Chaucer described the well-to-do franklin of the 

xii 



Canterbury Talcs as having "many a breme and luce" in his pond. 

Conscious use of know ledge about the predatory pike and its effect on populations of 
other species as a tool for managing domesticated fish production thus long antedated 
codification o\' this knowledge into intentionally composed manuals of fish culture. A 
specialized technical literature on the operation of artificial fishponds developed only 
with the late 15th- and early 16th-century proliferation of carp culture in east-central 
Europe, notably Bohemia. Moravia. Silesia, and parts of southern Poland and Germany. 
Handbooks like De piscinis ("'On fishponds") by the Moravian prelate Jan Skaly z 
Dubravka (Dubravius). composed privately for the rich merchant Anton Fugger in 1525 
and printed in Wroclaw in 1547, or O sprawie, sypaniu, wymierzeniu, i rybnieniu stawow 
("On the operation, excavation, surveying, and stocking of ponds") by the veteran Pol- 
ish pond master Olbrycht Strumieriski printed in Krakow in 1573, or others known only 
in manuscript or done somewhat later make explicit little about pike which cannot now 
be inferred as earlier known to late medieval operators of piscicultural enterprises. 
These manuals advise keeping the predator out of the spawning ponds but stocking it in 
the third pond to eat the superfluous offspring of precocious three-year-old carp, which 
would otherwise inhibit the growth of the market-destined parents. They point out as 
well that pike from these well-managed and clean waters will be delicious for the pond 
owner's dining or remunerative for sale. The 16th-century writers on artificial fish cul- 
ture also affirmed more clearly than may be shown before that pike spawn in weeds and 
shallows like the other fishes of their ponds and earlier in the season than carp. 

In the present context, however, the intellectual role of the writers on fish culture has 
greater importance than the particular data they offered. Their observational knowledge 
of pike was integrated and systematized in ways hitherto unknown. The whole empirical 
technology of rearing fish, which had developed outside the ambit of literate social 
groups, these authors brought into that cultural setting, organized for communication 
through the written word, and disseminated by its new means of handling information, 
the printed book. Their works were translated and adapted into other languages and used 
in the writings of other commentators. A cumulative literate body of applied knowledge 
had been established. 

European thought about catching pike and other fishes emerged, like that on fish rear- 
ing, from scattered unintentional traces of illiterate and disorganized empirical practice 
to coherent consideration in written and then printed treatises. Before the 14th-century 
no known text purports to describe or instruct in the arts and crafts of fishing: as men- 
tioned above, our knowledge of medieval capture techniques comes from passing and 
often obscure references in writings done for other ends, chiefly literary or regulatory. 
Thereafter, however, works now extant make more visible for angling than for piscicul- 
ture the cultural process whereby a "literature" evolved from lists of prescriptions and 
short tracts to extended, comprehensive, and self-conscious didactic treatments. 

The few brief early discussions of fish-capture techniques now known to have been 
written in 14th-century Italy. Germany, and England do not specify target species for the 
attractants, piscicides, baits, and gear they prescribe, but comparable or larger notes from 
the 15th century do. The pike, notably piscivorous among the easily seen European fishes 
of fresh waters, thus required treatment different from that for fishes susceptible to bread 
pastes, maggots, or live or simulated insects. A 15th-century German translator of the 
section on fishing from the 14th-century agricultural manual by the Bolognese Pietro de 
Crescenzi interpolated in a passage on angling the comment that a single hook baited 
with a small fish was good for "all predators like pike." 5 The interpolator adds that 
strong hooks and a line covered with wire are needed because of the pikes teeth. 

Mil 



Several of the more numerous English manuscript tracts offer similar advice. One in a 
15th-century paper manuscript (Harley 2389) at the British Library goes into more detail, 
prescribing "to catch a pyke at all tymes" a double hook mounted two fathoms below a 
large cork and baited with a small roach, gudgeon, or bleak that has been rubbed with 
camphor and oil to make it shine and with asafoetida to attract by odour. Especially in 
May, September, and October a frog is the preferred bait and from January through 
March the pike will bite at a worm, but the small fish properly anointed is otherwise the 
best. A monk at the Bavarian abbev of Tegernsee, who about 1500 wrote down the 
methods of the professional fishers employed there, described techniques like the English 
ones, but also mentioned the use of a hook wrapped with purple silk and a special mix of 
feathers. 

The long Tegernsee manuscript still only listed baits, but by its time a genuine angling 
literature, which offered to a reading public organized treatment of the subject, was 
already appearing. The pamphlet printed in Heidelberg in 1493 (see above) combined 
advice on baits, a fisherman's calendar, and a curious satirical comparison of fish to 
human society ("The pike is a robber"). Its printer, Jacob Kobel, expressed surprised 
delight at finding a written discourse on the useful and pleasant activity of fishing. Ear- 
lier still, the anonymous English Treatyse of F.ysshynge wyth an Angle (at times 
ignorantly ascribed to a mythical "Dame Juliana Berners ,, or "Barnes ,, ), probably com- 
posed about 1420 and surviving in its initial form only as a fragmentary mid-century 
manuscript, had articulated the sporting quality of angling, described the necessary 
tackle, and detailed its use in general and for particular fishes. The extant portion, how- 
ever, gives for pike only the recommendation to dye a chalk line brown and protect it 
with a wire. When the complete Treatyse appeared in print in the second Bake of St. 
Albans in 1496, some revision had occured and larger coverage was given to pike 
fishing. This begins with moral opprobrium for the pike's predatory behaviour, though 
these habits then explain the recommended baits and tactics: thread a roach or herring 
on a hook and float it in likely pike habitat; hook a frog through the skin of the neck and 
cast it into those places; soak a small fish in asafoetida before using it as bait; "and yf ye 
lyst to haue a good sporte, thenne tye the corde [with baited hook] to a gose fote [goose's 
foot) and ye shall se god halynge [a good tug-of- war] whether the gose or the pyke shall 
haue the better." 6 

With the German tract of 1493, republished dozens of times in the next century and 
incorporated into other continental works, and the printing of the English Treatyse, 
fishing as the practical application of observed data from nature entered the world of 
public literary culture. On the European continent a tradition of angling literature subse- 
quently faltered, but in England it grew and with it a cumulative angling perspective on 
the pike. At least some fishers read and some writers fished. In The Arte of Angling pub- 
lished anonymously in 1577 William Samuel, a Huntingdonshire clergyman, labelled the 
pike (here "pickerel") the "freshwater wolf" for the first time in English and noted its 
difference from other fishes in lacking a fear of man. Samuel advised familiar capture 
techniques suited to the pike's size and predatory nature; the wire-protected and heavy 
line; the roach, dace, frog, or large worm as bait, a drifting or still presentation. A new 
suggestion he offered was to hook a dead bait through the nose and move it actively in 
the water, and then, when the pike took, to wait until it carried, released, retook, and 
swallowed the bait before setting the hook. The conceptions of pike and pike fishing 
given in both the Treatyse, and the Arte became commonplaces in English angling books 
done about 1600 and later in The Compleat Angler of Izaak Walton. This was in part 
because these authors lifted whole passages from the earlier works. In angling, then, a 

xiv 



second systematic literate tradition about pike had emerged from the changing European 
consciousness. 

For knowledge of pike. William Samuel drew in 1377 on more than angling experi- 
ence and the written precedent of the Treatyse. His lictive expert. Piscator, tells his neo- 
phyte companion about a reputed 267-year-old pike captured in Germany which, says he, 
'"Ciesnerus doth make report of....'* ' He refers to the Swiss physician and naturalist 
Konrad von Gesner (1516-1565), a cofounder of modern ichthyological and ol modern 
bibliographical science. Gesner and his fellow 16th-century students of lishes esta- 
blished the third context in which European perceptions of lucius departed from the pro- 
tohistorical and the pre-systematic. 

This foreword can provide no history of 16th-century ichthyology, just a sketch of 
how lucius was handled in that cultural setting. Gesner\s principal work on fishes, the 
third volume of his Historic! animalium, "which is on the nature of fishes and aquatic 
animals.'* was published at Zurich in 1558. Its author exploited scholarship by French. 
Italian, and German writers, as well as his own extensive network of correspondents. 
Gesner's treatment of lucius conformed to what had already become a standard mode of 
topical organization. His text begins with the nomenclature of Latin and the European 
vernaculars, for scientific inquiry requires consensus on the object of discussion. Thus 
he cited Ausonius but rejected as synonyms for lucius Pliny's esox, Strabo's oxyrynchus, 
and Aristotle's lupus. In his examination of recorded distribution Gesner noted the 
absence of pike from Spain. Physical descriptions, external and internal, follow. Gesner 
referred to writings of his contemporary Pierre Belon. and of his medieval predecessor 
Thomas of Cantimpre. After giving the latter's report on a crystal stone in the brain of 
pike. Gesner specified that he could not confirm this from his own observations. He then 
mentioned that some people saw in the head markings the instruments of the Passion. 

Further sections in Gesner's discussion treat similarily the habitat, habits, capture, and 
dietary value of lucius. This dweller in quiet fresh waters "besieges, as Ausonius says" 
its prey, tishes and frogs, from cover. Feeding habits are described with reference to 
Thomas of Cantimpre and Albertus Magnus and then amplified with contemporary 
reports of the pike's voracity: one from the Rhone is said to have seized the lip of a mule 
brought to water; a man from Krakow told of pike eating small dogs and biting the feet 
of servant girls who swam in a fishpond. "Ein Hecht ist ein Rauber" ("A pike is a 
robber'*) is acknowledged as coming from the German "Ioculana piscium." the satirical 
.comparison printed in 1493. Do pike reproduce by spontaneous generation? Gesner 
summarized earlier arguments and then pointed out that spawning pike and pike fry had 
been seen in the Elbe and in Switzerland. He listed techniques for catching pike and 
reported on size, season, and gear restrictions in force in various south German jurisdic- 
tions. He contrasted Ausonius's disdain for its food value with the favour of contem- 
porary practice and writers. Gesner offered as well exemplary recipes, culinary and 
medicinal, including some taken from his compatriot Gregor Mangolt. In this conclud- 
ing section he reported both that some people eat raw pike skin as a prophylactic against 
fever and that pike ashes relieve pains in "shameful places.'* though noting that the 
latter claim is "uncertain." 

To develop knowledge about pike. Konrad von Gesner and his contemporaries read, 
observed, and catalogued. 8 They gathered data from all available sources, linked that 
data to the organism to which it referred, and began to sort out that data. I he pike had 
become an object of inquiry or, if you will, of science. But 16th-century science was still 
closely connected to humanistic scholarship, for its practitioners had first to find and 
summarize the information in earlier writings done tor whatever purpose. Hence 



xv 



Gesner's place as a father of bibliography (his Biblioteca universalis of 1545 listed some 
ten thousand Latin, Greek, and Hebrew works) cannot be separated from his approach to 
ichthyology. The flood of information released by the printing press allowed, even 
demanded, that knowledge become an ordered but open-ended accumulation of data for 
collaborative consideration and incremental change. 

Sixteenth-century shifts in the form, content, and context of scientific thinking about 
E. Indus thus replicated those then occurring in writings on the culture and capture of 
this fish. Information once confined to the unsystematic empiricism of illiterate practi- 
tioners or to an intellectual elite of professional scholars now became accessible to a 
wider array of people through publication in many identical copies. Writers of treatises 
and manuals sorted this data, organized it, and made it potentially subject to the tests of 
observation and subsequent revision. William Samuel's use of Gesner's writings and 
Gesner's of the 1493 tract even suggest new possibilities of cross-fertilization among 
hitherto separate groups interested in the pike. The ''aquatic wolf remained in the 16th 
century a creature of awe and mystery for Europeans, witness the tales of its age and 
ferocity Gesner thought proper to relate. Europeans now possessed about the pike, how- 
ever, a corpus of shared and intentionally shaped information available to those 
interested in it for whatever reason — human food, sport, management, or scientific 
curiosity. What here follows in the bibliographic listing of writings on E. lucins is the 
latest descendant of that cultural creation. 



Notes 

'The only recorded Latin name for pike is lucins which, as Ausonius says, was also a common 
Roman personal name. No useful explanation for the homonymy has ever been suggested. The 
Latin root luc- is subsequently attached to this tish in all Romance languages, in Gaelic, and, into 
the 17th century, in English (as luce). French gradually abandoned the Latinale form for another of 
possible Gallic origin, brocket (literally "poker/' "spear," and hence in an English under French 
influence, "pike"). German Hecht (< hachit, compare Old English haecit) carries the same conno- 
tation. Esox is a Latin word derived from the Celtic term for salmon and was until the time of Lin- 
naeus used not for pike but for various salmon ids. 

Editorial policy for Life Science Publications of the Royal Ontario Museum discourages the use 
of footnotes. This foreword provides fewer exact citations than is normal in historical scholarship. 
These notes therefore give detailed references only for extended direct primary quotations and for 
those few modern studies which have most importantly influenced the interpretations here offered. 
The author welcomes inquiries about the source of any evidence here inadequately described. 

2 The Ruodlieb. Linguistic Introduction, Latin Text, and Glossary, ed. Gordon B. Ford, Jr 
(Leiden, 1966), fragment X, lines 39-40: "Lucius et rufus. qui sunt in piscibus hirpus, Pisces 
namquc vorant, illos ubi prendere possunt." Translation from Gordon B. Ford, Jr, tr.. The 
Ruodlieb. The First Medieval Epic of Chivalry from Eleventh-Century Germany (Leiden, 1965). p. 
74. 

*Le Menagier de Paris, ed. G. E. Brereton and J. M. Ferrier (Oxford, 1981 ), pp. 173, 181-183, 
and 231-232. Late medieval French texts do not always agree on the size sequence of names 
given to lucins. 

4 Christian Hiinemordef, "Die Geschichte der Fischbiicher von Aristoteles bis zum Ende des 17 
Jahrhunderts," Deutsches Schiffahrtsarchiw 1 (1975), 188-198 surveys formal scholarship in 
medieval and early modern limes. 

""'alio rawbfisch als hechle " Kurt Lindner, ed.. Das Jagdbuch des Petrus de Crescentiis in 

dcutschen Ubersetzungen des 14. und 15. Jahrhunderts (Berlin, 1957), p. 159. This passage in 
Book 10, chapter 38 of the 15th-century translation is absent from the same section of both a 14th- 

xvi 



century German version and de Crescenzi's original (there 10:39), which make no reference to par- 
ticular fish speeies. 

6 John McDonald, The Origins of Angling (New York, 1963). p. 220, is a facsimile of the printed 
text; the manuscript passage occurs on p. 154. 

///c Arte of Angling 1577, ed. Gerald E. Bentley (Princeton, 1958). facsimile lols. D.iii. verso - 
D.iiii. recto, and modernized text pp. 46-47. Identification of the reference to Gesner was made by 
D. E. Rhodes. "A new line for the angler. 1577," The Library, 5th series 10 (1955). 123-124, who 
traced the passage to Gesner's Nomenclator aquatilium animantium (Zurich, 1 560), p. 316. Gesner 
had earlier published the tale, however, in the dedication to his Historia animalium, III. De piscium 
& aquatilium animantium naturae (Zurich, 1558). fols a3 redo - a6 verso, where he attributed it to 
his own teacher, the German humanist Conrad Celtis. 

s These final paragraphs are influenced by Elizabeth L. Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an 
Agent of Change (Cambridge. 1979). abridged as The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe 
(Cambridge, 1983). 



xvn 



Acknowledgements 



As a result of the magnitude of this project, work on it has spread over many years. 
More intensive activity, starting in 1980, occurred sporadically as individuals or small 
amounts 'of funding were available to commit to the project. During that time incidental 
funds were derived solely from the ROM and Fisheries Braneh, Ontario Ministry of 
Natural Resourees. We extend our thanks for that eontinuing encouragement. The real 
opportunity to complete the bibliography resulted from a contract from the Department 
of Supply and Services (DSS) Funds were made available from the Unsolicited Propo- 
sals Programme (UPP), in cooperation with the Freshwater Institute, Department of 
Fisheries and Oceans. That contract provided funds for salary for someone to complete 
the preparation of the computer version and partial support for publication. Computer 
support was also provided at that time by D. E. McAllister, National Museum of Natural 
Sciences. Ottawa. The DSS contract made it possible, finally, to commit a single person 
over a significant period of time to the tasks of drawing together the past efforts of others 
and completing the file. We thank Lois Casselman for all the work she did seeing the 
bibliography through to completion and for assistance with the bibliography over the 
years. She not only worked with care, enthusiasm, and commitment, but contributed 
ideas on how the bibliography should be done. 

In addition there is a large group of people who assisted in a variety of ways, from 
searching references, typing cards and input sheets, preparing annotations, providing 
reprints or lists of references, to assisting with the many complexities of generating the 
computer and printed versions of this bibliography. That assistance is gratefully ack- 
nowledged. We list the names here alphabetically without references to the extent of 
each person's contribution and we offer our sincere thanks to all involved: R. Berka, V. 
Brull, M. Burridge-Smith, C. W. Casselman, B. Chong, J. -P. Cochain, M. Cook, J. F. 
Craig, M. Dornfeld, B. Flerov, L. Fuiman, N. Giles, D. Green, P. Grouette, L. Hawrysh, 
L. Hess, S. Hick, R. C. Hoffmann, C. Horkey, L. Johnson, S. Kirkpatrick, K. Korpacz, H. 
Lehtonen, A. London, R. Lutticken, W. C. Mackay, M. W. Malley, M. Meili, J. C. 
Pena, M. Pike, A. J. P. Raat, K. Reid, R. Riehl, C. Rutland, W. Takaki, G. Wilburn, and 
R. A. Wright. 



xix 



Introduction 



The pike. Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758, or northern pike as it is called in North America, is 
the second largest speeies in the family Esocidae but has the broadest geographieal dis- 
tribution. It extends in fresh waters, in a cireumpolar band in the northern hemisphere, 
approximately from 35° to 75° north latitude, in North America, the United Kingdom, 
Europe, and Asia. The pike occurs over the major portion of all of those continental 
masses, except in narrow arctic or subarctic fringes, arctic islands, some coastal areas, 
and certain interior drainages (e.g., the Kawartha Lakes of Ontario and the Amur River 
of Asia). In these interior drainages the pike appears to be replaced by the closely related 
muskellunge, Esox masquinongy, or Amur pike, E. reicherti. The range of the pike has 
been extended south of its native limits in the United States and Europe, and north in the 
United Kingdom. Introductions have been attempted even in places such as the the Atlas 
Mountains of Morocco (Anonymous 1965a). It is considered a primary freshwater 
species but does occur in waters of low salinity in parts of the Baltic Sea. 

In most countries this species has both a commercial and a recreational value. In cer- 
tain European locations it is intensively managed for food in a virtual pond culture situa- 
tion. The total commercial harvest in the Old World in 1984 was listed as 19966 tonnes, 
whereas in North America the figure was 3200 tonnes. In Europe the pike enjoys the 
same popularity as a sportfish that in America is reserved for the larger, closely related 
muskellunge. 

It is obvious that man has been interested in this species for a variety of reasons over a 
considerable period of time (see Foreword by Richard C. Hoffmann). As a result of that 
and of the pike's broad distribution, the species became entrenched in a number of cul- 
tures, and in their folklore and language. One consequence is that there is an extensive 
list of names for this fish, most of which are given here in alphabetical order of language. 

Croatian - stuka Norwegian - gjedde 

Czech - stika obecna Polish - szczupak 

Danish - gedde Portuguese - liicio 

Dutch - snoek Rumanian - stiuca 

Finnish - hauki Russian - shchuka 

French - brochet Slovakian - stuka 

Gaelic - litis Spanish - lucio 

German - Hecht Swedish - gadda 

Greek - tourna Turkish - turna baligi 

Hungarian - csuka Yugoslavian - scuka 
Italian - luccio 

The English language name in the old world is pike, by which the species has been 
known for many hundreds of years. The origin of the name pike is debated — Norse and 
Saxon are cited as sources. All arguments utilize some relationship to "pointed' ' (snout 
or body). Several other English names still current are said to have been used at one 
time in England to describe the animal at various growth stages, from smaller to 
larger — jack, pickerel, pike, and luce. The populations in North America were long 
suspected to be sufficiently distinct from those in Europe to deserve a separate name. As 
a result, the names northern pike and great northern pike came into use. In the mid- 1800s 
the pike in North America was often referred to by the name pickerel, or northern pick- 
erel. The name pickerel, now properly restricted to the three smaller members of the 

1 



pike family (chain, redfin, and grass pickerel), can cause confusion when using the older 
literature. This confusion is increased by the lingering practice in Ontario, Canada, of 
referring to the walleye, Stizostedion vitreum, by the name pickerel. 

It is unfortunate that the pike is still referred to in English by two "official" common 
names. The name northern pike is presently the standard in North America, even though 
the distinction of North American populations is no longer given credence. For conveni- 
ence and brevity we will use, in general discussion, the older name — pike — since the 
bibliography is not limited to North American references. 

The scientific name Esox lucius is said to have been formed by the combination of two 
ancient common names, "esox'' and "luce" or "lucius", long in use in Europe. Even 
Pliny employed the name "esox" (see Foreword), but he appears to have done so in 
reference to what would seem to be a much larger fish (the size of a tuna). Readers must 
also be cautious regarding the scientific name of the pike. Literature prior to 1900 will 
include references to this species in the genus Lucius. In addition, from approximately 
1840 to 1900, the distinction between the pike and the muskellunge was poorly under- 
stood and some scientific names were used interchangeably. Since descriptions at that 
time were brief and fragmentary, it is often difficult, or even impossible, to determine 
which species was intended. This was particularly true for the names E. estoi\ E. nobi- 
lior, E. nobilis, and E. lucioides, or any of these trivials used with the genus Lucius. 

The large size of the pike has always been a major part of its interest to humans. Its 
size is also prominent in the folklore. There are oft-quoted stories of pike in Europe that 
had been released after being fitted with a gold ring or collar, which were recaptured as 
many as 162 and 267 years later. The older of those fish was purported to have been 5.2 
m long, though the displayed skeleton of another monster was found to have been made 
up of bones of several individuals. Pike do grow to an impressive size, and to a vener- 
able age, for freshwater fishes. Individuals of 25 kg are regularly reported from Europe 
and claims go as high as 34 kg in the USSR. The present angler record in North America 
is held by a pike that weighed 20.9 kg. We are beginning to have a better understanding 
of the true age of pike since the establishment of the cleithral bone, rather than scales, as 
the indicator structure (Casselman 1979). It is quite probable that some large pike seen in 
Europe are between 20 and 30 years of age. A valuable source of information on large 
pike are the publications of Bulter ( 1971, 1979, 1981). 

This bibliography was prepared in order to make available the references accumulated 
as a result of our activities starting in 1957. As was true for the two previous esocid 
bibliographies (Crossman and Lewis 1973, Esox nigei\ Royal Ontario Museum Miscel- 
laneous Publications; and Crossman and Goodchild 1978, Esox masquinongy, Royal 
Ontario Museum Miscellaneous Publications), other workers showed interest in access to 
these literature files, and it seemed appropriate to make them available in print. Since the 
preparation of the muskellunge bibliography there have been considerable advancements 
in the opportunity to mount bibliographies of this sort on microcomputers. This pike 
bibliography is so mounted. The computer version was used to generate the printed ver- 
sion and will be kept up-to-date. We request that all readers using the bibliography con- 
tribute to its updating by sending us corrections, reprints, or lists of new or missing titles. 
With assistance in maintaining the file, we should be able to provide people interested in 
the pike a computer print-out, for a particular subject category, of references received or 
discovered after the production of the printed version. 

We wish to remind users of this bibliography that it is intended only as an indication 
of the source of the original articles. The annotations are meant simply to assist the 
reader in determining whether or not he or she should attempt to locate the original. 



Annotations are not meant as a substitute for referring to the original. In addition, this 
list cannot be guaranteed to be without error. The presence here of an annotation could 
be construed as Indicating that the entry was prepared from a eopy of the paper. This is 
true for most entries, but not for all. An annotation was provided only if the publieation 
eited was seen by us, or if an abstract was available in a bibliographie aid. Annotations 
were also derived from author abstraets when these were available. 

Wherever possible, referenees were cheeked for accuracy. We felt, however, that we 
would serve the user better by listing unverified citations in the form available to us 
rather than by omitting them because they had not been verified. Many referenees were 
copied from the literature cited seetions of various publications, at times perpetuating 
errors created by others. Any obvious errors were corrected, but the user of this bibliog- 
raphy is encouraged to locate the original. An n.d. (or n.d.a., n.d.b., etc.) notation 
implies that a copy of the article was seen, but that it carried no date of writing or publi- 
eation. For entries that have no date and no n.d. notation, the indication is that although 
the original may have carried a date, we were unable to discover it. 

Normally references in ROM publications are verified by ROM librarians prior to pub- 
lication. The magnitude of the "reference 1 ist in this publication made that impossible, 
and we accept responsibility for problems that will arise as a result. We apologize in 
advance to librarians everywhere who may be requested to locate a reference cited in the 
bibliography only to find that the listing is incomplete or in error. 

The references come from a variety of sources: copies of publications, and references, 
gathered by each author; the list of references in papers cited in the bibliography; refer- 
ences and abstracts in printed bibliographic aids (e.g., ASFA1); lists of references made 
available by key-word searches of on-line bibliographic files (e.g.. Fish and Wildlife 
Reference Service, Rockville, Maryland), lists of titles sent us by biologists, authors, 
bibliographers, anglers, etc., in North America and Europe. The references are not lim- 
ited to professional publications. They also include popular titles we were able to 
acquire over the many years during which the bibliography was being accumulated. The 
bibliography is far from complete, and is more complete for North American than for 
Eurasian literature. An extensive campaign of written requests and notices at European 
meetings was mounted to attempt to attract submission of references to studies published 
in countries over the whole geographic distribution of the species. Response to these 
requests was very helpful but went only a short way towards accessing the voluminous 
Eurasian literature. We realize that the appearance of this bibliography will elicit a flood 
of notices advising us of references that were not included. 

June 1986 was set as the termination date for adding new entries to the bibliography. 
A few that appeared after that date were added, including the new and very useful FAO 
synopsis of biological data on this species (Raat 1987). 

In spite of the bibliography's shortcomings, we hope that its appearance, in conjunc- 
tion with the appearance of the FAO synopsis, will make results of past work on the 
species much more available to teachers, researchers, resource managers, anglers, and 
interested naturalists. Other publications that summarized available information on the 
pike are Clark (1958), Buss (1961a), Toner, E. D. (1966), Carlander (1969), Toner and 
Lawler (1969), and Inskip (1982b). 

The ROM format for publishing literature citations calls for spelling out the name of 
the souree document. This we have done, except for abbreviations in a few references in 
languages other than English. Rather than risk creating errors by attempting to complete 
those abbreviations, we left them as found. Editors often require that authors spell out 
their given names, but authors citing other authors sometimes reduce given names to 



initials, or two initials to one. The result is that in this bibliography there are series of 
author citations that differ only in having sometimes one initial, sometimes two, and 
sometimes three, though one might assume that it is the same author in all instances. In 
addition, the names of authors in the USSR and Scandinavia are often transliterated in 
reference lists in English to avoid use of the Cyrillic alphabet and accents. This can 
result in the surname of an author appearing with two or three different spellings. In this 
bibliography we have retained the citations as found. Some deviations from ROM for- 
mat (e.g., punctuation, square brackets) result from the need to list references not seen by 
us in the form in which they were found in other publications. 

We apologize for the absence of accents and diacritical marks on words in languages 
in which they occur. The program used to prepare the computer-based version did not 
include them, and it was intended from the outset that this publication would be gen- 
erated directly from the computer diskettes. We felt that the absence of the marks would 
not prevent any reader from being able to locate the original and decided to proceed 
without them in the printed version. 

The bibliography consists of three sections: 1) the historical foreword by Richard C. 
Hoffmann, 2) the bibliography comprising citations and annotations in normal alphabeti- 
cal and chronological order, and 3) the subject index. In the bibliography, the 
anonymous entries are in alphabetical position, rather than at the beginning as they are 
in many lists and in the earlier esocid bibliographies. Unlike the arrangement in the 
previous bibliographies, Mac and Mc entries are separated and in alphabetical position. 
Annotations are of two general types — descriptive and informative. The type chosen for 
each article depended on the subject, the length of the article, and the amount of data 
provided. We are not bothered by the fact that many annotations do not convey actual 
results, since we hope, as stated above, that the annotations will be used only in a deci- 
sion regarding searching for the original. 

The subject index consists of 37 categories chosen by us on the basis of the best 
organization of the subject matter contained in the references, and a decision on how 
readers would be most likely to categorize the information for which they were search- 
ing. The categories reflect subjects we have learned people are most interested in and 
most likely to search for. 

For those articles not seen in the original, or in a bibliographic listing that included an 
abstract, it was often impossible to assign the paper to a subject category. As a result, 
there are references that cannot be located by using the subject index. They can, how- 
ever, be located in the text if the name(s) of the author(s) is known. For that reason we 
felt it better to include them than to omit them. Many articles provide information on 
several subject categories and are indexed accordingly. 

Because of the magnitude of even the subject index, an attempt was made to provide 
the reader with further assistance in selecting the papers to be located in the bibliogra- 
phy. Whenever the information was available, entries in the subject index include an 
indication of the geographic location of the study. 



Subject Categories 

Accounts by Geographical and Political Areas. Includes mainly publications entitled 
"The Fishes of" a particular political area. Such accounts generally involve at least 
brief comments for the species on several subjects. References in this category are not 
cross-indexed unless the account contains a significant contribution to one or more of the 
other subject categories. It is in papers or books indexed here that the reader will find at 



least basic information on the pike specific to his or her country, region, province, or 
state. 

Age and Growth Determination. Includes papers on the methodology of determining age 
and estimating growth. Deals specifically with the techniques and procedures. 

\ge and Growth Studies. Includes age and growth data, comprising age and size distribu- 
tion, si/e at age, and growth rate. Papers that deal with the relationship of length and 
weight without associating them with age are indexed under Length-Weight Relation- 
ships. See also Population Dynamics. 

Anatomy. Morphology, and Histology. Includes references on external anatomy, internal 
anatomy, osteology, and studies of structures that might otherwise be listed under 
embryology and cytology. It does not include systematica nor references that list exter- 
nal anatomical features as part of a simple description of the animal; those appear under 
Taxonomy, Nomenclature, and Systematica. 

Angling and Record Catches. Includes stories and reminiscences about angling and 
notices of record catches. Most often these are articles in popular books, outdoor maga- 
zines, and periodicals. 

Behaviour. Includes only those references dealing with ethology; concepts of behaviour 
that could be considered simply as habits are included under Life History and Habits. 

Commercial Fishing. Includes articles dealing with the capture of pike for sale. Govern- 
ment publications listing commercial fisheries catches were not included in the bibliogra- 
phy. Anyone interested in this type of information should check government reports, 
such as Reports of the Commissioner of Fisheries, Annual Reports, and Overseers' 
Reports. Since government departments are frequently reorganized these reports can be 
found under various department names throughout the years. 

Creel Census and Angling Statistics. Includes articles which present information usually 
allied to studies on age and growth, or population dynamics. However, publications 
-describing methods or results of creel census do not always indicate the intended appli- 
cation, so they are indexed separately. 

Culture and Artificial Propagation. Includes references dealing with artificial spawning, 
hatching, and rearing. Natural spawning was included here only if the study was carried 
out as an adjunct to fish culture. References to natural spawning appear under Spawning. 

Distribution and Range. Includes references that vary from obvious ones dealing with 
the total range of this species to those that include the species in a checklist of a specific 
watershed or region, to those that list the species as present at a single location. 

Early Development. Includes papers on early growth, development, and associated con- 
ditions for various young life stages such as eggs, yolk sac fry, larvae, and fingerlings. 

Food and Feeding Habits. Includes all discussions of food items or feeding activity 
except those that allude to cannibalism or predator-prey relationships, which are listed 



under Predator-Prey Relationships. 

Fossils and Archaeology. Includes records of fossilized remains identified as this species, 
and "near fossils" from archaeological digs. 

General Accounts. Includes a miscellany of articles much like that in Accounts by Geo- 
graphical and Political Areas, giving brief comments on several aspects of this fish, but 
lacking any geographic orientation in the general discussion. 

Genetics. Includes papers on electrophoresis, proteins, and enzymes and references to 
these other than in their physiological role. Depending on the application of the results, 
some of these apply to Taxonomy, Nomenclature, and Systematic 'S. 

Habitat and Environmental Factors. Includes not only general descriptions of the habi- 
tat, but also of specific environmental requirements, as well as lethal or sublethal 
environmental conditions, and contents of chemicals and other foreign materials 
dangerous to the fish or its captor. 

Historical Accounts. Includes early historical information, as well as myths and legends. 

Hybrids. Includes references that deal with hybrids in nature or cultured in the hatchery 
or laboratory. All references to Esox lucius X E. masquinongy are included here. In the 
subject categories in the index, any entry with the designation "FT' after the geographic 
notation is a reference to a hybrid. 

Identification. Includes descriptions of methods and characteristics used for identifying 
pike and distinguishing it from other fish, especially other esocids. 

Introductions and Stocking. Includes references on release into areas beyond the natural 
range (introductions), and the re-establishment or support of populations within the 
natural range by fish culture practices (stocking). 

Length-Weight Relationships. Includes all compendia of length or weight and comparis- 
ons of length and weight, and condition factor, except when any of these refer strictly to 
individual fish taken by anglers. Comparisons of length and weight are often associated 
with studies of age and growth, but there were so many references to works specifically 
giving length and weight data that they were indexed separately. 

Life History and Habits. Includes those general discussions of aspects of the biology of 
the animal in nature that cannot be separately categorized. The category does not 
include papers on habitat, which are indexed separately. It includes discussions of 
activities usually referred to in general as habits but not described in etiological terms; 
the latter are indexed in Behaviour. 

Management. Includes papers that deal with broad, general subjects allied to the manage- 
ment of pike populations for man's benefit, encompassing papers dealing with produc- 
tion, yield, and catch per unit of effort. There may be some crossover between this 
category and Population Dynamics. Most of the Dingell-Johnson Reports indexed under 
Project Reports probably could be equally well classified here. 



Marking and Tagging. Includes studies that make extensive use of marks by mutilation, 
application, or implantation, whether numbered or electronic, regardless of the reason for 
the mark. 

Movement and Activity. Includes references to migration, telemetry, movement patterns, 
and activity involving seasonal and die] cycles. 

Nutrition. Includes studies on energy requirements, usually associated with artificial rear- 
ing and culture. 

Parasites, Pathology, and Diseases. Includes references to the effect on the fish and its 
biology of these problems and their effect on the well-being of pike and pike popula- 
tions. 

Physiology and Biochemistry. Includes papers on the internal functions of the body, and 
response to stress and other environmental factors when results are expressed in terms of 
physiological processes. Includes chemical analysis of the parts of the animal in regard 
to percentage of constituents. 

Popular Accounts. Includes descriptions of the animal in general terms — much like Gen- 
eral Accounts — but usually those found in outdoor magazines, such as sporting periodi- 
cals, or interpretative publications such as conservation publications of state and provin- 
cial agencies. Popular articles that deal solely with stories of angling are indexed under 
Angling and Record Catches. 

Population Dynamics. Includes references to abundance, density, mortality, natality, 
recruitment, and age-class structure; articles on assessment of population size and factors 
affecting population size, such as survival and natural and fishing mortalities. See also 
Management, Creel Census and Angling Statistics, and Age and Growth Studies. 

Predator-Prey Relationships. Includes references to works with the word ''preda^on" 
in the title, or texts in which predation of, or by, pike is implicit. References are set aside 
in this discrete category as a result of the interest in esocids as predatory control of the 
numbers of other fishes. Otherwise references on fishes eaten appear in Food and Feed- 
ing Habits. 

Project Reports. Includes Dingell-Johnson Reports that describe projects supported 
under United States federal aid to fisheries. These are not in general circulation, and 
were largely derived from computer listings provided by Fish and Wildlife Reference 
Service, P.O. Box 6044, Rockville, Maryland 20850. Only some are annotated and for 
that reason they were difficult to categorize. We felt that readers might find it valuable to 
have all Dingell-Johnson Reports indexed as such. Any that could readily be categorized 
will appear in the appropriate part of the index. Almost all of these reports could have 
been indexed under Management. 

Reproduction. Includes information associated with reproduction not directly related to 
spawning and includes physiological and biochemical information associated with repro- 
duction. 



Sampling Techniques. Includes studies examining specific methods for collecting, vul- 
nerability, selectivity, availability, variability; the gear is usually being examined. 

Spawning. Includes papers that describe natural spawning, habitat requirements for 
spawning, and production of young from natural spawning as opposed to fish culture. 

Taxonomy, Nomenclature, and Systematica. Includes references to adequate taxo- 
nomic descriptions of the animal and various means of distinguishing it from other 
fishes. 

Toxicology and Contaminants. Includes studies of anything that causes toxicity and is 
toxic to the normal biology of the species; anything that is considered to be present at 
levels that are not normal; the effects of toxic substances on survival. 



Bibliography 



ABASHIDZE, V. S. 

1969 Contribution to the innervation of the fish digestive tube. /// Dzhavakhishvili, 
N. A., et al., eds., Transactions of the 7th All-Union Conference of Anatom- 
ists, Histologists, and Embryologists. Tibilsi, Publishing House, pp. 579-580. 
ABBASOV.G. S. 

1980 The ichthyofauna of the main freshwater bodies of Azerbaidzhan. Journal of 
Ichthyology 20(4): 140- 143. 

Based on a summary of data collected over 20 years (1958-1978). Mentions 
pike in list of species present. 
ABROSIMOVA, A. M. 

1975 Study of fish orientation in homing. Vestnik Zoologii 1975(4):3-8. 
ABROSIMOVA. A. M., S. G. VASINA and S. B. GUMENYUK 

1971 Effect of some sense organs on fish distance orientation. Vestnik Zoologii 
5(2):79-80. 
ACKERMAN, B. 

1955 Handbook of fishes of the Atlantic seaboard. Washington, American Print- 
ing. 144 pp. 
ACOLAT. L. 

1955 Recherches relatives a la reaction du coeur isole du brochet {Esox lucius L.) 
au passage du courant galvanique. Annales Scientifiques de LUniversite de 
Besancon Zoologie et Physiologie 4:9-16. 
ADAMS, C. C. and T. L. HANKINSON 

1928 The ecology and economics of Oneida Lake fish. Roosevelt Wildlife Annals 
l(3and4):241-358. 

Shows stomach contents of eight specimens and summary of others' findings. 
ADELMAN, I. 

1969 Survival and growth of northern pike in relation to water quality. Ph.D. 
thesis. University of Minnesota. 195 pp. 
ADELMAN, I. R. and L. L. SMITH, Jr. 

1970a Effect of oxygen on growth and food conversion efficiency of pike. Progres- 
sive Fish-Culturist 32:93-96. 

Growth and food consumption rates of juveniles decreased gradually, over 42 
and 48 days, with reduction in oxygen concentrations from 7.20 to 3 ppm, and 
decreased more rapidly at lower levels. Food conversion efficiency was con- 
stant from 7.20 to 2.91 ppm, but decreased abruptly below 2.91 ppm. 
1970b Effect of hydrogen sulfide on northern pike eggs and sac fry. Transactions of 
the American Fisheries Society 99:501-509. 

Bioassays were conducted on eggs and sac fry to test the effects of hydrogen 
sulfide at two oxygen concentrations, 2 ppm and 6 ppm. Mean median toler- 
ance limits are provided. Eggs subjected to hydrogen sulfide produced yolk 
sac fry with increased anatomical malformations and fry that were smaller 
than the controls. The maximum possible safe level of hydrogen sulfide for 
eggs was between 0.014 and 0.018 ppm and for sac fry between 0.004 and 
0.006 ppm for 96 hours of exposure. 



ADOLFSON. I. 

1949 Hur en sjosakning inverkar pa goddans fort plantnings formaga. Svensk Fisk- 
eritidskrift 58:7-8. 
AGAPOV. J. D. and V. N. ABROSOV 

1967 On the selectivity in the feeding of fish and the fish cultural role of pike. 
Voprosy Ikhtiologii 7:123-128. [in Russian] 
AGASSIZ. J. L.R. 

1854 Notice of collection of fishes from the southern bend of Tennessee River. 
American Journal of Science Ser.17, 2:297-308. 

Indicates mid-1800's confusion in names and distinction of forms of Esox in 
North America. Wrongly uses pike for muskellunge in Tennessee River and 
fails to recognize pike of Europe occurs in North America. 
AGASSIZ, L. 

1842 Notice sur les poissons fossiles et Losteologie du genre brochet (Esox). Neu- 

chatel:57-84. 
1850 Lake Superior: its physical character, vegetation, and animals, compared 
with those of other and similar regions. Boston, Gould, Kendall, Lincoln. 
428 pp. 
1857 Remarks on young bony pikes. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 
Ser.2, 19:190-191. 
AHNE. W. 

1978 Isolation and characterization of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus from 
pike Esox lucius L. Archives of Virology 58:65-70. 

A nonenveloped icosahedral virus measuring 60 (.5) nm in diameter was iso- 
lated from pike fry. The isolate was stable to heat, lipid solvent, and acid. 
Serologically, the virus was related to the major European strains of infec- 
tious pancreatic necrosis virus Sp and Ab. The isolate was neutralized by 
normal trout serum and was not pathogenic for young pike. A line of CHSE- 
214 cells persistently infected with the isolate was established and was passed 
30 times. 
1980 Experimentelle Egtvedvirusinfektion beim Hecht (Esox lucius L.). [Experi- 
mental infection of pike (Esox lucius) with Egtvedvirus]. Tieraerztliche 
Umschau 35:225-229. 

Pike are susceptible to an infection with Egtvedvirus via water, food, and by 
infection of virus. Infected fish showed extensive haemorrhages in skin and 
muscle 3-4 days after infection. Mortality rate was 100%, and the virus 
could be re-isolated from a variety of organs. 
AHO, I. 

1967 Besked om kvicksilvret: Alandska gaddan riskfri. Fiskarbladet 22, 14, 1 & 4 
AHOKAS, J. T.. N. T. KARKI, A. OIKARI and A. SOIVIC 

1976 Mixed function mono oxygenase of fish as an indicator of pollution of aquatic 
environment by industrial effluent. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination 
and Toxicology 16:270-274. 
AISA, A. 

1976 Cisti da larve plerocercoidi di Triaenophorus lucii (Muller, 1776) nelle ovaie 
di Tinea tinea e di Esox lucius. Atti della Societa Italiana delle Scienze 
Veterinarie 29^613-620. 



10 



AISA, A. and P. GATTAPONI 

1974 Triaenophorus I ucii in Lake Trasimeno. Parassitologia 16:96-97. 
AKHERMOY, A. K. and E. A. BOGDANOVA 

1961 Data on the parasitofauna of fish in the region of the future Stalingrad water 
basin (in the region of the flood-land lakes and Eruslan River). /// 
Petrushevskii, G. K., ed.. Parasites and diseases offish. Jerusalem, Israel Pro- 
gram for Scientific Translations, pp. 141-154. 
AkOS. H. 

1981 The growth of the pike Eso.x Indus in the section of the Tisza River near 
Tiszafured, Hungary. Allattani Ko/lemenyek 68( l-4):67-76. 
ALD1NGER. H. 

1965 DerHecht. Hamburg. 178 pp. 
ALEEV. V. G. 

1969 Function and gross morphology in fish. Jerusalem, Israel Program tor 
Scientific Translations. 268 pp. 
ALESSIO. G. 

1975a Rieerehe sulla biologia del luceio Eso.x lucius L. (Osteiehthyes, Esoeidae) in 
Lomellina occidental ed in una 'valle" veneta. [Investigations on the biology 
of the pike in the western Lomellina and a Venetian 'valley'). Bollettino di 
Pesea Piscicoltura e Idrobiologia 30:235-256. 
1975b Accrecimento lineare e ponderate del luceio, Eso.x lucius L. (Osteiehthyes, 
Esoeidae), in Lomellina oeeidentale ed una 'valle' veneta. (Growth in length 
and weight of the pike Eso.x lucius L. (Osteiehthyes, Esoeidae) of the western 
Lomellina and a Venetian 'valley']. Bollettino di Pesea Piseieoltura e Idro- 
biologia 30:257-275. 
1976 Indagini preliminari sul luceio in Lomellina. Pavia Caccia Pesea e Sport 
4(4): 17-24. 

1983 Quelques aspects de la biologie et de l'elevage du brochet (Eso.x lucius L.) en 
Italic hi Billard, R., ed., Le brochet gestion dans le milieu naturel et elevage. 
Paris, Institute National de la Recherche Agronomique. 371 pp. 
Summarizes several aspects of pike biology in natural waters and hatcheries 
in Italy, with special emphasis on growth, population structure, food, 
parasites, number of eggs for each spawning time. 

1984 Le black-bass, Microptevus salmoidcs (Laeep.), dans les eaux italiennes. Un 
antagoniste du brochet? Bulletin Franeais de Pisciculture 292:1-17. 
Discusses interspecific competition between largemouth bass and pike. 

ALLAN. J. W. 

1957 Tagging pike in Inner Long Point Bay. Ontario Department of Lands and 
Forests, unpublished internal report. 
ALLDRIDGE. N. A. and A. M. WHITE 

1980 Spawning site preferences for northern pike {Eso.x lucius) in a New York 
marsh with widely fluctuating water levels. Ohio Journal of Science 80: 13. 
Pike spawned in open water over any available vegetation at depths o\' 6 to 24 
inches. Spawning occurred at temperatures above 5.5 C; on days when the 
area was iced, spawning was delayed until late afternoon. 
ALLEN. A. A. 

1913 The red-winged blackbird. A study in the ecology of a cat-tail marsh. 
Proceedings of the Linnacan Society of New York 24-25:43-128. 
Noted pike running at Ithaca with the disappearance ol the ice. and while the 

II 



inlet of Cayuga Lake was still full of floating ice pike were along the shore 
trying to enter the marshes, and here they spawned in large numbers during 
March and April. 

ALLEN, J. L., C. W. LUHNING and P. D. HARMAN 

1972 Residues of MS-222 in northern pike, muskellunge, and walleye. U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Investigations in Fish Control 45:3-8. 
Residues of MS-222 in muscle tissue were measured by a modified Bratton- 
Marshall colorimetric method and confirmed by thin-layer chromatography. 
The residues dissipate rapidly when the fish are withdrawn from the 
anesthetic and are under the background readings of the controls within 24 
hours. 

ALLEN, K. R. 

1939 A note on the food of pike (Esox lucius) in Windermere. Journal of Animal 
Ecology 8:72-75. 

Stomach contents of 103 pike were examined. They fed almost entirely on 
fishes, mostly perch. The only invertebrate food was nymphs of Ephemera 
danica. Small pike ate smaller fish than did large pike. A high percentage of 
pike had empty stomachs, especially in winter. 

ALLIS. E. P., JR. 

1905 The laterosensory canals and related bones in fishes. Monatsschrift fuer Ana- 
tomie und Physiologie 21:401-502. 

A short but detailed description and four schematic figures to illustrate the 
bone structure and the canal system in pike. 

ALLISON, D. and H. HOTHEM 

1975 An evaluation of the status of the fisheries and the status of other selected 
wild animals in the Maumee River Basin, Ohio. Ohio Department of Natural 
Resources, Division of Wildlife. 16 pp. 

Lists 108 species of fish with comments on distribution, relative abundance, 
and the probable future of each species. Pike were common and found in 
Maumee, Tiffin, and St. Joseph rivers and Swan Creek. Spawning occurs in 
many small tributaries. 

ALLISON, L. N. 

1953 Advancements in prevention and treatment of parasitic diseases. Transac- 
tions of the American Fisheries Society 83:221-228. 

Describes the pond-treatment method of control of fish disease caused by 
external organisms. Gives methods of treating external and internal parasites, 
as well as fungus, in both fish and eggs. 

ALM.G. 

1 940 Gott resultat av gaddodling. Svensk Fiskeri Tidskrift 49: 1 84. 

1957 Avkastningen av Gadd — och Abborfisket vid Sveriges Ostersjokust Aren 
1914-1955. [The yield of the pike and perch fisheries along the Baltic coasts 
of Sweden during the years 1914-1955]. Institute of Freshwater Research 
Drottningholm, Report 38:5-69. 

1959 Connection between maturity, size, and age in fishes. Institute of Freshwater 
Research Drottningholm, Report 40:5-145. 

A summary of age, growth, and maturity of pike from various countries. 
ALT, K. < 

1977 The northern pike in Alaska. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Wildlife 
Notebook Series. 2 pp. 

12 



A brief description, life history, and sonic sport fishing information on pike. 
ALT. K. T. 

1965 Food habits of inconnu in Alaska. Transactions of the American Fisheries 
Society 94:272-274. 

1968 Sport tish investigations of Alaska: sheefish and pike investigations of the 
upper Yukon and Kuskokwim drainages with emphasis on Minto Flats 
drainages, 1967-1968. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Dingell- 
Johnson Project F-S-R-9/l7-B/:l-16. 

1969 Sport fish investigations of Alaska: sheefish and pike investigations of the 
upper Yukon and Kuskokwin drainages with emphasis on Minto Flats 
drainages. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Dingell -Johnson Project 
F-9-1, Report 17 B: 1-16. 

1973 A life history study of sheefish and whitefish in Alaska. Alaska Department 

o\' Fish and Game 14: 1-3 I . 
1977 Inventory and cataloging western Alaska waters. Alaska Department of Fish 

and Game. 

1980 Inventory and cataloging western Alaska waters. Alaska Department of Fish 
and Game. 

ALTMAN. P. L. and D. S. DITTMER. eds. 

1972 Biology data book. 2nd ed. Bethesda, Federation of American Societies foi 
Experimental Biology, vol. 1. 606 pp. 
AMBROSINUS. B. 

1642 Paralipomena accuratissima historiae omnium animalium, quae in 
voluminibus Aldrovandi desiderantur. Bononiae. 
Description of the swim bladder of pike. 
AMIN.O. M. 

1979 Lymphocystis disease in Wisconsin fishes. Journal of Fish Diseases 
2:207-218. 

1981 Fessisentis tichiganensis new species Acanthocephala Fessisentidae from 
Wisconsin fishes with a key to species. Journal of Parasitology 
66:1039-1045. 

ANANICHEV. A. V. 

1961 Comparative biochemical data for some freshwater invertebrates and fish. 

Biochemistry 26:16-26. 
1963 Amino acid content of proteins of some freshwater invertebrates and fish. 
Data on biology and hydrology of the Volga region reservoirs. USSR 
Academy of Scientific Biology. Institute of Internal Waters, pp. 38-41 
ANDERSON. A. W. and C. E. PETERSON 

Fisheries statistics of United States, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Statistical Digest 27:1-492. 
ANDERSON. R. G.. G. LEIDAHL and C. K. BRASHIER 

1971 Some algae isolated from fresh water tish. Journal of Phycology 7 
(Suppl.):10. 
ANDERSON. R. M. 

1913 My life with the Eskimo, hi Stefansson, V. New York. Macmillan. pp. 
450-455. 
Notes on distribution and use b\ natives. 



I \ 



ANDERSON. R. O. 

1973 Application oi theory and research to management of warmwater fish popula- 
tions. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 1 02: 1 64- 171. 
Pike were stocked in 12 reservoirs. Introduction and maintenance of large 
piscivorous species may add valuable sport fishing opportunities and enhance 
the yield ot other sport fishes. The pike-muskellunge hybrid may have poten- 
tial south ot the normal range of the parent species. 
ANDERSON, R. O. and S. J. C.UTREUTER 

1981 Evolution and evaluation of structural indices of fish populations and com- 
munities. 43rd Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference. 
ANDERSON, R. O. and A. S. WEITHMAN 

19 78 I he concept ot balance for cool water fish populations. American Fisheries 
Society Special Publication I 1:371-381. 

State ot balance o\ coolwater fish populations and communities is examined. 
Minimum stock and quality sizes are defined for several species, including 
pike (35 and 53 cm respectively). Balanced fish communities are defined. 
ANDERSSON, G., H. BERGGSEN. G. CRONBERG and C. GELIN 

1978 Effects ot planktivorous and benthivorous fish on organisms and water chem- 
istry in eutrophic lakes. Hydrobiology 59:9. 

Enclosures were used to study the impact of fish on eutrophication in lakes 
that contained pike. 
ANDERSSON, O. and G. BEOMKVIST 

1981 Polybrominated aromatic pollutants found in fish in Sweden. Chemosphere 
10: 105 1-1060. 

The maximum level of polybrominated biphenyl ethers detected in muscle 
was 0.15 mg/kg (27 mg/kg fat) in a pike caught in the southwest part of 
Sweden. The liver contained 22 mg PBBEs/kg ( 1 10 mg PBBEs/kg fat). 
ANDORFER, B. 

1980 The school behaviour of Lcucaspius delineatus (Heckel) in relation to 
ambient space and the presence of a pike (Eso.x lucius). Oecologia 
47:137-140. 

At a water depth of 60 cm (without pike) school concentration was very much 
lower than at 20 cm, both at 980 lux and at 0.02 lux. At 0.02 lux in the 
absence of the predator, the shapes of the water space cannot be ascertained 
to have an influence. At 980 lux (with and without pike) shape had an intense 
effect on school concentration. In the dark (0.02 lux) the effect of a pike in 
intensifying school formation was smaller, the larger the quantity of water. 
ANDREASSEN. J. and H. MADSEN 

1970 On Diphyllobothrium latum in Denmark. Nytt Magasin for Zoo log i 18:99. 
ANDREI A. V. E. 

1968 A simple model of open controlled system of predator prey. Vch. Zap. Dal- 
nevastochnogo Univ. 15(2): 145-153. 
ANDREW. W. 

1959 Textbook ot comparative histology. New York, Oxford University Press. 
ANDKI ASHLA. A. P. 

193/ K poznaniyu ikhtiotauny Berigova i Chukotskogo morey. Explor. Mers. 
URSS 25:292-355. [English summary! 



14 



ANDRIC -ESPERANTO. M. J. 

1985 Bothriocephalus echeilognathis Yamaguti 1934 {Bothhocephalus 
qowkongensis Yeh 1935) in some regions in Yugoslovia. /// E. Tumboy el 
al.. eds. The Fourth European Multi-Colloquium of Parasitology, l/mer. Tur- 
key. I/mer. Bilgehan Publishing, pp. 201-202. 
Pike was one of the speeies that was discovered as a new host. 
ANDRZEJCZYK.T. 

1972 Wadkarstwo jeziorow. | Lake angling. | Warsaw. PWRiL. 284 pp. 
AN1SHCHENKO. V. 

1965 Bliznetsovyi tral s elektropodboroi diva lova karasa i shehuki. [Pair trawl 
with electric mainline for fishing crucian carp and pikej. Rybnoe Kho- 
zyaistvo 7. 
ANNETT. C. S. and F. M. DITRI 

1978 Mercury in fish and sediments in two eutrophic Michigan lakes with respect 
to time and urbanization. /// Adriano, D. C, and I. L. Brisbin. Jr.. eds.. 
Environmental chemistry and cycling processes. U.S. Department of Eaiergy 
Symposium Series, 1976. Springfield, U.S. Department of Commerce, pp. 
866-878. 
ANON. W. T. 

1884 Fishing the Ottawa River. [In 3 parts]. The American Field 
22(14-16):313-367. 

Historical records of distribution, size, and angling success in the Ottawa and 
Grand rivers, Ontario, in 1876. 
ANONYMOUS 

1550 The art of angling. English manuscript annotated "from an old vellum ms. 
written probably about 1550 in my (Thomas Gosden?) possession." 

1877 Pike, pickerel and maskalonge. Forest and Stream 8(20):320. 
Distinguishing features and description. 

1888 Big pike. The American Angler, p. 221 . 

Records of pike caught in England and Ireland obtained from a column con- 
tributed by "Vanderdecken, a well-known English angling writer". 

1892 Sztuczne zapladnianie ikry szczpuaka. [Artificial fertilization of pike eges.| 
Okolnik 8:45-46. 
Practical suggestions on artificial fertilization of pike eggs. 

1 902a Pike, pickerel, mascalonge. Forest and Stream 59< 3 ):50-5 1 . 

1902b Pike, pickerel and mascalonge. Forest and Stream 59(4): 7 1 . 

1903 Kilka slow w obronie szczupaka. [Some comments in favour of pike.] Okol- 
nik Rybacki 65:195-197. 

Characteristic details concerning life and behaviour oi' this "shark" of fresh 
waters. 

1906 Spory szczupak. [What a pike.] Okolnik Rybacki 83: 142. 

Information on a pike weighing 32 pounds, of body length 1 15 cm. 

1908 Szczupak. [The pike.] Okolnik Rybacki 101:231-234. 

Value of pike as a sport fish. Methods of artificial fertilization of pike cues. 

1928 Choroba szczupakow w Prusach Wschodnich. [Pike disease in eastern Pius 
sia.| Przeglad Rybacki 1:322'. 

A note about the appearance of "pike disease" in inland waters of Eastern 
Prussia. The disease was of an epizootic character with slight symptoms. 



15 



1933 Tempo wzrostu szczupaka i jego zdolnosc wykorzystywania pokannu. [Rate 
of growth of pike and its ability to utilize food.] Przeglad Rybacki 
6:164-166. 

Studies on the rate of growth in particular stages of the life of pike. 

1934 Ciekawostki o szczupaku. [Comments on pike.] Przeglad Rybacki 
7:304-307. 

Studies on the utilization of food by pike. Description of interesting cases of 
finding live fish in pike stomachs after their consumption. 

1937 Szczupak. [The pike.] Wiadomosci Wedkarskie 2(9):69. 
Method of catching pike with a rod. 

1938 Jeszcze jeden sposob lowienia szczupakow. [One more method to catch 
pike.] Wiadomosci Wedkarskie 3(8):92-93. 

A method of catching pike using the so-called "szanca". 
1946 Pike, pickerel and maskinonge. Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology, Circular 

I. 3 pp. 

Discussion of the use of the names pike, pickerel, and maskinonge and of the 

species to which each refers. 
1952 Monkeying with nature. Northern Sportsman 7(4): 14-15, 27. 

1957 Poradnik rybaka jeziorowego. [Manual of lake fisherman.] Warsaw, A. Rud- 
nickiego, PWRiL. 483 pp. 

1958 Wobronie szczupaka. [In favour of pike.] Wiadomosci Wedkorskie 3:1. 
Protective measures and a program of activities undertaken to protect pike 
against poaching and excessive angling. 

1960a Big fish of 1959 listed. North Dakota Outdoors, Feb. 1960. p. 13. 

1960b Fishing guide— 1960. North Dakota Outdoors, May 1960, pp. 1 1-14. 

1961a List of species known to occur in la Verendrye Pare. Journal de bord, de 
F office de biologie Ministere des pecheries et de la chasse 4:76. 

1961b Bekampfung der Fleckenseuche bei Hechten durch Antibiotika. Der 
Fischwirt 1 1. 

1964 Wszystko o szczupaku. [All about pike.] Wiadomosci Wedkorskie 3:1 1. 
Basic knowledge on pike biology. 

1965a Pike in Morocco. Fishing Club du Moyen-Atlas, July 1965, pp. 22-23. 

Introduced pike have produced a successful sport fishery in temperate, inte- 
rior waters. Their rate of growth is very satisfactory, often higher than in 
Europe. 

1965b Hodowla ryb w stawach. [Fish culture in ponds.] Warsaw, A. Rudnickiego, 
PWRiL. 635 pp. 

1966 Northern pike stocking in Murphy Flowage. Wisconsin Conservation Depart- 
ment, Dingell-Johnson Project F-83-R-2, Job III- A: 1-20. 
Anglers' catch in 1966 was similar to that in 1965 but only 38-47% of the 
yearly catch for the 10-yr period 1955-1964. Survival of stocked pike over 
one year was 19% and only 6.5% of pike stocked in December 1963 had been 
caught by anglers. 

1969 Ryby Hodowlane. Material zarybieniowy szczupaka. [Cultured fish. Stock- 
ing material of pike.] Wydawnictwa Normalizacyjne, Warsaw. 8 pp. 
Standards for fertilized eggs, eyed eggs, larvae, summer and autumn fry of 
pike. The standards define origin, health conditions, size of fry, external 
features and conditions of pike fry transport and storage. 



16 



1970 Joint meeting — Freshwater Biological Association, Windermere, 23 and 24 
September 1969. Proceedings of the Challenger Society 4:67-76. 

1973a All-time Saskatchewan fishing derby records. Outdoor Saskatchewan 
21(3):1-12. 

Provides angler's name, weight, and location of capture for the 60S largest 
pike ever entered in the Saskatchewan derby. The largest, caught in 1954, 
was 42 lb. 12oz. 

1973b Maly slownik zoologiczny. Ryby. [Compact zoological glossary, fishes.] 
Warsaw, Wiedza Powszechna. 310 pp. 

1975a Great northern pike introductions. Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Con- 
servation, Dingell-Johnson Project F-22-R, Job 4: 1-18. 

1975b Northern pike after the turnover. In'Fisherman, Segment 1, Study Report 3, 
pp. 18-21. 

Provides information to the angler on feeding habits, habitat, condition, and 
movement of pike during autumn. 

1976a Al Lindner's pike challenge. In'Fisherman, Segment 1, Study Report 4, Unit 
1. pp. 1-3. 

1976b Lunker pike lakes. In'Fisherman, Segment 1, Study Report 4, Unit 2, pp. 
4-8. 

An angler's discussion of lake types according to limnology and forage (espe- 
cially various members of the whitefish family) and the size of pike that each 
of these types produces. 

1976c Pike activity in cold water. In'Fisherman, Segment 1, Study Report 4, Unit 3, 
pp. 9-13. 

Advice to anglers on strategy. Included are prey search activity, metabolism, 
digestion, food preference, and how each varies with size of pike and season. 

1976d Predators relating to prey. In'Fisherman, Segment 1, Study Report 4, Unit 4, 
p. 14. 

1976e Cold water delivery systems. In'Fisherman, Segment 1, Study Report 4, Unit 
5, pp. 21-29. 

Discussion of an angler's experiences with lures, baits, and techniques for 
catching pike. 

1977 Early season northern pike techniques; hammerhandles or lunkers. Fins & 
Feathers, June 1977, pp. 12-16,53-56. 
Describes techniques for angling large pike early in the season. 

1983 Netherlands fish farming. /// Brown, E. E., ed., World fish farming: cultiva- 
tion and Economics. Westport, Connecticut, Avi. pp. 113-114. 
Five species of fish, including pike, are cultured in Holland. Pond culture, 
raceways, controlled conditions in glass houses, and cage culture in warmwa- 
ter effluents are the four systems used. 

1985 Fria gaddvatten. Fiske Journalen 7-8 ( July- August ):40-43. 

n.d.a Effects of temperature on physiology of northern pike. Dingell-Johnson 
Report F-57-R-3, Job 5h:l-23. 

A fish biomass model was re-arranged to work for young-of-the-year esocids. 
Standard metabolic rates, food consumption rates, and an activity factor were 
used in two equations to estimate oxygen and food consumption at any tem- 
perature. 

n.d.b 12. Experimental northern pike and muskie propagation. Job Xll-A. Stock 
ponds with northern pike fry and adult carp (amended to stock ponds with 

17 



muskie fingerlings and adult carp). Annual Report Delafield Studies, pp. 

18-19. 

Two attempts to use Cyprinus carpio as forage for fingerling pike in small 

rearing ponds "left much to be desired". In contrast, carp as pike forage in 

Rush Lake was believed to result in excellent production and growth. 

n.d.c Fish and wildlife: major issues and problems, pp. 6s-7s. 

A summary of factors limiting pike production, and objectives for increasing 
the populations to meet angler demands. 

n.d.d Fishin 'formation. Northern pike. Folder published by Saskatchewan 
Government, Extension Services. 

Information on pike given under the following headings: characteristics, dis- 
tribution, reproduction, growth, habitat requirements, feeding habits, com- 
mercial importance, gamefish qualities, and management. 

n.d.e Harvest of northern pike. Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Dingell- 
Johnson Report F-57-R-3, Job 5-f. 

n.d.f Master Angler update, northern pike division. In-Fisherman, pp. 95-97. 
Brief accounts of successful angling for pike. 
ANTHONY. D. D. and C. R. JORGENSEN 

1977 Factors in the declining contributions of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum 
vitreum) to the fishery of Lake Nipissing, Ontario, 1960-76. Journal of the 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada 34:1703-1709. 

Suggests that walleye population was probably affected by interaction with 
pike. 
ANTONESCU. C. S. 

1933 Recherches sur les conditions d'existence et de nutrition des poissons dans les 
lacs eutropes profunds. Annales Scientifiques de TUniversite de Jassy 
17:337-392. 
ANTOSIAK, B. 

1958 Regulacja liczebnosci drapieznikow jako jeden z elementow prawidlowej 
gospodarki jeziorowej. [Regulation of the abundance of predatory fishes as 
an element of proper lake management.] Gospodarka Rybna 10(6):7— 1 2. 
Food composition of pike. Elements of dependence between predatory fishes 
and their prey. 

1961 Wzrost szczupaka {Esox Indus L.) w jeziorach okolic Wegorzewa. |The rate 
of growth of pike in Wegorzewa District lakes]. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych 
77:581-602. 

Analysis of the rate of body length and weight growth in pike. The analysis is 
connected with studies on pike food, and an attempt is made to estimate the 
role ot this species in regulating abundance of other fish species in lakes. 

1963 Pokarm szczupaka {Esox lucius L.) niektorych jezior okolic Wegorzewa. 
| Pike food in some lakes of Wegorzewa District] Polish Agr. Ann., Ser.B, 
82:295-317. [in Polish. English summary ] 

The effect of pike predation on the abundance of other fishes, based on the 
analysis of food tract content of 952 pike originating from 20 lakes. 
ANWAND, K. 

1963 Die Wirkung von Hypophysen und Gonabioninjektionen auf Hechtmilchner. 
|T he effect of hypophysis and gonabion (chorionic gonadotrophin) injections 
on male pike. | Deutsche Fischerei Zeitung 10(7):202-207. 
Injections achieved artificial ripening of spawning products that had been lost 

18 



through prolonged holding at near-ripeness, and increased strippable amounts 
in specimens that were flowing slightly. 
1965a Hinweise zur erfolgreicheren Hechterbrutung. [Suggestions for more success- 
ful pike feeding.] Deutsche Fischerei Zeitung 12(2):33— 39. 

Experiments to improve fertilization and incubation considered the following: 
use o\' mouth pipette, urea solution, suitable water quality, "resting ot eggs 
(temporary dry state), and effect ot transport of eggs by water current. 

l%5b Uber den Zeitpunkt des Assetzens von Hechtbrut. |The time for stocking 
pike fry.] Deutsche Fischerei Zeitung 12(2):4()-44. 

1966a Die Ernahrung der Hechtbrut wahrend der Vorstreckperiode in Teichen. 
Deutsche Fischerei Zeitung 13(4):99-1()6 

1966b Die Anreicherung von Ca und Y in Brut von Esox Indus L. und Anguilla 
anguilla (L.). International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnol- 
ogy Proceedings 16:1 124-1 129. 

1967a Transport von Hechtbrut und vorgestreckten Hechten in Plastikbeuteln. 
Deutsche Fischerei Zeitung 14:323-328. 

1967b Moderne Verfahren zur Erzeugung von vorgestreckten Hechten. Deutsche 
Fischerei Zeitung 14(1):7-K). 

1968 Ergebnisse der Besatzversuche mit signierter Hechtbrut. Deutsche Fischerei 
Zeitung 15(8): 195-198. 

1969 Zur Methode der Alterbestimmung des Hechtes an Schuppen. Zeitschrift fuer 
Fischerei und deren Hilfswissenschaften 17( 1-4): 165- 176. 

1971 Zusammensetzung der Fange von Esox lucius L. aus fischereilich genutzten 
Seen der DDR nach Lange und Alter. (Composition according to length and 
age of captured material of Esox lucius L. from lakes in bast Germany used 
as fisheries.] International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnol- 
ogy Proceedings 18(Part 2): 1 171-1 181. 

1972 Dynamik der Bestande des Hechtes (Esox lucius) in Produktionsgewassern. 
Zeitschrift fuer Binnenfischerei der DDR 19(2):44-48. 

ANWAND, K. and G. GROHMANN 

1967 Besatzversuche mit Hechtbrut in Karpfenteichen. Zeitschrift fuer Fischerei 
und deren Hilfswissenschaften L4(5/6):383— 391. 
ARAL H. P. and S.-M. CHIEN 

1973 A note on some Monogenea (Trematoda) from Albertan fishes. Canadian 
Journal of Zoology 51:1318. 

Gills from 7 of 21 specimens of pike were infected with Tetraonchus monen- 
teron, ranging in intensity from 1 to 9 with a mean of 3.4. 
ARENDT. E 

1822 De capitis ossei Esocis lucii structura regularis. n.p. 
ARGILLANDER. A 

1753 Ron om Gjadd-leken. Svensk. Vetensk. Acad. Handl. 15:74-77. 
ARKHIPTSEVA. N.T. 

1974 The growth and feeding of the predatory fishes of Lake Vuoksa. Hydrobio- 
logical Journal 10(2):66-69. 

ARMBRUSTER. D. 

1966 Hybridization of the chain pickerel and northern pike. Progressive Fish- 
Culturist 28:76-78. 

The study suggests that the heterotic effect often associated with growth ot 
hybrids did not appear in this pike-chain pickerel hybrid. The hybrids grew at 

19 



a rate intermediate between the rates of the parent species. The colour pattern 
of the hybrids more nearly paralleled that of pike, as no tendency towards a 
chain-like effect was noted. 
ARMSTRONG. F. A. J and D. P. SCOTT 

1979 Decrease in mercury content of fishes in Ball Lake, Ontario, since imposition 
of controls on mercury discharges. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board 
of Canada 36:670-672. 

Ball Lake received mercury from 1962-1970, but controls since have been 
increasingly rigorous. In 1971, 1972, and 1976 adjusted mean white muscle 
mercury concentrations for pike 594 mm were 5.05. 5.72. and 1.80 mg/kg. 
Mercury in suspension may be a controlling factor. 
ARRIGNON.J. 

1966 Action d'une population de brochets (Esox lucius L.) sur le cheptel trutticole 
Leberge par les eaux de premiere categorie. Bulletin de FEcole Nationale 
Superieure Agronomique de Nancy 8:39-47. 

Describes several river habitats and man-made alterations in relation to distri- 
bution of pike predation, especially on trout. 
1972 Station experimentale d'elevage du brochet du Vivier du Gres (Oise). Bul- 
letin Francais de Pisciculture 246:33-44. 
ARSENAULT. M. 

1982 Eusthenopteron foordi, a predator on Homalacanthus concinnus from the 
Escuminac formation, Miguasha, Quebec. Canadian Journal of Earth Science 
19:2214-2217. 
ARTAMOSH1N, A. S. 

1978 Distribution of plerocercoids of the broad tapeworm in fish tissues. Meditsin- 
skaya Parazitologiya i Parazitarnye Bolezni 47(5): 15-18. 
ARTAMOSHIN, A. S. and V. I. KHODAKOVA 

1976 The effect of waste water on the infestation of underyearlings in the Kama 
Reservoir by broad tapeworm plerocercoids. Hydrobiological Journal 
12(6):79-81 
ARTAMOSHIN. A. S. and L. I. PROKOPENKO 

1980 RoFshchuk virashchivaemykh v ribovodnykh prudakh v podderzhanii ochaga 
difildobotrioza. [On the possible role of pike grown in fish-breeding ponds in 
the maintenance of diphyllobothriasis focus]. Meditsinskaya Parazitologiya i 
Parazitarnye Bolezni 49(3):51-53. 

Considers the participation of pike bred in fishpond farms in the turnover of 
diphyllobothrial invasion caused by Diphyllobothrium latum. 

ARTHUR. J. R.. L. MARGOLIS and H. P. ARAI 

1976 Parasites of fishes of Aishihik and Stevens lakes, Yukon Territory, and poten- 
tial consequences of their interlake transfer through a proposed water diver- 
sion for hydroelectrical purposes. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of 
Canada 33:2489-2499. 
A list of parasites found in eight species, including pike, from both lakes. 

ASH. G. R., N. R. CHYMKO and D. N. GALLUP 

1974 Fish kill due to "cold shock" in Lake Wabamun, Alberta. Journal of the 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada 31:1822-1824. 

Pike died from "cold shock" caused by mechanical failure in the steam elec- 
tric generating unit when the temperature dropped from 21.8 to 4.9 C. 



20 



ASTANIN.L. P. 

1947 On the determination of the ages of fishes. Zoological Journal 26:287—288. 
Seasonal changes in NADPH production via the pentose shunt were exam 
ined in pike. No kinetic differences in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 

were observed in summer vs winter caught fish. 
ASTER. P. L. 

1975 Seasonal changes in glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase activity in two 
speeies of freshwater fish. Ameriean Zoologist 15:809. [ Abstract) 

1976 The influence of temperature and seasonal acclimatization on glucoses- 
phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase from three 
teleost speeies. M.S. thesis. University of Alberta. 124 pp. 

ATTON. F. M.. R. P. JOHNSON and N. W. SMITH 

1974 Bibliography of limnology and aquatie fauna and flora of Saskatchewan. 
Saskatchewan Department of Tourism and Renewable Resources, Report 10. 
References dealing with the limnobiology of lakes and streams from 1836 to 
1972: includes indices and key words. 
ATWATER. W. O. 

1892 The chemical composition and nutritive values of food fishes and aquatic 
invertebrates. Report of the U.S. Commissioner of Fisheries for 
1888:679-869. 
AUGORAYA 

1973 Fishing significance of pike in Kremenchug Reservoir. Rybnoe Khozaistvo. 
AUSTIN. P. 

1954a Growth rate of pike. Part 1. The Fishing Gazette, April 17. 
1954b Growth rate of pike. Part 2. The Fishing Gazette 136(4020):445-446. 
1958 Growth rates of trout and pike. The Fishing Gazette, June 28. 
AUTKO. B. F. 

1960 An evaluation of the state of pike stocks in Kuybyshev Reservoir, based on 
data from 1958 and 1959. Izvestiya Gosudarstvennogo Nauchno- 
IssledovateTskogo Instituta Ozernogo i Rechnogo Rybnogo Khozvaistva 
9:316-331. 
1964 Commercial and biological characterization of pike in the Kuibyskev Reser- 
voir on the basis of 1960-63 data. Izvestiya Gosudarstvennogo Nauchno- 
IssledovateTskogo Instituta Ozernogo i Rechnogo Rybnogo Khozvaistva 
10:249-259. 

Change in water level during reproduction and reduced spawning area 
resulted in a decrease in the pike stock. The effect of the fishery was con- 
sidered to be less important. Age distribution, year class strength, and growth 
are presented. Size at age decreased from 1959 to 1963. 
AVDOS'EV. V. S., I. R. DEMCHENKO. I. M. KARPENKO and O. P. KULAKOVSKAYA 

1962 The treatment and prophylaxis of pike infested by leeches. Veterinariya 7:60. 
AYRES. W. O. 

1849 Some remarks on a species of pike (Eso.x lucius). Proceedings of the Ameri- 
can Association for the Advancement of Science 2: 173. 



BABALUK, J. A.. B. M. BELCHER and J. S. CAMPBELL 

1 984 An investigation of the sport fishery on Dauphin Lake, Manitoba, 1982. 

Canadian Manuscript Report Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 1777:1-27. 

Results of a creel census, cottage residents' angling survey, and biological 

investigation between May 15 and Sept. 17, 1982. The catch was mainly pike 

(78.1%). 
BA( HDP. W. E. 

1958 Studies on the developmental anatomy of Esox masquinongy ohioensis Kirt- 
land. M.S. thesis, Ohio State University. 160 pp. 

BAC KILL, T. 

1968 Ageing of coarse fish. European Inland Fisheries Advisory Committee, Food 
and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FI/EIFAC 68/SC I- 
6:1-30. 
1971 Production and food consumption of predatory fish in the Vistula River. 
Journal ot Fish Biology 3:369-405. 

Samples ot pike collected at 1 1 sites were used to assess food consumption, 
content (weight) of food in alimentary canals, growth in weight, natural and 
fishing mortality. Records of commercial catches were also used. 
BACKUS, R. H. 

1957 The fishes of Labrador. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 
113.277-377. 
BADSHA, K. S. and C. R. GOLDSPINK 

1982 Preliminary observations on the heavy metal content of four species of fresh- 
water fish in northwest England. Journal of Fish Biology 21:251-267. 
Data on concentrations of zinc, lead, and cadmium in whole body samples 
and in tissues of brain, muscle, liver, kidney, heart, gonad, bone, and gills. 
BAERENDS, G. P. 

1957 The etiological analysis of fish behavior. In Brown, M. E., ed., The physiol- 
ogy of fishes, vol. 2. New York, Academic Press, pp. 229-269. 
BAGDZJUS, B. K. 

1959 Materialy po promyslovo-biologiceskoj charakteristike scuki (Esox lucius L.) 
zaliva Kursju-Marjos. Trudy Akademii Nauk Litovskoi Ser.B, 1(17). 

BAGENAL, T. B. 

1967a A short review of fish fecundity. /// Gerking, S. D., ed., The biological basis 
of freshwater fish production. IBP Symposium, Reading, England, 1966, pp. 
89- 111. 

1967b A method of marking fish eggs and larvae. Nature 2 14(5083): 1 13. 

1970a An historical review of the fish and fisheries investigations of the Freshwater 
Biological Association, mainly at the Windermere Laboratory. Journal of 
Fish Biology 2:83-101. 

Studies on pike carried out by the Association at Windermere include general 
natural history, population studies, egg and young stages, and production stu- 
dies. 

1970b Fish eggs and the next generation. Journal of Fish Biology 2(4):383. 
[Abstract]. 

Considers variations in egg numbers and size. Discusses effects of these vari- 
ations on the next generation (i.e., annual variations in number, related to fish 
of same length). Shows relationship between egg number and population 
density. 

22 



1971 The interrelation of the si/e of tisli eggs, the date of spawning and the produc- 
tion cycle. Journal of Fish Biology 3:207-2 19. 

Range of egg volumes is provided for pike. Bosmina is reported as an impor- 
tant food item of young pike. The feeding chronology of young pike is 
re\ iewed. It is reported that the spawning season of pike in Windermere is as 
closely assoeiated with the hatching of perch Perca fiuviatilis as with the pro 
duction cycle of entomostraca, which is the first \\xk\. 

1972 The variability o\' the catch from gill nets set for pike Esox lucius L. Fresh- 
water Biology 2:77-82. 

The variability of the eateh of pike from gill nets in Windermere over the 
period 1961-71 was analysed. A representative value of the residual between 
eateh variance was used to estimate the reliability of the means of eatehes 
based on different numbers of net settings. It was shown that many settings 
of gill nets are required to get a reliable mean catch. 

1977 Effects of fisheries on Eurasian perch Perca fiuviatilis in Windermere. Jour- 
nal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 34:1764-1768. 
Experimental gill net fishery (1944-1975) on pike reduced their average size 
and increased growth rate. Thus, predation on younger perch increased. 

1979 EIFAC fishing gear intercalibration experiments. European Inland Fisheries 
Advisory Committee, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United 
Nations, Technical Paper 34:1-87. 

1982 Experimental manipulations of the fish populations in Windermere. Hydro- 
biologia86(l-2):201-206. 
BAILEY, J. and M.PAGE 

1985 Pike. The predator becomes the prey. Ramsbury, England, Crowood Press. 
Advice on how to angle for pike. 
BAILEY. R. M.. J. E. FITCH. E. S. HERALD, E. A. LACHNER, C. C. LINDSEY. C. R. ROBINS 
and W. B. SCOTT 

1970 A list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and 
Canada. 3rd ed. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 6: 1-150. 
BAJKOV. A. 

1927 Reports of the Jasper Park lakes investigations, 1925-26. I. The fishes. Con- 
tributions to Canadian Biology and Fisheries 3( 16):379-404. 
Gives world range generally, Jasper Park range specifically. 

1930 Fishing industry and fisheries investigations in the Prairie Provinces. Tran- 
sactions of the American Fisheries Society 60:215-237. 
A brief account of annual production, growth rate, food, spawning. 

1932 Native game fish in Manitoba. Transactions of the American Fisheries 
Society 62:377-379. 

Discusses the variety and abundance of game fish in Manitoba, including 
pike. 
BAJKOV. A. D. and A. H. SHORTT 

1939 Northern pike (jackfish) as predator on waterfowl and muskrats. Published 
by Ducks Unlimited, Winnipeg. 
BAKHTIN. Y. K. 

1976 Morphology of the olfactory organ of some fish species and a possible func- 
tional interpretation. Journal of Ichthyology 16:786-804. 
The study of the olfactory organ of different fish species by optical and elec- 
tron microscope has established that several types of cells, displaying 

23 



numerous ultrastructural differences, comprise this organ. An attempt is 

made to describe the function of each type of cell. 
BAKSHTANSKII. E. L. and V. D. NESTEROV 

1976 The hunting activity of pike and its possible effect on the diurnal pattern of 

downstream migration of young Atlantic salmon. /// Biological basis and 

ways of increasing the efficiency of valuable commercial fish culture, pp. 

39-42. 
BAKSHTANSKII. E. L.. V. D. NESTEROV and M. N. NEKLYUDOV 

1980 Behaviour of young Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the period of downstream 
migration. Voprosy Ikhtiologii 20:694-701. 

BALAGUROVA. M. V. 

1967 Materials on the nutrition of the pike. Izvestiya Gosudarstvennogo 

Nauchno-IssledovateFskogo Instituta Ozernogo i Rechnogo Rybnogo Khoz- 

vaistva 62: 195-205. 
BALAYEV. L. A. 

1981 The behaviour of ecologically different fish in electric fields. II. Threshold of 
anode reaction and tetanus. Journal of Ichthyology 21:134-143. 

BALDWIN, N.S. 

1946 A note on the removal of northern pike (Eso.x lucius) from Lake Marie 
Louise, Sibley Park. Unpublished manuscript, Ontario Department of Lands 
and Forests. 14 pp. 

As many pike as possible were removed from the lake prior to the introduc- 
tion of smallmouth bass. Recommended continued removal of pike during 
1947, commencing approximately May 1, when pike begin to move into shal- 
low water. 

BALDWIN. N. S.. R. W. SAALFELD. M. A. ROSS and H. J. BUETTNER 

1979 Commercial fish production in the Great Lakes 1867-1977. Great Lakes 
Fishery Commission Technical Report 3:1-187. 
Canadian and United States data for each lake are presented in tables. 

BALDWIN. R. E.. D. H. STRONG and J. H. TORRIE 

1961 Flavour and aroma of fish taken from four fresh-water sources. Transactions 
of the American Fisheries Society 90:175-180. 

Taste-panel studies were conducted on fish taken from four fresh-water 
sources which included a cold deep lake, a shallow mixed water lake, and 
flowages above and below the entry of effluent from industrial plants. Pike 
were least affected. 

BALFOUR-BROWNE, F. 

1906 On the early stages in the life histories of certain fresh-water fishes. Transac- 
tions of the Norfolk-Norwich Naturalists' Society 8:478-488. 
Found that in Sutton Broad the first food of young pike fry was Entomostraca, 
including fairly large daphnids. 

BALK. L.. J. W. DFPIERRE. A. SUNDVALL and U. RANNUG 

1982 Formation of mutagenic metabolites from benzo-alpha-pyrene and 2- 
aminoanthracene by the S-9 fraction from the liver of the northern pike Eso.x 
lucius: inducibility with 3-methylcholanthrene and correlation with benzo- 
alpha-pyrene mono-oxygenase activity. Chemical-Biological Interaction 
41:1-14. 



24 



BALK. U A. KNALL and J. W. DEPIERRE 

1982 Separation of the different classes of conjugated formed by metabolism of 
benzo-alpha-pyrene in the northern pike Esox I mi us. Acta Chemica Scandi- 

navica, Series B. Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, 36:403-405. 
BALK. L.. S. MAANER. A. BERGSTRAND and J. W. DEPIERRE 

1985 Preparation and characterization of sub-cellular fractions from the intestinal 
mucosa oi the northern pike {Esox lucius) with special emphasis on enzymes 
involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 
838:277-289. 

The purity of different microzonal fractions obtained by differential centrifu- 
gation, as well as the recovery of different organelles, was determined by 
using both enzyme markers and morphological examination by electron 
microscopy. The subcellular distributions of several enzymes involved in 
drug metabolism were also examined. Within the limitations discussed, the 
subfractions prepared here are suitable for further characterization of drug- 
metabolizing systems in the intestinal mucosa. 
BALK. L.. S. MAANER. J. W. DEPIERRE and A. BERGESTRAND 

1984 Subfractionation of the head and trunk kidneys of the northern pike {Esox 
lucius). In Stegeman. J. J., ed.. Responses of marine organisms to pollutants, 
pp. 444-445. 

A study of the metabolism of xenobiotics in pike, initiated because of the high 
tumor frequency in the species, its stationary habitat, and the fact that it is a 
top predator. 
BALK. L., J. ME1JER. A. ASTROM. R. MORGENSTERN, J. SEIDEGAARD and J. W. DEPI- 
ERRE 

1980 Subcellular fractionation of the liver from northern pike Esox lucius. Acta 
Chemica Scandinavica, Series B, Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry 
34:224-226. 
BALK. L.. J. MEIJER. A. BERGSTRAND, A. AASTROEM, J. SEIDEGAARD and J. W. DEPI- 
ERRE 

1982 Preparation and characterization of subcellular fractions from the liver of the 
northern pike, Esox lucius. Biochemical Pharmacology 3 1 : 1 49 1 - 1 500. 
Microzonal fractions were prepared suitable for the study of xenobiotic meta- 
bolism. The purity of the different fractions obtained by differential centrifu- 
gation, as well as the recovery of different organelles, was determined using 
both enzyme markers and morphological examination with the electron 
microscope. Attempts were also made to increase the recovery of fragments 
of the endoplasmic reticulum in the microsomal fraction. The subcellular dis- 
tribution of several drug-metabolizing enzymes was determined. 
BALK. L.. J. MEIJER. J. W. DEPIERRE and L.-E. APPELGREN 

1984 The uptake and distribution of ( H)benzo(a) pyrene in the northern pike (Esoa 
lucius). Examination by whole-body autoradiography and scintillation count- 
ing. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 74:430-449. 
BALL. R.C. 

1950 Fertilization of natural lakes in Michigan. Transactions of the American 
Fisheries Society 78:145-155. 
Merely mentions that pike were present in one lake and that fishing was fair. 



25 



BALON, E. K. 

1964 On relative indexes for comparison of the growth of fishes. Acta Societatis 
Zoologica Bohemoslovakia 28:369-379. 

1965 Wachstum des Hechtes {Esox lucius L.) in Orava-Stausee. Zeitschrift fuer 
Hscherei und deren Hilfswissenschaften 23:1 13-158. 

1968a Urgeschichte det donauichthyofauna (vor dem einfluss seitens des menschen). 
Archiv fuer Hydrobiologie 3:204-227. 

Pike were present in the pre-Danube of the Miocene and were considered to 
be among the first fishes inhabiting the Danube. 

1968b Die Anwendung der Pisciziden fur die Bestimmung von Fischabundation und 
Ichthyomasse in den Inundationsgewassern der Donau. Zeitschrift fuer 
Hscherei und deren Hilfswissenschaften 16(3/4): 169-195. [English sum- 
mary | 

1974 The theory of saltation and its application in the ontogeny of fishes: steps and 
thresholds. Environmental Biology of Fishes 4:97-101. 

19 /5a Reproductive guilds of fishes: a proposal and definition. Journal of the 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada 32:821-864. 

1975b Terminology of intervals in fish development. Journal of the Fisheries 
Research Board of Canada 32:1663-1670. 

1984 Reflections on some decisive events in the early life of fishes. Transactions 
ot the American Fisheries Society 1 13:178-185. 
BALVAY,G. 

1983 L'alimentation naturelle des alevins de brochet (Esox lucius L.) durant leur 
premier mois de vie. /// Billard, R., ed., Le brochet gestion dans le milieu 
nature! et elevage. Paris, Institute National de la Recherche Agronomique, 
pp. 179-198. 

Active feeding of pike starts between filling of the gas bladder and complete 
resorption of the yolk sac. The food selected follows a sequence of entomos- 
traca, insects, and vertebrates. In extensive rearing, pond management must 
stimulate the production of natural food adapted to fry needs to reduce canni- 
balism. 
BANENENE. Y. K. 

1978 Biology of the pike in waters of the Lithuanian-SSR. Part 2. Sexual matura- 
tion and fertility of the Lake Dusya pike. Lietuvos TSR Mokslu Akademijos 
Darbai, Serija C, Biologijos Mokslai 2:95-100. 
BANFIELD, W. G., C. J. DAWE, C. E. LEE and R. SONSTEGARD 

1976 Cylindroid lamella-particle complexes in lymphoma cells of northern pike 
Esox lucius. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 57:415-420. 
Description of cylindroid structure and of cross and longitudinal sections of 
the lamellae. 
BANGHAM, R. 

1946 Parasites of northern Wisconsin fish. Transactions of the Wisconsin 
Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters 36:291-325. 
BANGHAM. R. V. and J. R. ADAMS 

1954 A survey of the parasites of freshwater fishes from the mainland of British 
Columbia. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 1 1:673-708. 
I wo small specimens of pike yielded only the cestode Proteocephalus 
pinguis. 



26 



BANGHAM, R. V. and G. HUNTER 

1939 Studies on the fish parasites of Lake Erie. Distribution studies. Zoologica 

24:385-448. 

Of eight specimens of pike examined, six from the eastern c\u\ ol Lake Brie 
and one from the western end were infected with Proteovephalus pinguis and 
two from the eastern end earned Neoechinorhynchus tend lus. 
BANINA, N. N. 

1969 Changeability of eiliates of the genus Apiosoma. Folia Parasitiologica 
16:289-295. 

BANIONIENE. J. 

1979 Biology of pike of the reservoirs of the Lithuanian SSR. 3. Pike fecundity in 
Lake Galstas. Trudy Akademii Nauk Litovskoi SSR Ser.C, 4(88):7l-78. 
BANKS. J. 

1965 The biology of pike from three lowland waters. Proeeedings ot the 2nd Brit- 
ish Coarse Fish Conference. University of Liverpool, pp. 29-39. 
BANKS. J. W. 

1970 Observations on the fish population of Rostherne Mere. Cheshire. Field Stu- 
dies 3:357-379. 

Gives curves of length for age and regressions of weight on length tor pike. 
Growth of pike is rather slow. Pike fed predominantly on perch. Although 
large pike took many fry, the bulk of their food was a small number of large 
prey. 

BARAUSKAS. R. 

1978 Effect of single electrical stimuli on the activity of neurons in the medulla 
oblongata of the pike Esox lucius. Journal of Evolutionary Biochemistry and 
Physiology 14:505-507. 

A study of neuron responses to stimulating impulses applied to immobilized 
pike. To verify that behavioural reactions were due to action on peripheral 
formations of nervous system, experiments were performed on specimens in 
which body surfaces were anesthetized. 

BARTA. A. 

1877 Przyczynek do ryboznawstwa krajowego i gospodarstwa rybnego. Zapiski o 
rybach z Dniestru, polawianych we wsi Pobereze, kolo Jezupola. | Selected 
elements of local fisheries and fishery management. Notes on fishes from the 
Dniestr River, and fish catches in Pobrzeze, near Jezupol.] Kosmos 2(8. 9, 
K));448-451. 

Description of fishes and their catches based on practical knowledge of fisher- 
men. 

BARTEHLMES. D. and H. WALDOW 

1978 Long term biological changes in the Grosse Mueggelsee (Berlin), some 
characteristics of its present status and previous fishing effects. 5. A sum- 
mary of the fishing value of the biological changes observed in Grosse Mueg- 
gelsee. Zeitschrift fuer Binnenfischerei DDR 25(7):2()9-2l4. 
Disappearance of weed reduced the yield of pike. 

BARTHOLOMEW. M. A., J. D1VALL and J. E. MORROW 

1962 Silver pike, an atypical Esox lucius. in Alaska, a fust record. Copeia 
1962:449-450. 
The first record of this mutant from west of the Rocky Mountains. 



27 



RARTLES.B 

1973 Coarse fishing. London, A. & C. Black. 
BARTMANN, W. 

1973 Hine Prelzsymbiose Zwischen Stichling {Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) und 
Hecht {Esox luciits L.) im Aquarium. [A cleaning symbiosis between 
threespine stickleback on pike in the aquarium]. Zeitschrift fuer Tierpsycho- 
logie 33(2): 153-162. 

BARYSHEVA, A. F. and O. N. BAUER 

1961 Fish parasites of Lake Ladoga. /// Petrushevskii, G. K., ed.. Parasites and 
diseases of fish. Jerusalem, Israel Program for Scientific Translations, pp. 
171-224. 
BASHMAKOVA. A. Y. 

1930 Material on the age and growth rate of the pike {Esox lucius L.) of Lake 
Chany. Trudy Sibirskogo Otdela Gosudarstvennogo Nauchno- 
IssledovateFskogo Instituta Ozernogo i Rechnogo Rybnogo Khozyaistva 
5:187-205. [in Russian 1 
BASTL. [., J. HOLCIK and A. KIRKA 

1975 Ichthyological investigation of the protected habitat of the Danubian salmon 
Hucho hucho on the River Turiec and suggestions for its management. Zbor- 
nik Slovenskeho Narodneho Muzea Prirodne Vedy 21:191-224. 
BAUDO, R., G. GALANTI, B. LOCHT, H. MUNTAU and P. G. VARINI 

1981 Heavy metal concentrations of pike (Esox lucius) and four other fish species 
from the Pallanca Basin. Memorie dellTstituto Italiano di Idrobiologie Dott 
Marco de Marchi 38:409-414. 
BAUER. P. 

1 97 1 Too easy to catch. National Wildlife June-July, 1 97 1 . 

Briefly describes some medieval pike legends, feeding habits, and two 
theories on how the pike's distribution became circumpolar. 
BAUMANN, P. C, J. F. K1TCHELL, J. J. MAGNUSON and T. B. KAYES 

1974 Lake Wingra, 1837-1973. A case history of human impact. Transactions of 
the Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters 62:57-94. 

BAUMGARTEN. H. G., B. FALCK and H. WARTENBERG 

1970 Adrenergic neurons in the spinal cord of the pike Esox lucius and their rela- 
tion to the caudal neuro secretory system. Zeitschrift fuer Zellforschung und 
Mikroskopie Anatomie 107:479-498. 
BAUMGARTEN, H. G. and H. WARTENBERG 

1970 Adrenergic neurons in the lower spinal cord of the pike Esox lucius and their 
relation to the neuro secretory system of the neurophysis spinalis caudalis. 
Aspects of Neuroendocrinology, 5th International Symposium on Neurose- 
cretion. Berlin, West Germany, pp. 104-1 1 1. 
BAXTER, G. T and J. R. SIMON 

1970 Wyoming fishes. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Bulletin 4:1-168. 

A single specimen was caught from a sand pit near Torrington in 1966. The 
species is considered to be introduced since it certainly either moved into the 
state from populations introduced into Nebraska or was introduced into 
Wyoming illegally. 
BAYLIS, H. A. 

1928 Records of some parasitic worms from British vertebrates. Annals and Maga- 
zine of Natural History 10th S 1:329-343. 

28 



1939 Further records o( parasitic worms from British vertebrates. Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History 1 1th S 4:473-498. 
BEAMISH. R.J. 

1973 Design of a trapnet with interchangeable parts for the capture of large and 
small fishes from varying depths. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of 
Canada 30:587-590. 

Pike is listed as one of the species caught in these nets. 
BEAMISH. R. J., M. J. MERRILEES and E. J. GROSSMAN 

1971 Karyotypes and DNA values for members of the suborder Esocoidei 
(Osteichthyes: Salmoniformes). Chromosoma 34:436-447. 
Diploid chromosome number is 50 and total DNA 30-39% of human, as in 
all species of Esox. Values for other members of the suborder (except Umbra 
krameri) are given also. 
BEAN.T. H. 

1891a The pike family— I. Forest and Stream 34(1 1):210. 

1891b The pike family— II. Forest and Stream 34(12):233. 

1892 The fishes of Pennsylvania. Report of the State Commissioner of Fisheries 
1889, 1890, 1891, pp. 89-94. 

1897 Notes upon New York fishes received at the New York Aquarium, 1895 to 
1897. New York Commissioners of Fisheries, Game, and Forests, 2nd annual 
report, 1896, pp. 229-232. 

1902 The food and game fishes of New York. New York State Forest, Fish, and 
Game commission, 7th annual report, 1901, pp. 251-460. 

1903a The food and game fishes of New York: notes on their common names, distri- 
bution, habits and mode of capture. New York State Forest, Fish, and Game 
Commission. 427 pp. 

1903b Catalogue of the fishes of New York. New York University Bulletin 278, 
New York State Museum Bulletin 60, Zoology 9. 784 pp. 

1911 The pike family. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 1910:210, 
233, 333. 
BEARD. T. D. 

1971 Statewide fishery research. Impact of an overwinter drawdown on feeding 
activities of northern pike. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Pro- 
ject F-83-R-7/Job 1:1-6. 

During overwinter drawdowns in 1967, 1968, and 1969 feeding of pike in 
Murphy Flowage, Wisconsin, increased. Due to the predator-prey ratio, this 
increase was unlikely to have a noticeable impact on the panfish populations. 
BEARD. T. D. and H. E. SNOW 

1970 Statewide fishery research. Impact of winter drawdown on slow-growing 
panfish population and associated species. Wisconsin Department of Natural 
Resources Project F-83-R-5/Job 5:1-18. 

Information on feeding activity of pike. 
BEAULIEU,G. 

1961 Fecondite de quelques especes de poisson de la province de Quebec. Actuali- 
ties Marines 5(2):22-27. 
BECKMAN, L. G. and J. H. ELROD 

1971 Apparent abundance and distribution of young-of-year fishes in Lake Oahe 
1965-1969. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 8:333-347. 



29 



BECKMAN. W. C. 

1948 The length-weight relationship, factors for conversions between standard and 
total lengths, and coefficients of condition for seven Michigan fishes. Tran- 
sactions of the American Fisheries Society 75:237-256. 
The ratio of standard to total length increases as length increases. The 
coefficients of condition and the n values in the length-weight equation W = 
cLn are listed. 
BEKESI. L.. G. MAJOROS and E. SZABO 

1984 Mass appearance of a rhabdovirus in pike fry {Esox Indus L.) in Hungary. 
Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 39:231-234. [in Hungarian, English summary] 
BEL1NA.T. 

1956 Obserwacje dotyczace produkcji narybku karpia i palczakow szczupaka. 
[Observation on the production of carp fry and pike fingerlings.] Gospodarka 
Rybna 8(9): 12-13. 

Possibilities of maximal utilization of properly kept nursery ponds for the 
breeding of pike fingerlings and carp Cyprinus carpio fry during the same 
year. 
BENECKE, B. 

1880 Systematische Uebersicht der Fische von Ost- und Westpreussen. In Fische, 
Fischerei und Fischzucht in Ost- und Westpreussen. Konigsberg, pp. 
165-167. 
1885 Utilizing water by fish culture. 7. The raising of fish of prey spawning in 
summer. Report of the U.S. Fish Commission, 1883, p. 1129. [Translated 
from German by Herman JacobsonJ. 
BENNETT, G. W. 

1962a Management of artificial lakes and ponds. New York, Reinhold. 283 pp. 
1962b Management of small artificial lakes. A summary of fisheries investigation. 
Bulletin of the Illinois Natural History Survey 22:357-376. 
BENNETT. L. H. 

1 947 Separation of northern pike eggs. Progressive Fish-Culturist 9: 1 69- 171. 
Yellow clay was used successfully as a separating agent, and the per cent 
hatch was high. 

1948 Pike culture at the New London, Minnesota, station. Progressive Fish Cultu- 
rist 10:95-98. 

Describes experiences in collecting and hatching pike eggs and raising the 
fry. 

BENOIT, D. S. R. and J. G. HALE 

1969 Automatic live brine shrimp feeder. Transactions of the American Fisheries 
Society 98:532-533. 

The automatic feeder has been successful for culturing pike. It requires less 
time than hand feeding and ensures an adequate supply of live food 
throughout the day. 

BENSLEY, B. A. 

1915 The fishes of Georgian Bay. In Contributions to Canadian biology being stu- 
died from the biological stations of Canada, 1911-1914. Fasciculus II — 
Freshwater fish and lake biology. Canada Department of Marine Fisheries, 
Supplement to the 47th Annual Report, Sessional Paper 39b: 1-52. 



30 



BENSON, N.G. 

1908 Review of fishery studies on Missouri River main stem reservoirs. Bureau of 
Sport Fisheries, Wildlife Research Report 71:1-61. 

1976 Water management and tish production in Missouri River main stem reser 
voirs. /// Osborn, J. F., and Alman, C. H., eds., Instream How needs. Ameri- 
can Fisheries Soeiety, vol. 2, pp. 141-147. 

Modification of water levels and peaking schedules has been shown to benefit 
pike. 
1980 Effects of post-impoundment shore modifications on fish populations in Mis- 
souri River reservoirs. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Research Report 
80:1-32. 

Pike was one of the species that appeared to be adversely affected by shore 
changes resulting in a loss of flooded vegetation for spawning. 
BENSON. N. G., J. R. GREELEY, M. I. HUISH and J. H. KUEHN 

1961 Status of management of natural lakes. Transactions of the American 
Fisheries Society 90:218-224. 

Size limits are useful for pike, which are long-lived and particularly vulner- 
able to capture. 
BERG. L. S. 

1899 On division and formation of the parablast in the pike (Esox lucius). Journal 
of the Zoological Society, Zoological Museum, Imperial Moscow University 
2(9/10):29-52. 

1932 Les poissons des eaux douces de l'U.R.S.S. et des pays limitrophes. 3rd ed. 
Leningrad, LTnstitut Peches Pisciculture, vol. 1, 543 pp. 

1933 Les poissons des eaux douces de l'U.R.S.S. et des pays limitrophes. 3rd ed. 
Leningrad, LTnstitut Peches Pisciculture, vol. 2, pp. 544-899. 

1936 On the suborder Esocoidei. Institut Recherches Biologie de Perm., Bulletin 
10:389-391. [in Russian, English summary]. 
Brief notes on anatomy. 

1947 Classification of fishes, recent and fossil. Ann Arbor, Edwards. 517 pp. 

1948 Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries, 4th ed. Academy of 
Science, USSR, 1(27): 1-504. (Translated from Russian by Israel Program 
for Scientific Translations, 1962) 

1962 Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries. Vol. 1. Jerusalem, 
Program for Scientific Translations. 504 pp. 

1965 Freshwater fishes of the USSR, and adjacent countries. Jerusalem, Israel Pro- 
gram for Scientific Translations, vol. 3. 
BERG. R. J. and J. J. MAGNUSON 

1970 Variability of winterkill survival in fishes. Technical Report OWRR A-024- 
Wis.,40pp. 
BERGER. B. L., R. E. LENNON and J. W. HOGAN, 

1969 Laboratory studies on antimycin A as a fish toxicant. U.S. Bureau of Sport 
Fisheries and Wildlife Investigations in Fish Control 25:1-12. 
BERGH. K. 

1977 Northern pike fishing. Minneapolis, Dillion. 
BERKA.R. 

1980 Produkee stiky a candata v Europe a v CSSR. (Production of pike and pike- 
perch in Europe and Czechoslovakia]. Buletin Vy/kumy Ustav Rybarsky a 
Hydrobiologicky Vodnany 16(2):40-46. 

31 



Production data analysis of market-size and young pike with chronological 

statistical data given for German Democratic Republic, Yugoslavia, Nether- 
lands, Finland, Poland, Switzerland, Turkey, USSR, and Czechoslovakia. 

Except for Finland and Switzerland, pike production trend was decreasing. 

Advanced intensive production methods for natural waters and/or cultural 

operations were expected to improve the situation. 
BERKES, F. and M. MACKENZIE 

1978 Cree fish names from eastern James Bay, Quebec, Canada. Arctic 

31:489-495. 
BERNARD. H. 

1934 Would a muskrat attack a pike? Canadian Field-Naturalist 48(3):53. 

Describes seeing a large muskrat appear to chase a 12-inch pike. 
BERNATOWICZ, S. 

1938 Szczupak w wodach otwartych. [Pike in surface waters.] Przeglad Rybacki 

11:153-156. 

A description of pike stockings in Polish conditions in view of German litera- 
ture on the subject. 
1948 Budowa przewodow pokarmowych u ryb. [Anatomy of the feeding tract of 

fishes.] Wiadomosci Wedkarskie 5(5):7-9. 

Morphology and functioning of food tracts of various freshwater fishes 

viewed on the example of pike food tracts. 
1955 Stadia rozwojowe niektorych roslin naczyniowych jako wskaznik czasu tarla 

ryb. [Development stages of certain vascular plants as an indication of the 

spawning time of fish.] Roczniki Nauk Rolniczyck, Ser.B, 69:547-557. [in 

Polish]. 

Relation between spawning time and development stages of vascular plants, 

presented in tables. 
1962 Obserwacje nad fenologia rozrodu ryb. [Observations of the phenology of 

fish spawning.] Roczniki Nauk Rolniczyck, Ser.B, 81:307-333. [in Polish, 

English summary]. 
BERZINS, B. 

1962 Populationstyper hos gadda (Esox lucius L.) i sydsvenska smasjoar. Skrifter 

Sodra Sveriges Fiskeriforening Lund 1961-1962:82-86. 
BESRUKOW, E. A. 

1928 Die Entwicklung des Chondrocraniums bei Esox lucius. Revue de Zoologie 

Russe 8:89-1 11. 
BEUKEMA, J. J. 

1970 Acquired hook-avoidance in the pike Esox lucius L. fished with artificial and 

natural baits. Journal of Fish Biology 2:155-160. 

Catch of tagged pike in a drainable pond by spinner fishing decreased to a 

very low level after about half the population had been caught this way. 

Catch by live bait fishing remained unaffected by both spinner and live bait 

fishing. It was difficult to capture pike more than once by spinning. In live 

bait fishing the number of recaptures closely matched the number expected if 

catchability remains unaffected by earlier capture. 
BEVELHIMER, M. S. 

1983 Assessing significance of physiological differences among three esocids with 

a bioenergetics model. M.S. Thesis, Ohio State University. 49 pp. 

Differences in metabolism, food consumption, conversion efficiency, and 

32 



growth among pike, muskel lunge, and pike-muskel lunge hybrid were deter- 
mined in the laboratory over a range of 5-30 C. Growth modelling enabled 
comparison of success of each esocid in different environments. 
BEVELHIMER. M. S., R. A. STEIN and R. F. CARLINE 

1981 Comparative bioenergeties of northern pike, muskellunge, and their Fl 
hybrid, tiger muskellunge. Presented at 43rd Midwest Fish and Wildlife 
Conference. 

Rates of food consumption, growth, and conversion efficiency were discussed 
for the three fish, and peaked for pike 15 22.5-25.0 C. Compared with simi- 
lar data collected by Casselman (1978), there was an indication of warm 
water adaptation by Ohio stocks that were selectively bred for 25 years in 
Ohio hatcheries. 

1985 Assessing significance of physiological differences among three esocids with 
a bioenergeties model. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 
42:57-69. 

To predict stocking success of esocids in Ohio waters with different thermal 
regimes, the authors measured individual food consumption, conversion 
efficiency, growth, and metabolic rate for Ohio stocks of pike, muskellunge, 
and pike-muskellunge hybrid. The hybrid should outgrow both pike and 
muskellunge in thermal regimes common to Ohio waters. 

n.d. Laboratory growth of northern pike, muskellunge, and their Fl hybrid, tiger 
muskellunge. Unpublished MS. 15 pp. 

Data on food consumption, conversion efficiency, growth, and digestive rate 
at various temperatures are given for each species and their hybrid. 
BEYERLE, G. B. 

1970a A study of two northern pike-bluegill populations. Michigan Department of 
Natural Resources, Research Development Report 194; Institute for Fisheries 
Research Report 1762. 

Pike and bluegill populations were established and maintained for 3 years in 
two small lakes closed to fishing. Growth of pike was slightly less than aver- 
age for pike in Michigan. High densities of pike did not control an abundance 
of bluegills. 

1970b Warmwater fish biology and population ecology. Management of an 
impoundment containing a population of slow growing northern pike. Michi- 
gan Department of Conservation Project F-29-R-4, Job 6: 1-6. 
Fishing regulations on pike in Fletcher Floodwater were liberalized in 1963 in 
an attempt to increase harvest and pike growth. 145% more pike were taken 
from 1963-65 than during 3 previous years for which creel census data were 
available and growth measured. 

1971a A study of two northern pike-bluegill populations. Transactions of the Amer- 
ican Fisheries Society 100:69-73. 
High densities of pike did not control the bluegill population. 

1971b Warmwater fish biology and population ecology. Food habits of predatory 
fish in lakes. Michigan Department of Conservation Project F-29-R-5/WLP1. 
1/Job 1:1-10. 

Shows correlation between size of predator to size of prey. Perches include 
yellow perch and darters. Data were collected over 15 years. 

1971c Growth and survival rates of northern pike on various diets in lakes. Michi- 
gan Department of Natural Resources, Dingell-Johnson Project F-29-R- 

33 



4:55-58. 

197 Id Management of an impoundment containing a population of slow growing 
northern pike. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Dingell-Johnson 
Annual Progress Report 1969-1970, F-29-R-4:65-70. 

1973a Growth and survival of northern pike in two small lakes containing soft-rayed 
fishes as the principal source of food. Michigan Department of Natural 
Resources, Fisheries Research Report 1793:1-16. 

Fingerling pike were stocked for 3 years in two small lakes, one containing 
only minnows and the other minnows and young coho salmon. The inclusion 
of salmon as a forage presumably increased the growth of larger pike to the 
extent that pike of age group II averaged 2.6 inches longer in the pike- 
minnow-salmon lake than in the pike-minnow lake. 

1973b Warmwater fish biology and population ecology. Comparative growth, sur- 
vival, and vulnerability to angling of northern pike, muskellunge, and the 
hybrid tiger muskellunge stocked in a small lake. Michigan Department of 
Natural Resources Fisheries Research Report 1799. Dingell-Johnson Project 
F-29-R-7:l-ll. 

Pike, muskellunge, and pike-muskellunge hybrid fingerlings were stocked in 
equal numbers for 3 consecutive years in Daggett Lake. High survival of 
pike compensated for low survival of muskellunge, to produce a standing 
crop of esocids that closely approached carrying capacity. 

1975 Marsh-reared northern pike surviving to anglers' creel. Michigan Department 
of Natural Resources, Annual Progress Report, Project F-35-R-l(2):61-64. 

1978 Survival, growth, and vulnerability to angling of northern pike and walleyes 
stocked as fingerlings in small lakes with bluegills or minnows. American 
Fisheries Society, Special Publication 1 1:135-139. 

For pike stocked as fingerlings in small lakes with bluegills, survival was high 
after 3 years for the initial plant but very low for the succeeding two plants. 
Growth was moderate through age 1 but slow thereafter, despite an abun- 
dance of edible size bluegills. Survival and growth were better when pike 
were stocked in lakes with minnows. 

1980 Contribution to the anglers' creel of marsh-reared northern pike stocked as 
fingerlings in Long Lake, Barry County, Michigan. Michigan Department of 
Natural Resources, Fisheries Research Report 1876:1-22. 

From 1973 to 1975 marsh-reared pike were stocked at the rate of 40 finger- 
lings per hectare per year. Survival to the anglers' creel varied from 15.8 to 
36.3% (mean 23.7%). Harvest of each year class was essentially complete 4 
years after stocking. Marsh-reared fish provided 65.1% of the total harvest 
from the 1973-75 year classes of pike. 

1981 Comparative survival and growth of 8.9 and 17.8 cm (3.5 and 7.0 inch) tiger 
muskellunge planted in a small lake with forage fishes. Michigan Department 
of Natural Resources, Fisheries Research Report 1894:1-8. 

1984 Survival and growth of early- and normal-plant tiger muskellunge stocked in 
a small lake with forage fish and largemouth bass. Michigan Department of 
Natural Resources, Fisheries Research Report 1923:1-1 1. 
BEYERLE, G. B. and J. E. WILLIAMS 

1965 Some observations of food selectivity by northern pike and bowfins in 
aquaria. Michigan Department of Conservation, Research and Development 
Report 28. 

34 



Pike selected minnows and chubsuckers over centrarchids and yellow perch. 
They showed no choice between centrarchids and yellow perch, but selected 
centrarchids over bullheads. 
1968 Some observations of \ood selectivity by northern pike in aquaria. Transac- 
tions of the American Fisheries Society 97:28-31. 

The optimum size of centrarchids eaten by 7- to 12-inch pike was 1.5 inches. 
and by 13- to 23-inch pike 2.5 inches. Pike selected minnows and chubsuck- 
ers over centrarchids and yellow perch. They showed no choice between cen- 
trarchids and yellow perch, but selected centrarchids over bullheads. 

1972 Contributions of northern pike tingerlings raised in a managed marsh to the 
pike population of an adjacent lake. Michigan Department of Natural 
Resources, Research and Development Report 274:1-20. 

Growth of both stocked and naturally raised pike was well above Michigan 
state average, indicating that the stocking rate of pike could be increased sub- 
stantially with significant benefit to the fishery. 

1973 Contribution of northern pike fingerlings raised in a managed marsh to the 
pike population of an adjacent lake. Progressive Fish-Culturist 35:99-103. 

A yearly average of 4,827 fingerlings were stocked in Long Lake for 3 years. 
Contribution was determined by estimates of survival rate, yearly recruitment 
from natural reproduction, mortality, and angling harvest. 

BEZRUKOVA. E. A. 

1928 The development of the chondrocranium in E. Indus. Revue de Zoologie 
Russe8(4):89-lll. 

BHUSHANA RAO, K. S. P. 

1970 Low molecular weight proteins from the white muscles of codling (G cuius 
callahas L.) and pike (Esox lucius). Ph.D. thesis, University of Liege. 

BHUSHANA RAO, K. S. P. and C. GERDAY 

1973a Low molecular weight proteins of pike (Esox lucius) white muscles. I. 
Extraction and purification-polymorphism. Comparative Biochemistry and 
Physiology 44B:93 1-937. 

The white muscles of pike contain two low molecular weight proteins that 
were isolated by acetone fractionation, filtration on Sephadex G-75 and 
chromatography on DEAE-cellulose at pH 5.7. The purity of the two proteins 
was checked by starch gel electrophoresis. Regional gene duplication and 
tetraploidization seemed to explain very well the variable number of these 
proteins in different fish species. 
1973b Low molecular weight proteins of pike (Esox lucius) white muscles. II. 
Chemical and physical properties. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiol- 
ogy 44B: 1 1 13-1 125. 

The amino acid composition of the two low molecular weight proteins 
extracted from pike muscle were typical of this protein's family. The molec- 
ular weights were 1 1,525 and 1 1,740 respectively for components II and III. 
Their tryptic peptide maps showed large dissimilarities. The N-terminal 
groups were acetylated and alanine was the C-terminal residue in both pro- 
teins. For the two proteins 58 r /r helicity was calculated from ORD data. 

BIALOKOZ. W. 

1974 Plodnosc wybranych gatunkow ryb / kilku jezior mazurskich przygo- 
towanych do doswiadc/alnego nawo/enia. [Fecundity in chosen fish species 
from a few Ma/urian lakes prepared for experimental fertilization.] Roczniki 

35 



Nauk Rolniczyck, Ser.H, 95(4):7-34. 

Studies on the fecundity of pike and other species in five lakes from the 

region of Olsztyn. 
BIALOKOZ, W. and T. KRZYWOSZ 

1976a Dostepnosc ofiar i wybiorczosc pokarmowa szczupaka. [Prey availability and 

food selectivity of pike.] Gospodarka Rybna 1 8(6): 13-1 5. 

Food selectivity of pike as determined by prey availability. 
1976b Ilosc pokarmu zjadanego przez szczupaka. [The food quantity consumed by 

pike]. Gosposarka rybna 28( 10): 18-19. 

An attempt to define food rations and feed conversion rates in a pike popula- 
tion from Lake Dgal Wielki, Mazurian Lakeland. 

1978 Racje pokarmowe i wspolczynnik pokarmowy szczupaka (Esox lucius L.) z 
jexiora Dgal Wielki. [Feed rations and the feed coefficient of the pike {Esox 
lucius L.) in Lake Dgal Wielki]. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczyck, Ser.H, 
99(1):7-21. 

Food digestion cycles, diurnal and annual rations and the feed coefficient in 
pike from Lake Dgal Wielki were determined. The feed coefficient ranged 
from 3.6 to 5.1 and was lowest in the lightest fish. 

1979 Analiza skladu pokarmu, dostepnosci ofiar i wybiorczosci pokarmowej szczu- 
paka (Esox lucius) z jeziora Dgal Wielki. [An analysis of the food conposi- 
tion, availability of prey and food selectivity of the pike (Esox lucius L.) in 
Lake Dgal Wielki]. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczyck, Ser.H, 99(3):7-24. 

Roach constitute the basic food component of pike due to the efficiency of 

pike in seizing this species of fish and its availability in its feeding ground. 

Pike adapt to change in the type of food available. 
BICH, J. P. and C. G. SCALET 

1977 Fishes of the little Missouri River, South Dakota. Proceedings of the South 

Dakota Academy of Science 56:163-177. 
BIDGOOD, B. F. 

1971 Ecology of walleyes Stizostedion v. vitreum, in the Richardson Lake — Lake 

Athabasca complex. Alberta Department of Lands and Forests, Fisheries 

Technical Report, 27 pp. 
BIELEK, E. 

1974 Die Entwicklung der Niere von Asche (Thymallus thymallus L.) und Hecht 

(Esox lucius L.). [The development of the kidney of the grayling (Thymallus 

thymallus L.) and the pike (Esox lucius L.)] Zoologische Jahrbuecher 

Abteilung fuer Anatomie und Ontogenie der Tiere 92:163-180. 
1976 Observations of the ontogenesis of blood picture and haemopoietic organs in 

the pike (Esox lucius L.) Zoologische Jahrbuecher Abteilung fuer Anatomie 

und Ontogenie der Tiere 95: 1 93-205. 

1980 Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen der Blutzellen der Teleostier. IV. 
Monocyten und Makrophagen. [Electron microscopical studies of blood cells 
in teleosts. IV. Monocytes and macrophages]. Zoologische Jahrbuecher 
Abteilung fuer Anatomie und Ontogenie der Tiere 103:498-509. 

BIGGAR, H. P., ed. 

1922 The works of Samuel de Champlain. Toronto, The Champlain Society, vol. 

1. [1599-1607]. 

1925 The works of Samuel de Champlain. Toronto, The Champlain Society, vol. 

2. [1608-1613] 

36 



1929 The works of Samuel de Champlain. Toronto, The Champlain Society, vol. 

3.416pp. |1615-1618| 

1932 The works of Samuel de Champlain. Toronto. The Champlain Society, vol. 
4.373 pp. [I6()8-1620| 
BILLARD, R. 

1978 Changes in structure and fertilizing ability of marine and freshwater fish sper- 
matozoa diluted in media of various salinities. Aquaculture 14:187-198. 
The spermatozoa o\' pike showed increased motility time and fertility ability 
in an extender with a salinity o\' 1 o/oo, as compared to fresh water. 

1980 Effet de la densite initiale du peuplement sur la survie et la croissance du bro- 
chet {Esox liuius L.) eleve jusqu'au stade de brocheton (45 jours). [The 
effect o\' initial population density on the survival and growth of young pike 
{Esox Indus L.) reared as 45-day hngerlings.] /// Pond fish farming. Sympo- 
sium on fish production in ponds, Arbonne-la-Foret, France, 1980, pp. 
309-316. 

Just before the end of yolk sac resorption pike larvae were stocked in three 
similar 400 sq.m. ponds in three densities, 2.25 fish/sq.m., 3.75 fish/sq.m. and 
5.0 hsh/sq.m. Fingerlings from all three ponds had the same mean length and 
survival rate. Total biomass of pike was a direct function of the initial 
number stocked. 

1982 On some patterns of reproduction physiology in male teleost fish. /// Richter, 
C. J. J., and H. J. Goos (compilers). Reproductive physiology of fish. Center 
for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen, p. 192. 

1983 Resume de quelques problemes poses par Televage du brochet et sa gestion 
dans divers milieux. /// Billard, R., ed. Le brochet gestion dans le milieu 
naturel et elevage. Paris, Institute National de la Recherche Agronomique. 
pp. 321-334. 

BILLARD. R.. ed. 

1980 La pisciculture en etang. Paris, Institute National de la Recherche Agro- 
nomique. 434 pp. 

1983 Le brochet. Gestion dans le milieu naturel et elevage. Paris, Institute 
National de la Recherche Agronomique. 371 pp. 

Contains 24 articles by several authors on reproduction of pike in the wild 
and in hatcheries, culture of fry, and management of pike populations. 
BILLARD. R. and B. BRETON 

1976 Sur quelques problemes de physiologic du sperme chez les poissons teleos- 
teens. [On some problems of the sperm physiology in teleostean fishes]. /// 
Hureau, J. C, and K. E. Banisters, eds. Acts of the 2nd European Ichthyolog- 
ical Congress, organized by the National Museum of Natural History, Paris, 
1976, vol. 40, pp. 501-503. 
BILLARD. R.. M. DEBRUILLE, J. P. GERARD and G. DE MONTALEMBERT 

1976 L' insemination art i fie ie lie du brochet. [Artificial insemination of pike.] Bul- 
letin Francais de Pisciculture 262:30-34. 

Procedures for holding mature adults, collecting eggs, and artificially fertiliz- 
ing eggs are described. For example, the eggs were mixed with an equal 
volume of solution consisting of saline buffered at a pll of 9. One ml o\ 
sperm was then added for each liter of the composite egg solution. 



37 



BILLARD. R. and J. E. FLECHON 

1969 Particularites de la piece intermediaire des spermatozoides de quelques pois- 
sons teleosteens. Journal of Microscopy 8(4):36. 
BILLARD. R.. W. C. MACKAY. and J. MARCEL 

1983 Evolution de la gametogenese, du poids du corps et des gonades au cours du 
cycle reproducteur du brochet (Esox lucius). In Billard, R., ed.. Le brochet 
gestion dans le milieu naturel et elevage. Paris, Institute National de la 
Recherche Agronomique, pp. 53-61. 
BILLARD. R. and J. MARCEL 

1980 Stimulation of spermiation and induction of ovulation in pike, Esox lucius. 
Aquaculture 21:181-195. 

Various types of hormonal treatments are discussed. Sperm obtained after 

hormonal treatment was of good quality. 
BILLARD, R.. J. MARCEL and G. DE MONTALEMBERT 

1983 Stimulation de la spermiation chez le brochet (Esox lucius). In Billard, R., 

ed.. Le brochet gestion dans le milieu naturel et elevage. Paris, Institute 

National de la Recherche Agronomique, pp. 109-132. 

The number of spermatozoa produced during one annual reproductive cycle 

was measured on male pike in their first reproduction. The administration of 

various pituitary gonadotropin extracts considerably increased the number of 

spermatozoa emitted after a single injection. 
BILLINGS, E. 

1857 The Canadian naturalist and geologist. Montreal, John Lovell, vol. 1, 480 pp. 

A general description of the species of Esocidae in Canadian waters; refers to 

the northern pickerel, Esox Boreus. 
BIMBER, D. L. and S. A. NICHOLSON 

1981 Fluctuations in the muskellunge (Esox masquinongy Mitchell) population of 
Chautauqua Lake, New York. Environmental Biology of Fishes 6:207-21 1. 

BJOERKLUND, I. and L. NORLING 

1980 Inverkan an luftburet kvicksilver pa kvicksilverhalten i gaedda och i sediment 
runt en klor-alkalifabrik. [Mercury content of pike muscle and sediments near 
a chlor-alkali plant]. Vatten 36:54-62. 

The average content of mercury in muscle of pike was higher in 

Varmland/Kilsbergen than in Holland and Smaland. 
BLACK. J. D. and L. O. WILLIAMSON 

1947 Artificial hybrids between muskellunge and northern pike. Transactions of 

the Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters 38:299-314. 
BLACK, R D C. 

1981 Report of the committee of inquiry into angling in Northern Ireland. HMSO 
(Belfast) 

BLACKMAN. B. G. 

n.d. Reproduction of northern pike, Esox lucius L., in inner Long Point Bay. 
Research Proposal. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, unpublished MS, 
5 pp. 
BLAIR. F. W. 

1957 Vertebrates of the United States. New York, McGraw-Hill. 819 pp. 
BLANC, M., P. BANARESCU, J.-L. GAUDET and L.-C. HUREAU 

1971 European inland water fish, a multilingual catalogue. Published by Food and 
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 

38 



Illustration of a pike and a map showing distribution in Europe. 

BLAND, J. K. and D. BARDACK 

1973 A Pleistocene pike Esox cf. Indus from the southern end of Lake Michigan. 
American Midland Naturalist 89:138-144. 

Description of a fossil fish, referable to Esox litems. Age and locality of the 
fossil demonstrated the occurrence of pike during postglacial times within the 
present rate of the species. 

BLASIUS.G. 

1692 Miscellanea anatomica, hominis brutorumque variorum, tabrican diversam 
magna parte exhibentia. Amstelodami. 8 vol. 

BLAXTER.J. H.S. 

1969 Swimming speeds of fish. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United 

Nations, Fisheries Report 2(62):59-68. 
1986 Development of sense organs and behaviour of teleost larvae with special 
reference to feeding and predator avoidance. Transactions of the American 
Fisheries Society 115:98-114. 

BLIZNYUK. 1. D. 

1969 Experimental infection of fish with freely floating cercarii Opisthorchis fel- 
incits Riv. Vestnik Zoologii 3:76-79. [in Russian, English summary]. 

BLOT. J. 

1968 Le squelette interne de la nageoire anale et ses relations avec le squelette 
axial. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de FAcademie des Sci- 
ences (Paris) 266:1943-1946. 

BODALY, R. A. and R. E. HECKY 

1979 Post-impoundment increases in fish mercury levels in the Southern Indian 
Lake Reservoir, Manitoba. Manuscript Report, Canadian Fisheries and 
Marine Service 1531:1-19. 

Total mercury and methyl mercury concentrations were low in water samples 
and bank material in 1978. It was hypothesized that leaching of soils and 
shoreline erosion after impoundment may lead to increased fish mercury con- 
centrations. 

BODALY, R. A.. R. E. HECKY and R. J. P. FUDGE 

1984 Increases in fish mercury levels in lakes flooded by the Churchill River diver- 
sion, northern Manitoba. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 
41:682-691. 

Increases in fish muscle mercury levels, occurring coincidentally with flood- 
ing, are documented for three lakes affected by the Churchill River diversion 
for which pre- and post-impoundment data were available. Because mercury 
levels in rish from nearby unflooded lakes have not shown recent increases, 
atmospheric fallout does not appear to be the cause of the problem. 

BODALY. R. A. and L. F. W. LESACK, 

1984 Response of a boreal northern pike {Esox Indus) population to lake impound- 
ment: Wupaw Bay, Southern Indian Lake, Manitoba. Canadian Journal of 
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 41:706-714. 

A population of pike was monitored for 1 year prior to impoundment of the 
lake and 5 years after impoundment. Impoundment had a pronounced but 
transient effect on pike reproductive success but no discernible effect on 
growth, condition, or mortality of the adult pike population. 



39 



BODALY, R. A. and C. C. LINDSEY 

1977 Pleistocene watershed exchanges and the fish fauna of the Peel River basin, 
Yukon Territory, Canada. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 
34:388-395. 

Biochemical and morphological evidence suggests that races of pike now 
inhabiting the area originated either from the Yukon River system or 
developed in situ in unglaciated parts of the Peel River. 
BODAMMER, J. E. 

1974 The cellular organization and fine structure of the nasal epithelium in the 
teleost Umbra limi (Kirtland). Ph.D. thesis, University of Wisconsin. 
BODDINGTON, M. J., B. A. MACKENZIE and A. S. W. DE FREITAS 

1979 A respirometer to measure the uptake efficiency of waterborne contaminants 
in fish. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 3:383-393. 
BODNIEK, V. M. 

1976 Feeding of pike in the reservoirs of the Daugava River. Trudy Muzeya 
Zoologii Latvia 15:114-126. 
BODROVA, N. V. and B. V. KRAIUKHIN 

1959 The sensitivity of fish species to electric current. Byulletin Instituta Biologiya 
Vodokhranilishcha 5:29-31. 

Pike were more sensitive to alternating current than other species tested. 
Specific sensitivity is attributable to the various reactions of the nerve endings 
and central nervous system of different species. 

1960a The role of the lateral line in fish reaction to electric current. Byulletin Insti- 
tuta Biologiya Vodokhranilishcha 8-9:50-52. 

The dissection of both lateral nerves diminished fish sensitivity to electric 
current. Tension was increased from 14.5 to 41% to produce the initial reac- 
tion in dissected fish. Electronarcosis after sectioning occurred at the same 
tension as for normal fish. 

1960b The role of surface receptors of the body in the mechanics of the effect of 
electricity on fish. Byulleten Instituta Biologiya Vodokhranilishcha 
3(6):266-272. 

Pike were sensitive at 0.40 V and electronarcosis occurred at 2.67 V. 
Anesthetization of the body surface lowered sensitivity to the current. 

1 96 1 a Influence of the dissecting of lateral nerves on sensitivity of fish to alternating 
electric current. Byulletin Instituta Biologiya Vodokhranilishcha 10:51-53. 
In pike, an increase in the voltage gradient was necessary to produce both an 
initial reaction and electronarcosis after the dissection. On the 12th day the 
effects of the operation lessened due to adaption of the body and partial 
regeneration of the nerves. 

1961b On the mechanism of the effect of electrical current on fish. Fiziolicheskii 
Zhurnal 47:913-917. 

The threshold of sensitivity to alternating current and the voltage gradient at 
which near narcosis sets in were determined. Both normal fish and those 
whose lateral nerves had been dissected were tested. In pike the voltage gra- 
dient rose initially after dissection but decreased about 6 days later and then 
gradually returned to normal. 

1963 Metabolic rate and sensitivity of fish to electric current. Materialy Biologii 
Gidrol. Volzh. Vodokhranilishcha, pp. 41-44. 
Threshold figures were determined for intensity of current inducing initial 

40 



reaction and that for near narcosis at water temperatures 10-15 C and 20 C. 
A rise in temperature (and metabolic rate) lowered the threshold of initial 
reaction, while near narcosis required an increase in voltage gradient. 

BOGDANOV. G. N. and S. V. STRELTSOVA, 

1953 Seasonal change in fish respiration. I/vestiya Vsesoyu/nogo Nauchno- 
Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Ozernogo i Rechnogo Rybnogo Khozvaistva 
33:103-115. 

BOGOSLOVSKAIA, E. I. 

I960 The corpus luteum in the gonads of fishes. Nauchnye Doklady Vyssshei 
Shkoly Biologicheskie Nauki 1:21-26. 

A study of resorption of oocytes in pike. Large numbers of corpora lutea 
were considered indicative of unfavourable spawning conditions. 

BOISAUBERT. J.-L. and J. DESSE 

1975 Local accumulation of fish remains on the neolithic site La Saunerie at 
Auvernier Neuchatel, Switzerland; preliminary report. Bulletin de la Societe 
Neuchateloise des Sciences Naturelles 98:195-202. 

BOLDYREFF. E. B. 

1935 A microscopic study of the pancreas in fishes; especially those of the orders 
Haplomi and Cyprinodontes. Copeia 1935:23-34. 

The microscopic structure of the pancrease of Eso.x and a number of other fish 
is described. The pancreatic structure of Eso.x is compact, well-defined, 
rather large, and a distinctly independent organ located on the small intestine. 
Secretory alevoli are frequently found within the islands of Langerhans. 

BOLOTOVA. T. G. and A. N. BURLAKOVA 

1975 Productivity and spawning conditions of the pike and perch in Lake Gusi- 
noye, Buryat, ASSR. Izvestiya Gosudarstvennogo Nauchno-IssledovateF- 
skogo Instituta Ozernogo i Rechnogo Rybnogo Khozvaistra 93:49-53. 

BOND. W. A. 

1974 Data on ciscoes, burbot and longnose suckers from Great Slave Lake, 
Northwest Territories, 1973. Canadian Fisheries and Marine Service, Data 
Report, Ser.CEN-D, 74-3:1-44. 

BONIN. J. D. and J. R. SPOTILA 

1978 Temperature tolerance of larval muskellunge (Eso.x masquinongy Mitchill) 
and F, hybrids reared under hatchery conditions. Comparative Biochemistry 
and Physiology 59A:245-248. 

Critical thermal maxima of larval muskellunge (32.8 C) and the pike- 
muskellunge hybrid (34.0 C) were determined. The hybrid had a higher tem- 
perature tolerance and developed faster. Both age and thermal history had 
important effects on the temperature tolerance of fry. Hybrid fry were better 
able to adjust to changing environmental conditions than were muskellunge 
fry. 

BONNELL. B. 

1967 The elements of the adhesive disc of echeneis and their homologies. Indian 
Science Congress Association Proceedings 54:469-470. 

BOOTSMA. R. 

1971 Hydrocephalus and red-disease in pike fry Esox lucius L. Journal of Fish 
Biology 3:417-419. 

Both diseases cause serious losses in Dutch pike culture. A lump on the head 
of fry was associated with an internal hydrocephalus. Haemorrhagic areas on 

41 



the trunk may be identical with redsore disease of pike. 
1973 Infections with Saprolegnia in pike culture (Esox lucius L.). Aquaculture 
2:385-394. 

In Dutch pike hatcheries, egg fungus and fungal diseases of fry are caused 
exclusively by Saprolignia species. Malachite green oxalate appeared to be 
the best treatment. 

BOOTSMA. R., P. DE KINKELIN and M. LEBERRE 

1975 Transmission experiments with pike fry (Esox Indus L.) rhabdovirus. Jour- 
nal of Fish Biology 7:269-276. 

Experimental infection of fertilized pike eggs with "red-disease" virus pro- 
duced 100% mortality in the fry. This mortality was associated with a disease 
that had previously been described as hydrocephalus internus, indicating that 
"red-disease" and hydrocephalus are different manifestations of the same 
disease. Experimental egg transmission of pike fry Rhabdovirus could be 
interrupted by disinfecting the eggs in a Wescodyne solution, suggesting that 
the virus was located on the egg surface. 

BOOTSMA, R. and C. J. A. H. V. VAN VORSTENBOSCH 

1973 Detection of a bullet-shaped virus in kidney sections of pike fry (Esox lucius 
L.) with red-disease. Netherlands Journal of Veterinary Science 98(2):86-90. 
Electron microscopical examination of pike fry with red-disease revealed the 
presence of large numbers of bullet-shaped virus particles in kidney sections. 

BORDES, G. 

1979 Une science difficile pour un poisson d'Avenir: FEsociculture. La Peche et 
lesPoissons 41 1:35-38. 

Magazine article on pike culture. Describes with illustrations the principal 
steps of artificial fertilization. 
BORG, H., A. EDIN, K. HOLM and E. SKOLD 

1981 Determination of metals in fish livers by flameless atomic absorption spec- 
troscopy. Water Research 15:1291-1298. 
BORGSTROM, R. 

1970 Studies of the helminth fauna of Norway. Part 16. Triaenophorus nodulosus 
Cestoda in Bogstad Lake. Part 3. Occurrence in pike Esox lucius. Nytt 
Magasin for Zoologi 18:209-216. 
1981 Bestanden av gjedde, Esox lucius L., i Arungen. NLVF - Arungenprosjektet 
8:1-18. 
BORISOVA, O. F., A. P. RAZJIVIN and V. I. ZAREGORODZEV 

1974 Evidence for the quinacrine fluorescence on 3 at pairs of DNA. FEBS 
(Federation of European Biochemical Societies) Letters 46:239-242. 

BORRONI, I. and E. GRIMALDI 

1974 Ecology of Diphyllobothrium latum plerocercoids Cestoda Pseudophyllidea 
in host fish species of Lago Maggiore, Italy. Rivista di Parassitologia 
35:261-276. 
BORTKIEWICZ, K. 

1967 Proby ustalenia norm przewozowych dla wylegu szczupaka, sielawy i siei. 
[An attempt to establish transportation standards for pike, vendace and 
whitefish hatchlings.] Gospodarka Rybna 18(4):4-5. 
Experiments dealing with fish densities during transport. 



42 



BOUCHER. R. and E. MAGNIN 

1977 Bioecologie du grand brochet, Esox Indus L. du lac Helene, territoire de la 
Baie James. Rapport scientifique 58, Service Environnement, Societe 
d'Energie de la Baie James. Montreal. 83 pp. 

1979 Comportement et dynamique de la population des grands brochets Esox lucius 
L., du lac Helene, territoire de la Baie James. [Behaviour and dynamics o\ a 
population o\' northern pike. Esox lucius L., in Lac Helene, James Bay terri- 
tory.) /// Dube, J., and Y. Gravel, eds. Proceedings 10th Warmwater 
Workshop, Special Publication NE Division American Fisheries Society. 
Published by Quebec Ministere du Loisir, de la Chasse et de la Peche, Mont- 
real, pp. 201-218. 

To evaluate the impact of the creation of a reservoir in James Bay region, the 
ecological requirements of pike were assessed for future considerations of 
fishery management. Pike represented 21% of the total fish population oi Lac 
Helene. Activity patterns, habitat requirements, and distribution were con- 
sidered. 
BOUQUET. H.G.J. 

1979 The management of pike stocks. Proceedings of the 1st British Freshwater 
Fish Conference, pp. 176-181. 
BOUSSU, M. F. 

1954 Statewide fisheries investigations. Lake fishery investigations. 1954. Silver 
Lake. South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks, Dingell-Johnson 
Report F-l-R-4/Job2/Dl. 

1959a Statewide fisheries investigations. Southern lakes fishery investigations. 
1957. Northern pike spawning area. South Dakota Department of Game, 
Fish and Parks, Dingell-Johnson Report F-l-R-7/Job 13/Q. 

1959b Statewide fisheries investigations. Southern lakes Fishery investigations. 
1957. Northern pike spawning area. South Dakota Department of Game, 
Fish and Parks, Dingell-Johnson Report F-l-R-7/Job 14/Q. 

1959c Statewide fisheries investigations. Southern lakes fishery investigations. 
1957. Northern pike spawning area. South Dakota Department of Game, 
Fish and Parks, Dingell-Johnson Report F-2-D-3/Q. 

1961 Statewide fisheries investigations. Southern lakes fishery investigations. 
1959. Northern pike spawning areas. South Dakota Department of Game, 
Fish and Parks, Dingell-Johnson Report F-l-R-9/Job 2/1. 
BOWER, S. M. and P. T. K. WOO 

1977a Cryptobia catostomi incubation in plasma of susceptible and refractory fishes. 
Experimental Parasitology 43:63-68. 

1977b Morphology and host specificity of Cryptobia catostomi n.sp. (Protozoa, 
Kinetoplastida) from white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) in southern 
Ontario. Canadian Journal of Zoology 55:1082-1092. 
BOYTSOV, M. P. 

1974 The morphology of underyearling fishes in the zone affected by warm waters 
discharged from the Konakovo power station into Ivan'kovskoye Reservoir. 
Journal of Ichthyology 14:904-910. 
BRACKEN. J. J. 

1973 The age and growth of pike Esox lucius from four Irish trout rivers. Irish 
Fisheries Investigations, Ser. A (Freshwater), 12:1-15. 



43 



BRACKEN, J. J. and W. S. T. CHAMP 

1968 Age and growth of pike (Eso.x lucius L.) in rive Irish limestone lakes. Ireland 

Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Fishery Investigations, Series A. 
1971 Age and growth of pike (Eso.x lucius L.) in five Irish limestone lakes. 
Scientific Proceedings of the Dublin Society, Ser.B, 3:1-33. 
BRACKEN. J. J. and M. P. KENNEDY 

1967 A key to the identification of the eggs and young stages of coarse fish in Irish 
waters. Scientific Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society, Ser.B, 2:99-108. 
BRAEKEVELT, C. R. 

1973 The fine structure of the pigment epithelial region in the eye of a teleost. 
Canadian Federation of Biological Societies, Proceedings 16:18. 

1974 Fine structure of the retinal pigment epithelium, Brucrfs membrane, and 
choriocapillaris in the northern pike (Eso.x lucius). Journal of the Fisheries 
Research Board of Canada 31:1601-1605. 

Light and electron microscopy were used to study in detail the fine structure 
of the retina! pigment epithelium, Bruch's membrane, and choriocapillaris in 
adult pike. The pike eye differs morphologically from that described for most 
other vertebrates. 

1975 Photoreceptor fine structure in the northern pike (Eso.x lucius). Journal of the 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada 32:171 1-1721. 

BRAUM, E. 

1962 Erste Nahrungsaufnahme bei Blaufelchen (Coregonus wartmanni Bloch) und 
Hechtjungfischen (Eso.x lucius L.) des Bodensees. Naturwissenschaften 
8:1-2. 

1963 Die ersten Beute Fang handlungen junger Blaufelchen (Coregonus wartmanni 
Bloch) und Hechte (Eso.x lucius L.). Zeitschrift fuer Tierpsychologie Beiheft 
20:257-277. 

Immediately after hatch, larvae of pike remain nearly immobile and adhere to 
the substrate, while the yolk sac is absorbing. After yolk sac absorption, pike 
caught prey for the first time, especially Copepoda. Pike filled their swim- 
bladders before the first feed. The capture of first prey was analysed by pho- 
tography. Pike notice movement of the prey transverse to the longitude of 
their own bodies. Their posture before pushing forward depends on the 
movement direction of prey. While pushing forward the pike's head deviates 
to one side, determined by the chosen starting posture. The deviation is ident- 
ical with the movement direction of the prey. 

1964 Experimentelle Untersuchungen Zur ersten Nahrungsaufnahme und Biologie 
an Jungfischen von Blaufelchen (Coregonus wartmanni Bloch), Weissfelchen 
(Coregonus /era Jurine) und Hechten (Eso.x lucius L.). Archiv fuer Hydro- 
biologie 28(Suppl.): 183-244. [English summary] 

1967 The survival of fish larvae with reference to their feeding behaviour and the 
food supply. /// Gerking, S. D., ed., The biological basis of freshwater fish 
production. IBP Symposium, Reading, 1966, pp. 113-131. 
BRAUN.F. 

1974 The air bladder inflammation of the carp. Muenchener Beitraege zur 
Abwasser-Fischerei- und Flussbiologie 25:69-74. 
BREDER, C. M. 

1926 Locomotion of fishes. Zoologica 4(5): 1 59. 



44 



BREDER, C. M.. Jr. and D. E. ROSEN 

1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. Garden City, Natural History Press. 941 pp. 
BREGAZZI, P. R. 

1978 Biology and management of perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) and pike (Eso.x 
I in ins) in Slapton Ley, Devon. Ph.D. thesis, Exeter University. 

BREGAZZI. P. R. and C. R. KENNEDY 

1980 The biology of pike. Esox lucius L., in a southern eutrophic lake. Journal ol 
Fish Biology 17:91-112. 

BRERETON. G. E. and J. M. FERRIER. eds. 

1981 Le menagier de Paris. Oxford. 

Information on purchasing, preparing, and eating freshwater fishes. 
BRETT. JR. 

1979 Environmental factors and growth. /// Hoar, W. S., et al., eds., Fish physiol- 
ogy, vol. 8. New York, Academic Press, pp. 599-675. 

BRIDGES. CD. B. 

1969 Yellow corneas in fishes. Vision Research 9:435-436. 
BRINKHLIZEN.D. C. 

1979 Preliminary notes on fish remains from archeological sites in the Netherlands. 
Palaeohistoria 21:83-90. 

Subfossil fish remains from 15 sites, 3500 B.C. to 1700 A.D.: 28 species. All 
freshwater types still extant in the Netherlands. 
BRINKHURST.R.O. 

1969 Changes in the benthos of lakes Erie and Ontario. Buffalo Society of Natural 
History. Bulletin 25:45-71. 
BRINLEY. F. J. 

1940 Development of the fish heart, brown trout (Salmo fario) and northern pike 
(Eso.x lucius). Lloydia 3: 145-156. 
BROFELDT. P. 

1917 Bidrag till kannedomen om fiskbestandet i vara sjoar. Finlands Fiskerier 
4:172-212. 
BROOK. G. 

1887 Note on the spawning of the pike. Fisheries Board of Scotland. Annual 
Report for 1887, pp. 347-349. 
BROUGHTON. N. M. and K. A. M. FISHER 

1981 A comparison of three methods of pike (Eso.x lucius L.) removal from a low- 
land trout fishery. Fisheries Management 12:101-106. 

The seine netting, gill netting, and angling techniques used at Grafham Water 
for the removal of pike are described and assessed, and the effectiveness of 
the various methods compared. It was found that a combination of summer 
gill netting and seine netting was most effective, but it was concluded that 
angling was worthwhile during the autumn months. 
BROWN. C. E. 

1915 Lake Wingra. Wisconsin Archeologist 14(3): 1-1 17. 
BROWN. C.J. D. 

1971 Fishes of Montana. Montana State University, 207 pp. 
BROWN. E. H., Jr. and C. F. CLARK 

1965 Length-weight relationship of northern pike. Esox lucius. from East Harbor, 
Ohio. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 94:404-405. 
Length-weight relationships were determined for the sexes separately. 

45 



Females averaged significantly heavier at the various lengths. 
BROWN. E. R., W. C. DOLOWY, T. SINCLAIR, L. KEITH, S. GREENBERG, J. J. HAZDRA. 
P. BEAMER and O. CALLAGHAN 

1976 Enhancement of lymphosarcoma transmission in Esox lucius and its epi- 
demiologic relationship to pollution. Bibliotheca Haematologica 43:245-251. 
Variations of inoculation size and site, water temperature, and age of fish 
recipients affected rapidity of tumor appearance. Three water bodies of vary- 
ing quality were examined to assess the relationship between contamination 
and tumor frequency. 

BROWN, E. R., L. KEITH, J. J. HAZDRA and T. ARNDT 

1975 Tumors in fish caught in polluted waters; possible explanations. Bibliotheca 
Haematologica 40:47-57. 

BROWN. E. R., L. KEITH, J. B. G. KWAPINSKI, J. HAZDRA and P. BEAMER 

1973 Frequency of tumors in fish populating a polluted water system. Proceedings 
of the American Association of Cancer Research 14: 1 . 
BROWN, J. J. 

1876 The American angler's guide. 5th ed. New York, D. Appelton, 428 pp. 

Information on angling methods for various types of water bodies, tackle and 
baits, and other topics pertaining to sport fishing. 
BROWN, J. R. and L. Y. CHOW 

1977 Heavy metal concentrations in Ontario fish. Bulletin of Environmental Con- 
tamination and Toxicology 17:190-195. 

BROWN, L. 

Know your fish. London, A. & C. Black. 
BRUCE, W. J. and R. F. PARSONS 

1979 Biology of the fishes of Ossokmanuan Reservoir, Labrador, 1976. Canadian 

Fisheries and Marine Service Report 836:1-32. 
BRUEDERLIN, B. and B. H. WRIGHT 

1981 A creel census of Reed Lake, 1979. Manitoba Department of Natural 
Resources, Manuscript Report 81-25:1-70. 

Fork length, weight, and fin and scale samples were obtained from 270 pike 
collected on 26 randomly selected days during May to September 1979. 
BRUEDERLIN, B. B. 

1982 A creel census of Goose Lake. Manitoba Department of Natural Resources, 
Manuscript Report 82-13:1-54. 

Results of a creel census and fish sampling program conducted for 22 ran- 
domly selected days from May to September, 1979. 
BRUENKO, V. P. 

1976 The feeding of pike {Esox lucius L.) of the Kremenchug Reservoir during 
spawning. Gidrobiologicheskii Zhurnal 12:121-125. 

BRUHL, L. 

1925 Was man durch Hechtaussetzung erreichen kann. Fischerei-Zeitung. 

1927a Gefrashigkeit des Hechtes. Fischerei-Zeitung. 

1927b Spat laichende Hechte. Fischerei-Zeitung 30. 
BRUNNER, G. and H. REICHENBACK-KLINKE 

1961 Beitrag zur Fleckenseuche des Hechtes. Fischerei-Zeitung 86(10). 
BRUYENKO, V. P. 

1976 Feeding habits of pike Esox lucius in the Kremenchug reservoir during the 
spawning period. Hydrobiological Journal 12:103-106. 

46 



BRY.C. 

1980 Influence de la densite initiale de peuplement sur la survie et la croissance tin 
brochet (Esox lucius L.) entire trois mois et un an d'age. [The effect of initial 
population density on the survival and growth of pike (Esox lucius stocked as 
3-month tingerlings] /// Billard, R., ed., Pond fish tanning, Paris, Institute 
National de la Recherche Agronomique, pp. 317-323. 

Consequences of overstocking pike tingerlings on number and biomass yields 
were examined. Three different densities were studied for nine months, each 
with the same food sources. Final number, survival rates, mean weight of 
pike, variability of individual weight, and net biomass were recorded. The 
results suggested that overstocking may cause poor yields. 
BRY. C, R. BILLARD and G. DE MONTALEMBERT, 

1978 Induction de la naturation ovocytaire et de Lovulation par traitment hormonal 
chez le brochet (Esox lucius). [Induction of oocyte naturation and ovulation 
through hormonal treatment in pike (Esox lucius]. Bulletin Francais de Pisci- 
culture 271:21-32. [in French] 
BRY.C. and C. GILLET 

1980a Reduction of cannibalism in pike (Esox lucius) fry by isolation of full-sib 
families. Reproduction Nutrition Deveioppement 20:173-182. 

1980b Reduction du cannibalisme precoce chez le brochet (Esox lucius) par isole- 
ment des fratries. [Reduction of early cannibalism in pike (Esox lucius) 
obtained by isolating full-sib families). Bulletin Francais de Pisciculture 
277:142-153. 

After 50 days of pond culture fewer pike tingerlings were recovered from the 
mixing of two full-sib families than from isolated families. Isolating full-sib 
families and using small, shallow ponds increased the recovery and growth 
rate of hngerlings. 
BRY. C. and Y. SOUCHON 

1982 Production of young northern pike families in small ponds: natural spawning 
versus fry stocking. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 
1 1 1 :476-480. 

Ponds were stocked with 5-10 fry/sq.m. in April-May, or with one female 
and two male pike in February. Comparable biomasses of juveniles were pro- 
duced by both methods (41 and 52 kg/hectare respectively). Higher stocking 
densities may improve production in both methods, but natural spawning may 
be less difficult and expensive compared to fry stocking procedures. 
BRY, C. Y. SOUCHON, G. NEVEU and L. TREBAOL 

1983a Production de families de brochetons en petits etangs par reproduction 
naturelle amenagee: bilan de trois annees d' experimentation et comparaison 
avec la methode d'alevinage. //? Billard, R., ed., Le brochet gestion dans le 
milieu naturel et elevage. Paris, Institute National de la Recherche Agro- 
nomique, pp. 63-73. 

1983b Production de families de brochetons en petits etangs par reproduction 
naturelle amenages: Bilan de trois annees d'experimentation et comparaison 
avec la methode d'alevinage. [Production oi young northern pike families in 
small ponds from managed natural spawning: Results from a three year 
experiment and comparison with the try stocking method. Bulletin Francais 
de Pisciculture 288:46-56. [in French, English abstract! 
The method of managed natural spawning (MNS) implies the stocking in 

47 



mid-February of one pike female and two males. The production from MNS] 
was compared with the results obtained when families of reared fry are 
stocked into ponds. Under the existing conditions, the MNS technique 
proved dependable, with minimal manpower, and little technical skill, sparing 
costs. 

BRY, C, Y. SOUCHON and G. NEVEU 

1984 Production of young northern pike in small ponds from managed natural 
spawning. Bulletin Francais de Pisciculture 293-294:59-64. 
Describes a method of producing young pike by managed natural spawning in 
a "protected" environment — small, drainable, grassy and shallow ponds, con- 
taining forage fish but no predator, and with a constant water level. 

BRYAN, J. E. 

1967 Northern pike production in Phalen Pond, Minnesota. Journal of the Min- 
nesota Academy of Science 34: 101-1 09. 

Physical, chemical, and biological conditions were related to the development 
and survival of eggs and young. Neither slow nor abnormal development 
increased egg mortality. Growth rate and production corresponded directly to 
quantity and distribution of plankton. Cladocera were selected over Rotifers, 
and low density of plankton triggered cannibalism. 

BRYNILDSON, C. 

1958 What's happening to northern pike spawning grounds? Wisconsin Conserva- 
tion Bulletin 23(5):9-ll. 

Shoreline improvements to lakes in southeastern Wisconsin have destroyed 
many pike spawning grounds. Those that remain must be preserved. 
1970 Selective chemical fish eradication of Mill Creek, Richland County. Wiscon- 
sin Department of Natural Resources, Management Report 32. 
Antimycin was used as a fish eradicant, and along with other species, six pike 
ranging in length from 14-18 inches were removed. 

BRYNILDSON, C, D. B. IVES and H. S. DRUCKENMILLER 

1970 A two year creel census of Devils Lake, Sauk County. Wisconsin Depart- 
ment of Natural Resources, Management Report 35: 1-1 1 . 
The winter of 1969-70 was good for pike fishing, while the winter of 
1968-69 was poor. Predation on trout is a significant problem. 

BUBINAS, A. D. 

1976 Feeding of asp and pike in the Kaunas hydro electric plant water reservoir in 
1972. Lietuvos TSR Mokslu Akademijos Darbai, Serija C, Biologiuos 
Mokslai 2:133-142. 

The main food component of pike was the most common fish; species con- 
sumed varied with season. The young of commercial species were found in 
pike stomachs in smaller amounts. Recommends increasing the number of 
pike in the reservoir. 

BUBINAS, A. P. 

1976 Feeding of asp and pike in the Upper Dnieper. Rybnoe Khozyaistvo 3:84-93. 

BUCK, O. D. and J. L. CRITES 

1975 Impact of parasitic worms on Lake Erie fishes. Impact of the cestode parasite 
Thaenophorus nodulosus on Lake Erie fishes. Ohio Division of Wildlife, 
Project F-48-R-3: 1-92. 

The parasite develops to the adult stage when infected white bass (Roccus 
americana) are eaten by pike. 

48 



BUCKE, D. 

1971 The anatomy and histology of the alimentary tract of the carnivorous lish the 
pike Esox lucius L. Journal of Fish Biology 3:42 1-43 1 . 

The alimentary tract of pike is described in detail, and feeding habits are 
related to intestinal gut histology. The pancreas and liver are described 
briefly, the former being of an unusual compact type not often found in 
teleosts. The beta cells are seen in the periphery and alpha cells in the centre 
of the islets. 

BUCKE. D.. J. FINLAY. D. MCGREGOR and C. SEAGREAVE 

1979 Infectious pancreatic necrosis (1PN) virus: its occurrence in captive and wild 
fish in England and Wales. Journal of Fish Disease 2:549-553. 

BUDZYNSKA. H. 

1956 Fish growth and food in Goplo Lake. The pike. Zoologica Poloniae 
7(1):63-120. 

BULGAKOVA. E. I. 

1965 Reproductive patterns of fishes in the Sviyage Inlet of the Kuibyshev Reser- 
voir. /// Results of large-scale observations on the Sviyaga Bay fauna of the 
Juibyshev Reservoir during the periods of its formation. Kazan. Kazan 
University, pp. 152-161. 

BULL. K. R., A. F. DEARSLEY and M. H. INSKIP 

1981 Growth and mercury content of roach (Rutilus rutilus L.), perch (Perca fluvi- 
atilis L.) and pike {Esox lucius L.) living in sewage effluent. Environmental 
Pollution, Ser.25, 3:229-240. 

Fish from the Rye Meads sewage lagoons in Hertfordshire, Great Britain, 
showed high growth rates, while their mercury content (positively correlated 
to size and age) indicated a slightly elevated mercury environment. Methyl- 
mercury represented a high proportion of the mercury found in all species. 

BULLER, F. 

1971 Pike. London, Pan Books. 287 pp. 

1979 The Domesday Book of mammoth pike. London, Stanley Paul. 286 pp. 
1981 Pike and the pike angler. London, Stanley Paul. 288 pp. 

This book deals with natural history (breeding, growth, feeding habits. 

hybrids, and fossil pike), stories of "legendary monster pike", and advice on 

angling (rigs, tackles, methods). 
BURDAK. V. D. 

1972 A new species of Conophorus (Diptera, Bombyliidae) from the south-east 
Kazakhstan. Institute of Zoology, Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR. 
(in Russian, English summary]. 

BURLAKOV. A. B. and N. E. LEBEDEVA 

1976 Species specificity of gonadotropic hormones in fishes and mammals. Journal 
of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology 12:180-182. 
BURNAND, T. 

1963 Pesca in acqua dolce. Milano, Mondadori. 160 pp. 

Description, distribution in Italy, food, angling information. 
BURROWS 

1974 U.S. upper midwest Raua pipiens population decline. Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, Center for Short Lived Phenomena. Event 157-74. 
Aeromonas hydrophilla causes red leg in Rami pipiens and red tin in pike. 
Infected pike develop a reddish appearance on the undersides and within the 

49 



body cavity. Mortality among adults can be 100%. Pike's spawning in pond 

habitats can be a major factor in the spread and perpetuation of the disease in 

Rana pipiens. 
BUSNITA.T. 

1969 The fauna of the impoundment lakes on the Danube, from source to mouth. 

Buletinui Institutului de Cercetari si Projectari Piscicole 28:57-61. [in 

Romanian, English summary]. 
BUSS. K. 

1960 The muskellunge. Pennsylvania Fish Commission, Special Purpose Report, 
pp. 1-14. 

1961a A literature survey of the life history and culture of the northern pike. 
Pennsylvania Fish Commission, Benner Spring Fishery Research Station, 
Special Purpose Report, 58 pp. 

Reviews the change in attitude of fish managers towards pike, with references 
from 1875 to 1961. Policies changed from extermination to preservation as 
the pike became recognized as a "balancing mechanism" and as a desirable 
game fish. A summary of the known life history of the pike is given. 

1 96 1 b Record northern pike — fact or fiction. Pennsylvania Angler 30( 1 0):6-8. 
1 963 Hybrid pike. Pennsylvania Angler 32( 1 ):23. 

1966a Research and fish management. In J. M. Smith Division Reports to the 
Sportsman. Pennsylvania Angler 35( 1 ):22-24. 

1966b The facts concerning the production and stocking of warmwater fishes. 
Pennsylvania Angler 35(6):5-8. 

1968 On warmwater fishes, facts about production and stocking. Kentucky Happy 
Hunting Ground 24(3):26-28. 
BUSS, K. and A. LARSEN 

1961 The northern pike of Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie. Pennsylvania Angler 
50(9):4-6. 

Information on spawning, age, and growth. 
BUSS, K., J. MEADE. Ill and D. R. GRAFF 

1978 Reviewing the esocid hybrids. American Fisheries Society Special Publica- 
tion 11:210-216. 

Artificial crosses of the larger pikes, although successful, produced only one 
with fertile progeny, the Amur pike {Esox reichteri) x pike. Crosses with 
smaller pickerel were generally unsuccessful or produced sterile young. 
BUSS. K. and J. MILLER 

1961 The age and growth of the northern pike. Pennsylvania Angler 30(3):6-7. 
Gives length-weight relationships of 540 pike from Pennsylvania waters and 
average calculated body lengths at each annulus, up to age 6. 

1962 Part VI. The age and growth of the northern pike in Pennsylvania. /// The 
age and growth of the fishes in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Fish Commis- 
sion, pp. 1 1-12. 

1967 Interspecific hybridization of esocids: hatching success, pattern development, 
and fertility of some Fl hybrids. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Technical Paper 
14:1-30. 

Five esocids were used as parent species to make 20 reciprocal crosses. 
Young were maintained from 1 to 4 years. Fertility of six reciprocal hybrids 
was established. 

50 



n.d. Identifying the common fishes of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Fish Commis- 

sion Pamphlet, 16 pp. 

BUTLER. E. P. 

1919 Notes on the presence of larval trematodes in eyes of certain fishes of Doug- 
las Lake, Michigan. Michigan Academy of Science, 21st Annual Report, p. 
116. 

BUTLER. G. E. 

1949 The lakes and lake fisheries of Manitoba. Transactions of the American 
Fisheries Society 79: 18-29. 
Mentions several lakes that have a pike sport fishery. 

BUYNAK. G. L. and H. W. MOHN, JR. 

1979 Larval development of the northern pike {Eso.x lucius) and muskellunge (Eso.x 
masquinongy) from northeast Pennsylvania. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania 
Academy of Science 53:69-73. 

Pike eggs hatched 10 days after fertilization at a mean temperature of 10.9 C. 
Newly hatched larvae were 7.9-8.5 mm TL. Transformation to the postlarval 
phase occurred by 13.2 mm and to the late postlarval phase by 19.1 mm. 

BYCZKOWAKA-SMYK, W. 

1959 The respiratory surface of the gills in teleosts. Part IV. The respiratory sur- 
face of the gills in the pike (Eso.x lucius L.), stone-perch and burbot. Acta 
Biologica Cracaviensis 2(2). 

Macroscopically the gills of pike differed considerably from those of other 
fish, the gill arches being much longer. This influenced the number of bran- 
chial lamellae. The number of lamellae on each arch is detailed. The length 
of the branchial lamellae of pike in relation to the dimensions of the gill arch 
was rather small. Because of the number of branchial lamellae, the number 
of respiratory plates in pike is many times larger than that of other fish. The 
vascularization of the gills of pike is the same as that of other teleosts. 

BYKOV, N. E. 

1974 Some of the characteristics of pike reproduction in the Saratov reservoir. 
Izvestiya Gosudarstvennogo Nauchno-IssledovateFskogo Instituta Ozernogo i 
Rechnogo Rybnogo Khozvaistva 95:86-97. 

Spawning efficiency of pike depended upon water level fluctuations, which 
resulted in mortality of deposited eggs. 

BYZOV, A. L., Y. A. TRIFONOV, L. M. CHAILAHIAN and K. W. GOLUBTZOV 

1977 Amplication of graded potentials in horizontal cells of the retina. Vision 
Research 17:265-273. 

BYZOV. A. L., Y. A. TRIFONOV and L. M. CHAILAKHYAN 

1973 Effect of polarization of horizontal cells of the pike retina on spread of the 
electrical potentials. Neurophysiology 4:72-77. 



51 



CACUTT, L. 

1979 British freshwater fishes. The story of their evolution. London, Croom Helm. 
202 pp. 

A rambling general account of the pike for the angler, including classification, 
history, description, lore, growth, food, related species, angling methods. 
Some of the information is outdated, wrong, or doubtful. Many errors and 
typographical errors. 
CAHN. A.R. 

1927 An ecological study of southern Wisconsin fishes. Illinois Biological Mono- 
grams 2:1-151. 
CAINE. L. S. 

1949a North American freshwater sport fish. New York, A. S. Barnes. 212 pp. 
1949b Northern pike Esox lucius. Heddon Fish Flashes 136:1-5. 

Angler's notes on struggle between pike and fisherman, "tall tales", appear- 
ance, range, lures, and tackle. Mentions common names, record size, flavour, 
food, and methods. 
CAKAY. E. 

1958 Onemocnenie sfuk pasomnicami. Csl. Rybarstvi 1958:98-99. 
CALDERON-ANDREU, E.-G. 

1955 Acclimatation du brochet en Espagne. International Association of Theoreti- 
cal and Applied Limnology Proceedings 12:536-542. 
CALDERONI, P. 

1965 Contribution to the study of growth of the pike {Esox lucius L.) living in the 
Trasimeno Lake. Rivista di Idrobiologica 4(l/2):3-15. [in Italian, English 
summary]. 

A study of gonad maturation, sex ratio, and growth of 179 pike. Mature 
gonads were found in 1 -year-old fish. Female to male sex ratio was about 
2:1. Growth of both sexes was similar up to the 4th year, reaching about 40 
cm. Females reached about 70 cm at the 8th year. 
CALDERONI, P., G. GIOVINAZZO, M. MEARELLI and L. VOLPI 

1980 Contribution to knowledge of Esox lucius L. from the Trasimeno Lake. 
Rivista di Idrobiologica 19(2):347-359. [in Italian, English abstract). 
Information on age, growth, sex ratio for a sample of 250 specimens. 

CALENIUS,G. 

1980 Parasites of fish in Finland. 5. Observations on protozoans of the genera Tri- 
chophrya, Chilodonella, and Ichthyophthirius. Acta Academiae Aboensis, 
Ser. B, Mathematica et Physica Matematik Naturvetenskaper Teknik 
40(5): 1-8. 
CALENIUS, G. and G. BYLUND 

1980 Parasites of fish in Finland. 4. Ciliates of the genus Apiosoma. Acta 
Academiae Aboensis, Ser, B, Mathematica et Physica Matematik Naturveten- 
skaper Teknik 40(4): 1 - 1 2. 
CALL, R. E. 

1899. Ichthyologia Ohiensis, etc., by Rafinesque, Constantine. A verbatim et litera- 
tim reprint of the original. Cleveland, Burrows. 175 pp. 
CAMERON, G. S. 

1948 An unusual maskinonge from Little Vermilion Lake, Ontario. Canadian Jour- 
nal of Research, Ser.D, 26:223-229. 



52 



Description of the pike-muskel lunge hybrid. All six hybrid specimens 
appeared to he sterile. 
CAMERON. J.N. 

1973 Oxygen dissociation and content of blood from Alaskan burbot {Lota lota), 
pike {Esox lucius) and grayling (Thymallus aniens). Comparative Biochem- 
istry and Physiology 46:491-496. 

Oxygen dissociation curves of whole blood were determined for pike from 
interior Alaska. Temperature was either 5, 10. or 15 C, and the carbon diox- 
ide tensions were in the physiological range of to 7.0 torr. P50 values 
ranged from 2.7 to 7.3 for pike. 

1974 Coronary blood supply in teleost fish. American Zoologist 13:1297. 
[Abstract] 

Studied blood supply to myocardium in pike, using radioactive microspheres, 
rubidium 86 indicator-dilution technique, and microscopy. Made injections 
upstream and downstream from ventricle, followed by histological examina- 
tion. 

1975 Morphometric and flow indicator studies of the teleost heart. Canadian Jour- 
nal of Zoology 53:691-698. 

Calculations of probable limits for oxygen uptake of the ventricle, based on 
data in this study and in literature. 
CAMP. R. R. 

1951 Reel sport: pike, pickerel and musky. Colliers Magazine, July 1951, pp. 
30-31,60-61. 
CAMPBELL. A. D. 

1973 Acquisition of a parasite fauna by an experimental salmon stock. Parasitol- 
ogy 67(2). 
CANESTRINI. R. 

1886 Nota sui pesci mastruosi. Atti della Societa Scienze Padova 9:1 17-125. 
CAPLAN.D. L. 

1982 An experimental study of interactions between young of the year pike (Esox 
lucius) and muskellunge (Esox masquinongy). M.Sc. thesis, University of 
Wisconsin-Madison. 55 pp. 
CARBINE. W. F. 

1938 The pike: a prized and spurned fish. Michigan Conservationist 7( 12):6-8. 

Included are a description of pike and information on distribution, spawning, 
age and growth, habitat, food, importance to man, management, and angling. 

1941 Observations on the life history of the northern pike (Esox lucius) at Hough- 
ton Lake, Michigan. Progressive Fish-Culturist 55:42-43. 
Brief account with information on growth, sex ratio, and spawning. 

1942a Observations on the life history of the northern pike, Esox lucius, in Hough- 
ton Lake, Michigan. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 
71:149-164. 

Surveyed sex ratio and average length of spawners caught in weirs during 
upstream migrations in 1939 and 1940. Assessed numbers and length of 
young leaving spawning grounds. 

1942b Northern pike experiments conducted at the Drayton Plains Hatchery from 
1937-39. Michigan Institute of Fisheries, Research Report 761 : 1-15. 

1942c Sphaeriid clams attached to the mouth of young pike. Cope i a 1942:1X7. 

Three affected fingerlings were found in drainage ditches that flow into 

53 



Houghton Lake, Michigan. The clams were securely clamped on the jaws, 
and the jaws of one pike were clamped together. Fingernail clams have not 
been found in the stomachs of young pike and the circumstances surrounding 
the attachment were unknown. 

1944 Egg production of the northern pike, Esox lucius L., and the percentage sur- 
vival of eggs and young on the spawning grounds. Michigan Academy of 
Science, Arts, and Letters 29:123—137. 

Pike captured during migration at Houghton Lake, Michigan, from 
1939-1942 provided information on the size of mature eggs, relative number 
and total volume of mature and immature eggs, and the number of females 
spawning each year. Relationship between production and size and condition 
of the female was studied. Ovum diameter showed that all eggs to be 
spawned in one season form a single size group. 

1945 Growth potential of the northern pike (Esox lucius). Michigan Academy of 
Science, Arts, and Letters 30:205-220. 

Growth of pike reared in hatchery ponds was extremely variable. The largest 
fish at the end of the summer had grown an average of 2.6 mm and 2.69 g per 
day. The tremendous growth made by some during their first summer was not 
maintained throughout their retention in ponds for two more years. 

CARBINE. W. F. and V. C. APPLEGATE 

1948 The movement and growth of marked pike (Esox lucius L.) in Houghton Lake 
and the Muskegon River. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science. Arts, 
and Letters 32:215-238. 

This study of life history and habits began in 1937. Observations were made 
on the migration to and from the spawning ground, spawning habits, feeding, 
growth, and movements of young and adult pike. 

CARBINE. W. F. and D. S. SHETTER 

1944 Examples of the use of two-way fish weirs in Michigan. Transactions of the 
American Fisheries Society 73:70-89. 

In 1939 and 1940, pike and yellow pikeperch (Stizostedion vitreum) 
comprised only 3.0% of the upstream and downstream migration of the 
Muskegon River. 

CARDOT, J. and J. RIPPLINGER 

1967 Action of adrenaline cardiovasc and noradrenaline epinephrine cardiovasc 
norepinephrine cardiovasc on washed heart of the pike Esox lucius and the 
carp Cyphnus carpio. Journal of Physiology 59:339-403. 

CARL. C. G. and W. A. CLEMENS 

1948 The fresh-water fishes of British Columbia. British Columbia Provincial 
Museum, Handbook 5:1-132. 

CARL. C. G., W. A. CLEMENS and C. C. LINDSEY 

1959 The freshwater fishes of British Columbia. 3rd ed. British Columbia Provin- 
cial Museum. Handbook 5:1-192. 

CARLANDER. K. D. 

1942 An investigation of Lake of the Woods, Minnesota, with particular reference 
to the commercial fisheries. Minnesota Bureau of Fisheries Research, Inves- 
tigational Report 42:1-534. 

1943 Length-weight relationship of Minnesota fishes. Minnesota Bureau of 
Fisheries Research, Investigational Report 17:1-23. 



54 



1944 Notes on the coefficient of condition. K, of Minnesota fishes. Minnesota 
Bureau of Fisheries Research, Investigational Report 41:1-40. 

1947 Some trends in the commercial fisheries of Lake of the Woods, Minnesota. 
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 77:13-25. 

The catch of pike declined about 70% in the previous 30 years. 

1948 Some changes in the fish population of Lake of the Woods, Minnesota, 
1910-1945. Copeia 1948:271-274. 

Pike is listed as one of the species netted from 1939 to 1945. 

1949 Project No. 39. Yellow pike-perch management. Progressive Report of Iowa 
Cooperative Wildlife and Fisheries Research Units 1949 (Januarv- 
March):44-57. 

1950 Handbook of freshwater fishery biology. Dubuque. W. C. Brown. 281pp. 

1952 Vital statistics on the pike family. Field and Stream 56( 10):74-76. 

1953 Handbook of freshwater fishery biology with the first supplement. Dubuque, 
W. C. Brown. 429 pp. 

1955 The standing crop of fish in lakes. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of 
Canada 12:543-570. 

An analysis was made, primarily by regression methods, of the published esti- 
mates of standing crops of fish in lakes and ponds, to determine whether cer- 
tain environmental factors may affect standing crop. 

1956 Late spring may mean good pike fishing. Iowa Conservationist 15(4):25-32. 

1957 Disturbance of predator-prey balance as a management technique. Transac- 
tions of the American Fisheries Society 87:34-38. 

Stocking of 5 pike per acre increased the weight of the predator population by 
about 10%. In the first 6 weeks of the next fishing season, over 20% of the 
stocked pike were caught by anglers. 

1969 Handbook of freshwater fishery biology. Life history data on freshwater 
fishes of the United States and Canada, exclusive of the Perciformes. Ames, 
Iowa State University Press, vol. 1, 752 pp. 
CARLANDER. K. D.. J. S. CAMPBELL and R. J. MUNCY 

1978a Inventory of percid and esocid habitat in North America. Journal Paper No. 
J- of the Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station, Project 
2002. 

1978b Inventory of percid and esocid habitat in North America. American Fisheries 
Society Special Publication 1 1:27-38 

Distribution patterns of introduced and native populations revealed major 
concentrations of coolwater habitat around the Great Lakes. Habitats 
reported, as a percentage of total freshwater area of North America, were 
54% for northern pike. Figures varied widely between regional groupings. 
CARLANDER, K. D. and E. CLEARY 

1949 The daily activity patterns of some freshwater fishes. American Midland 
Naturalist 41:447-452. 
CARLANDER, K. D. and J. G. ERICKSON 

1953 Some population estimates of young northern pike reared in a marsh. 15th 
Midwest Wildlife Conference, Chicago, 1953. 3 pp. [mimeo.]. 
Numbered jaw tags were placed on 1.146 pike to 1 ) estimate the population, 
2) determine the percentage that come out of the marsh before freeze-up, 3) 
determine the contribution to future angling, and 4) study movements alter 
release in Clear Lake. 

55 



CARLANDER, K. D., J. L. FORNEY and W. PEARCY 

195 1 Clear Lake investigations. Quarterly Report of the Iowa Cooperative Wildlife 
and Fisheries Research Units 1 7( 1 ):37— 43. 
CARLANDER, K. D. and L. E. MINER 

1943a Preliminary report on fisheries investigations. Leech Lake, Cass County. 

Minnesota Bureau of Fisheries Research, 18 pp. [typewritten]. 
1943b Fisheries investigation and management report for Lake Vermilion, St. Louis 
County. Minnesota Bureau of Fisheries Research, Investigational Report 
54:1-175. 
CARLANDER, K. D. and J. W. PARSONS 

1949 Project No. 39. Yellow pike-perch management. Iowa Cooperative Wildlife 
and Fisheries Research Units, Progress Report 1949:49-52. 
CARLANDER, K. D. and R. RIDENHOUR 

1955 Dispersal of stocked northern pike in Clear Lake, Iowa. Progressive Fish- 
Culturist 17:186-189. 

Tagged, stocked pike moved to all parts of Clear Lake within 6 months, even 
if stocked at one end. Movement is extensive and general, but fish stocked in 
some areas do not get to the other end of the lake in the same abundance. A 
longer time between stocking and capture might eliminate even this slight 
difference. 
CARLANDER, K. D. and L. L. SMITH, Jr. 

1945 Some factors to consider in the choice between standard, fork, or total lengths 
in fishery investigations. Copeia 1945:7-12. 

For pike in Minnesota multiply SL by 1.078 to get fork length; if 200-499 
mm SL, multiply by 1.141 to get total length, if over 500 mm SL, multiply by 
1.033. 
CARLANDER, K. D. and G. SPRUGEL 

1955 Fishes of Little Wall Lake, Iowa, prior to dredging. Proceedings of the Iowa 
Academy of Science 62:555-566. 
CARLINE, R. F. 

1979 Evaluation of stocking northern pike in Ohio lakes. Ohio Department of 
Natural Resources, Federal Aid Project F-57-R- 1:1-28. 

Existing data were analysed to develop some generalizations about lakes that 
support large and small pike populations. Computer simulations of growth 
and suggestions for improving assessment are given. 
CARLSON, R. M. and R. CAPLE 

1980 An evaluation of the possible detrimental effects by the introduction of 
organic and second-order organics on commercial and sport fishing in Lake 
Superior. Minnesota Sea Grant Program, Research Report MSGP-RR- 
1:1-49. 

The study developed two approaches to the analysis of a complex matrix of 
chlororganics: one an "indicator analysis" as a monitor of the total problem, 
and the second the development of a fast yet sensitive method to analyze for 
various phenols. 
CARLSSON, S. 

1978 A model for the turnover of 137 Cs and potassium in pike (Eso.x lucius). 
Health Physics 35:549-554. 

The model, quantitatively based on existing data on the food of pike and its 
concentrations of l37 Cs and potassium, was applied to calculate the biological 

56 



half-time of the elements in pike from Lake Uklesjon and estimated as 1.3 yr 
and 0.55 yr respectively, for a pike weighing 500 g and at a water temperature 
of 8 to IOC. 
CARLSSON.S. and K. LIDEN 

1977 Observed accumulation coefficients of cesium-137 and potassium in some 
fish and plant species in the littoral /one c>\ an oligotrophic lake. Ekologiya 
6:27-31. 
CARLSTROM. D. and J. E. GLAS 

1959 The size and shape of the apatite crystallites in bone as determined from line 
broadening measurements on oriented specimens. Biochimica et Biophysiea 
Acta 35:46-53. 
CARPENTER. R. G. and H. R. SIEGLER 

1947 A sportsman's guide to the fresh-water fishes of New Hampshire. New 
Hampshire Fish and Game Commission. 87 pp. 
CARTER. E. R. 

1955 Harvest and movement of game fishes in Kentucky Lake and its tailwaters. 
Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, Fish Bulletin 15:1-15. 
CARUFEL. L. H. 

1958 Tentative checklist of fishes of North Dakota. North Dakota Outdoors 
21(5):10-11, 16. 
CASEY. N., M. MULCAHY and W. OCONNELL 

1975 Leukocyte characteristics and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated response in 
healthy and lymphoma-bearing pike Esox lucius L. Bibliotheca Haematolo- 
gica 43:456. 

Abstract of a study of epizootic lymphoma in Irish pike. 
CASPARS, H. and H. MANN 

1961 Bodenfauna und Fischbestand in der Hamburger Alster. Ein quantitativoko- 
logischer Vergleich in einem Stradtgewasser. Abhandlungen des 
Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins zu Hamburg 5:89-1 10. 
CASSELMAN.J. M. 

1967 Age and growth of northern pike, Esox lucius Linnaeus, of the upper St. 
Lawrence River. M.S. thesis, University of Guelph. 219 pp. 
The age and growth of pike was studied using the scale method and mark- 
recapture. The work describes a detailed method for recognizing annuli and 
pseudoannuli on the scales of pike. Scale checks were categorized. There 
were 1 1 types of annuli and 4 types of pseudoannuli. The occurrence of these 
changes with age of the fish. Time of annulus formation on scales is also 
detailed. Back-calculation of body size from scales was performed. 

1969 Management aspects of northern pike recruitment — External sex determina- 
tion and sex ratios of northern pike (Esox lucius). Presented at 31st Midwest 
Fish and Wildlife Conference, Minnesota, 1969. 

A method for externally sexing pike, which involves the urogenital pore. 
Seasonal efficiency of the method was discussed. Seasonal change in sex 
ratios was presented, indicating a natural seasonal activity cycle. Sex ratio on 
the spawning grounds was given. 

1972 Metabolism and dissolved oxygen requirements of northern pike Esox lucius: 
a literature review. University of Toronto, unpublished MS. 31 pp. 
Considers impact of oxygen requirement on growth and survival. 



57 



1973 A limnological survey of Liverpool Creek, Pickering Township, Ontario 
County, Ontario. Conducted Spring 1973 for Runnymede Development, 
Toronto. 36 pp. 

A study of a small warmwater stream of low flow. Pike spawning was negli- 
gible during April and May 1973. However, pike spawning was documented 
in the mouth of the stream in Frenchman's Bay. Naturally deposited eggs 
were collected and densities were measured. 

1974a External sex determination of northern pike, Esox lucius Linnaeus. Transac- 
tions of the American Fisheries Society 103:343-347. 

Methods of externally sexing fish are reviewed. The spontaneous passage of 
reproductive products was examined on a seasonal basis, and a reliable 
method for externally sexing pike using the appearance of the urogenital 
region is described. The method applies to immature as well as mature pike, 
regardless of season. Accuracy of the method was tested throughout the year. 

1974b Analysis of hard tissue of pike Esox lucius L. with special reference to age 
and growth. In Bagenal, T. B., ed., Ageing of fish — Proceedings of an inter- 
national symposium, Reading, 1973. England, Unwin, pp. 13-27. 
Appositional growth of cleithra was examined, using tetracycline antibiotic. 
The chemical and physical nature of the zonation used in age and growth 
determination was analysed. The opaque zone in the cleithrum (flat bone of 
the pectoral girdle) is deposited at a rapid rate. The translucent zone forms 
much more slowly. Standardized terminology for the description of optically 
different zones in fish calcified tissue is presented. Specific gravity, ash resi- 
due, and protein content of whole and sectioned parts of cleithra are exam- 
ined in relation to age and growth. Electron microprobe X-ray analysis was 
used to document differential mineralization of the optically different zones. 
The importance of protein growth in bone growth is emphasized. 

1975 Sex ratios of northern pike, Esox lucius Linnaeus. Transactions of the Ameri- 
can Fisheries Society 104:60-63. 

Seasonal change in sex ratio of pike was examined from fish captured by net- 
ting, electrofishing, and angling. Regardless of the method or region of cap- 
ture, sex ratio showed similar seasonal cycles. Males were relatively more 
abundant during spring and autumn, when the sex ratios were approximately 
equal; females were more abundant in summer and winter (1.5-2 times). The 
sexes appeared to have biannual peaks of availability that were related to 
activity and were independent of locality and method of capture. 

1978a Calcified tissue and body growth of northern pike, Esox lucius Linnaeus. 
Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto. 782 pp. 

Calcified tissue and body growth were studied quantitatively and qualita- 
tively. Studies were conducted in the natural environment using tagged indi- 
viduals. In the laboratory, fish were reared under controlled conditions. 
Chemical analyses were conducted on the soft and calcified tissue of these 
fish. The study describes the physiological processes and body growth, both 
somatic and reproductive. Environmental conditions such as temperature, 
light, and nutrition were monitored and manipulated in this study. 

1978b Effects of environmental factors on growth, survival, activity, and exploita- 
tion of northern pike. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 
11:114-128/ 
Examines growth at various temperatures and describes the optimum 



58 



temperature for growth (IMC, weight; 21 C, length) for subadult pike deter- 
mined under both laboratory and natural conditions. The upper incipient 
lethal is 29.4 C. Examines the effect o\ day length on survival. Deseribes 
environmental requirements of pike, a typical "coolwater" fish. Details the 
effect of critically low winter oxygen on behaviour and catch per unit effort. 

1979 The esoeid eleithrum as an indicator ealeitied structure. /// Dubc, J., and Y. 
Gravel, eds.. Proceedings 10th Warmwater Workshop, Special Publication 
NE Division of the American Fisheries Society. Published by Quebec Min- 
istere du Loisir, de la Chasse et de la Peche. Montreal, pp. 249-272. 

Basic data heretofore obtained only from examining whole fish can be 
extracted from cleithra. For fisheries managers working with esocids, the 
eleithrum provides age data, as well as a rapid and inexpensive method of 
obtaining many important biological characteristics. A preliminary presenta- 
tion of the cieithral method of determining age of esocids and estimating 
growth. 

1980 Identification of pike and muskellunge from cleithra. Muskies, Inc., May 
1980, pp. 10-12. 

Criteria are presented and illustrated. 

1982 Length x girth-weight relationships for 10 Ontario sport fish. Calculated 
using 1980 and 1981 data supplied by the Ontario Federation of Anglers and 
Hunters from the Molson Big Fish Contest. Ontario Ministry of Natural 
Resources, unpublished MS. 

The relationship between length x girth-weight was constructed from two 
years of trophy fish data; 95% confidence limits were included. 

1983a Age and growth assessment of fish from their calcified structures— techniques 
and tools. In Prince, E. D.. and L. M. Pulos, eds., Proceedings of the interna- 
tional workshop on age determination of oceanic pelagic fishes; tunas, 
billfishes, and sharks. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 8, pp. 1-17. 
A general presentation of age and growth determination procedures that 
includes specific data involving the seasonal dynamics of qualitative growth 
of cleithra and scales and quantitative linear growth of the body, cleithra, and 
scales. 

1983b Growth of four Ontario fishes — northern pike, walleye, lake whitefish, and 
lake trout. In The identification of overexploitation. Ontario Ministry of 
Natural Resources, Strategic Planning for Ontario Fisheries, Policy Develop- 
ment Report, SPOF Working Group No. 15. 84 pp. 

Growth of pike is described by reviewing published literature on age and 
growth. Mean size at age from the scale method, the 95% confidence limits, 
and extremes demarcate the scope for growth. The von Bertalanffy growth 
model was applied to the average size at age data. Growth standards are 
illustrated and presented in table form. 
CASSELMAN, J. M. and E. J. CROSSMAN 

1986 Size, age, and growth of trophy muskellunge and muskellunge-northern pike 
hybrids— The Cleithrum Project. 1979-1983. In Hall, G., ed.. Managing 
muskies. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 15, pp. 93-1 10. 
Describes the age distribution, size, and growth of a large sample of trophy 
pike-muskellunge hybrids. Data were obtained from taxidermists, and 
involved an indicator calcified structure, the eleithrum. 



59 



CASSELMAN. J. M.. E. J. CROSSMAN. P. E. IHSSEN, J. D. REIST and H. E. BOOKE 

1986 Identification of muskellunge. northern pike, and their hybrids. In Hall, G., 
ed., Managing muskies. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 15, 
pp. 14-46. 

Details various methods of identifying pike, muskellunge, and their hybrids. 
Involves colour pattern, morphometries, meristics, specific osteological 
characteristics such as tooth shape and dentition, scale pattern and shape, ver- 
tebral centra, electrophoresis, and karyotype. A thorough review of existing 
methods, with new procedures. 

CASSELMAN, J. M. and H. H. HARVEY 

1973 Fish traps of clear plastic. Progressive Fish-Culturist 35:218-220. 

Description of a trap originally designed to capture small pike in shallow 
water. 
1975 Selective fish mortality resulting from low winter oxygen. International 
Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology Proceedings 
19:2418-2429. 

Describes selective mortality associated with partial winterkill of several pike 
populations, indicating that pike that survived were significantly smaller, 
younger, slower growing than those that winterkilled. Significantly more 
males survived and females succumbed. 

CASSERIUS,J. 

1552 De Vocis Auditusque Organis. Ferrariae, 1601-1600. 

Two figures of the ear of the pike, one showing the organ in situ and the other 
dissected. 

CATAUDALLE, S. and P. MELOTTI 

n.d. L'acquacoltura negli ambienti lacustri. [Aquaculture in the lacustrine 
environment]. In Aquaculture. Part 2. Scientific and technological develop- 
ment of culture systems. Published by Istituto de Tecnica e Propaganda 
Agraria, Italy, pp. 76-82. [in Italian] 

The culture of fish seed in lakes for repopulation purposes is discussed, con- 
sidering rearing of pike in particular. 

CAVENDER, T. 

1969 An oligocene mudminnow (family Umbridae) from Oregon with remarks on 
relationships within the Esocoidei. University of Michigan Museum of Zool- 
ogy, Occasional Paper 660:1-33. 

CAVENDER, T. M., J. G. LUNDBERG and R. L. WILSON 

1970 Two new fossil records of the genus Esox (Teleostei Salmoniformes) in North 
America. Northwest Science 44: 176-183. 

CECILIA, A. 

1973 El lucio y su pesca. I to IV. Caza y Pesca 371-375, various pages. 

A series of magazine articles on the distribution and angling of pike in several 
reservoirs and rivers of Spain. 
CERNOHOUS, L. 

1974 Diet tests on walleye, northern pike and muskellunge. North Dakota Bureau 
of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Division of Fish Hatcheries, Valley City 
National Fish Hatchery, [mimeograph]. 

CERVINKA, S. and O. PECHA 

1975 Hematologicke hodnoty a celkova bilkovina v krevnim seru stiky obecne 
Esox lucius L. z rybnicniho chovu v obdobi po vyteru. [Hematological values 

60 



and total protein in the blood serum o\' pond-farmed pike (Esox Indus L.). 
Zivocisna vyroba 20:861-866. 
CHABAN, R. 

1973 Les carnassiens et leur peehe. Les poissons blancs et leur peche. Le brochet. 

/// La peehe au Maroe, pp. 141-142. 

In Moroeeo the numbers and mean weight of pike caught was greater than in 
most other countries. The size of these fish is detailed. The history of intro- 
duction is reviewed. In 1969-61 pike matured asyehronously; eggs of 
females, espeeially the larger ones, matured in early summer when males 
were no longer produeing milt. This was eonsidered to oeeur beeause of high 
water temperatures. Egg collection was detrimentally affected, and produc- 
tion decreased. Angling techniques and gear are discussed. 

CHAIKOVSKAYA. A. V., E. T. USKOVA and S. I. DAVIDENKO 

198 1 Comparative study of the chemical nature of the mucous substance of marine 
and fresh water fish. Vestnik Ceskoslovenske Spolecnosti Zoologicke 
5:57-61. 

CHAMBERS. E. D. T. 

1896 The pike. In The ouananiche and its Canadian environment, pp. 283-288. 

CHAMBERS, K.J. 

1963 Lake of the Woods survey, northern sector — 1963. Ontario Department of 
Lands and Forests, Preliminary Report, 65 pp. 

Tables include: creel census, percent live release of catch, age-length-weight, 
stomach analyses, indices of fish abundance by gill and trap netting, and com- 
mercial catch from 1950 to 1963. 

CHAMPEAU, A., A. GREGOIRE and G. BRUN 

1978 The fish population of the artificial lakes of Verdon, France. Annales de Lim- 
nologie 14:245-272. 

CHAPLEAU. D. and G. THELLEN 

1979 Amenagement de frayers de grande brochet, Esox lucius L., au Quebec. 
[Management of northern pike, Esox lucius L., spawning ground in Quebec]. 
In Dube, J., and H. Gravel, eds., Proceedings 10th Warmwater Workshop, 
Special Publication NE Division of the American Fisheries Society. Pub- 
lished by Quebec Ministere du Loisir, de la Chasse, et de la Peche, Montreal. 
Results of management of spawning grounds to prevent the disappearance of 
important spawning grounds in regions heavily used by sport fishermen, and 
to improve the production of young pike by regularizing the water level dur- 
ing incubation of eggs and rearing of young. 

CHAPMAN, C. A. and W. C. MACKAY 

1984a Versatility in habitat use by a top aquatic predator, Esox lucius L. Journal of 

Fish Biology 25:109-115. 

The habitat selected by pike was evaluated using radio location and ultrasonic 

telemetry. The authors propose that the versatility in range of habitats is an 

important feature of the behaviour of top predators. 
1984b Direct observation of habitat utilization by northern pike. Copeia 

1984:255-258. 

Concludes that there is an ecological segregation between the size classes of 

pike; suggests that it is due to different trophic relationships and different pre 

dator avoidance strategies used by the two size classes. 



61 



CHAPMAN, D. W. 

1967 Production in fish populations. In Gerking, S. D., ed., The biological basis of 
freswhater fish production. IBP Symposium, Reading, 1966. pp. 3-29. 
CHAPPELL, L. H. 

1967 On the occurrence of blood flukes (Sanguinicolidae: Trematoda) in British 
freshwater fish. Journal of Natural History 1:163-167. 
CHAPPELL, L. H. and R. W. OWEN 

1969 A reference list of parasite species recorded in freshwater fish from Great Bri- 
tain and Ireland. Journal of Natural History 3: 197-216. 
CHARBONNEAU, S. M., I. C. MUNRO, E. A. NERA, R. F. WILLES, T. KUIPER-GOODMAN. 
F. IVERSON, C. A. MOODIE, D. R. STOLTZ and F. A. J. ARMSTRONG 

1974 Subacute toxicity of methyl mercury in the adult cat. Toxicology and 
Applied Pharmacology 27:569-581. 
CHATELAIN, R. and G. MASSE 

1979 L'exploitation du grand brochet, Esox lucius L., dans la province de Quebec. 
[Exploitation of northern pike, Esox lucius L., in the province of Quebec]. In 
Dube, J., and Y. Gravel, eds., Proceedings 10th Warm water Workshop, Spe- 
cial Publication NE Division of the American Fisheries Society. Published by 
Quebec Ministere du Loisir, de la Chasse, et de la Peche, Montreal, pp. 9-25. 
Analysis of certain parks and lakes included — exploitation, use of creel 
census to establish quotas, and the application of a mathematical model to the 
determination of optimum rate of exploitation. 
CHAUDERON, L. 

1969 Pisciculture en etangs des poissons de repeuplement pour les cours d'eau de 
la deuxieme categoric Club halieutique interdepartmental. 
CHAUVEHEID, A. and R. BILLARD 

1983 Incubation et eclosion des oeufs de brochet et resorption vitelline des larves. 
In Billard, R., ed., Le brochet gestion dans le milieu naturel et elevage. Paris, 
Institute National de la Recherche Agronomique, pp. 163-176. 
Reviews the necessary water quality and temperature conditions, precautions 
to take when planning a hatchery, and the organization of a hatchery. 
CHENEY, A. N. 

1 885 Does transplanting affect the food or game qualities of certain fishes? Tran- 
sactions of the American Fisheries Society 14:55-58. 

Compares growth of pike stocked in various bodies of water with growth of 
fish from the parent waters. Refers to pike as a freshwater shark and says that 
after stocked, "there commences a warfare of survival of the one with the 
largest mouth". 
1893 The pike. Forest and Stream 40(1 5):3 19. 

1896 Mascalonge, pike, pickerel and pike perch. New York Commissioner of 
Fisheries, Game and Forests, 1st Annual Report, 1895, pp. 121-124. 

1897 Mascalonge, pike, pickerel and pike-perch. Forest and Stream, May 1897, p. 
29 

1 898 The pikes. Forest and Stream 50( 1 7):330-33 1 . 
CHENEY, W. L. 

1971 Life history investigations of northern pike in the Tanana River drainage. 
Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Annual Progress Report vol. 12, Study 
R-III:l-24. 



62 



1972 Life history investigations o( northern pike in the Tanana River drainages. 
Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Annual Progress Report, vol. 13, 
Study R-III: 1-30. 

Information on age, seasonal migration, growth, and creel census. Compara- 
tive meristics of three Tanana drainage pike populations show significant 
differences among these groups. 
CHERNIKOVA. V. V. 

1966 Pokazatel'krovi u presnovodnykh ryb po sezonam. (Seasonal blood charac- 
teristics of fresh water fishes]. Report Summaries of the All-Union Confer- 
ence on the Ecology and Physiology of Fishes. Moscow, pp. 88-90. 
Blood characteristics of pike were characterized by significant seasonal 
changes. 
CHERNYSHEVA, N. B. 

1976 Morphological characteristics of and certain problems of the biology of the 
genus Apiosoma infusoria peritricha from the young of predatory fishes. 
Parazitologiya 10:170-177. 
CHICEWICZ. M. and I. MANKOWSKA 

1970 Embryonic development of pike (Esox lucius L.). Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych 
Ser.H, 92:27-52. [in Polish] 

A description of pike embryonal development, embracing egg construction, 
its fertilization, and all stages of embryo development, until hatching. 
CHICIAK, M. 

1947 Klucz do oznaczania ryb. [Key to fish species.] Ksiegarnia Akademicka, 31 
pp. 
CHIHULY, M. B. 

1979 Biology of the northern pike, Esox lucius Linnaeus, in the Wood River Lakes 
system of Alaska, with emphasis on Lake Aleknagik. M.S. thesis, University 
of Alaska, 122 pp. 

Basic biological information about pike, focused on population structure, 
habitat, movement, and food habits. 
CHIKOVA, V. M. 

1966 The state of spawning associations flocks of fishes, and their propagation in 
Cheremshansk and Suskansk bays of the Kujbyshev reservoir. Trudy Insti- 
tute Biologii Vnutrennikh Vod Akademii Nauk 10(3):29-45. [in Russian] 
CH1MITS, P. 

1947 Note sur le repeuplement artificiel du brochet. Bulletin Francais de Piscicul- 
ture 146. 

1951 Quelques observations sur la fraye du brochet et le transport des oeufs 
embryonnes. Bulletin Francais du Pisciculture 161:135-143. 

1956 Le brochet. Bulletin Francais de Pisciculture 180:81-96 
CHINNIAH, V. C. and W. THRELFALL 

1978 Metazoan parasites of fish from the Small wood Reservoir, Labrador, Canada. 
Journal of Fish Biology 13:203-213. 

Pike were one of eight species examined for metazoan parasites. No differ- 
ences were recorded in the parasite burden of male and female fish. There 
was no correlation between the number of parasite species per infected pike 
and host age. Food items of the fish examined were also noted. 



63 



CHIZHOVA, T. P. 

1956 Diphllobothriasis in the Kalingrad district. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR 
108:370-371. 
CHODOROWSKA, W. 

1973 Nutritional requirements of carnivorous fish fry during the first year of their 
cultivation in a pond. Annales de 1' Association Canadienne Francaise pour 
TAvancement des Sciences 40:147. 

CHODOROWSKA, W. and A. CHODOROWSKI 

1969 Les besoins nutritifs des alevins de certains poissons carnassiers. Interna- 
tional Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology Proceedings 
17:1082-1089. 

1975 Substitution of dietary elements in the young of carnivorous fishes. Interna- 
tional Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology Proceedings 
19:2555-2562. 
CHODOROWSKI, A. 

1973a Ecological problems inherent in the cultivation of mixed carnivorous fish in 
pisciculture. Annales de F Association Canadienne Francaise pour 
l'Avancement des Sciences 40:147. 

1973b Quelques problemes ecologiques concernant 1'elevage combine des carnas- 
siers en pisciculture de repeuplement. Annales de la Station Biologique de 
Besse-en-Chandesse 7:235-272. 

1975 Formation of Bl modal populations among the young of carnivorous fishes. 
International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology Proceedings 
19:2546-2555. 

1976 Rapports nutritifs entre les alevins de poissons carnassiers eleves en piscicul- 
ture de repeuplement. [Nutritive relations between carnivorous young fishes 
reared in restocking fish ponds]. In: Acts of the 2nd European Ichthyological 
Congress, Paris, 1976. 

CHODYNIECKI, A., M. KURPIOS, M. PROTASOWICKI and J. JURAN 

1974 Badania nad obecnoscia rteci w wybranych narzadach szczupaka -Esox lucius 
L. Jeziora Dabie. [Studies on mercury content in selected organs of pike - 
Esox lucius L. Lake Dabie.] Polish Academy of Science, Commercial Tech- 
nology and Food Chemistry, Gdansk. 

CHOLMONDLEY-PENNEL, H. 

1865 The book of the pike. London, Robert Hardwicke. 
CHOURROUT, D. 

1982 Gynogenesis caused by ultra violet irradiation of salmonid sperm. Journal of 
Experimental Zoology 223: 175-182. 
CHOYNOWSKI, J. 

1936 Na marginesie metod technicznych polowu szczupaka. Wedka do wleczenia 
czy normalny zestaw reczny jako narzedzie polowu sportowego na wielkich 
wodach nizinnych. [Comments on pike fishing methods. Rod or normal set 
for sport catches of pike in lowland waters.] Wiadomosci Wedkarskie 
4(6):62-75 and (7):77-79. 
CHRISTENSEN, K. E. 

1959 Evaluation of fish management procedures. Test of the effects of increased 
si/e limits on black bass and northern pike. Michigan Department of Conser- 
vation, Dingell-Johnson Report F-12-R-1, Job 3. 



64 



1960a Evaluation of fish management procedures. Test of the effects o\' protective 
regulations for northern pike. Michigan Department of Conservation, 
Dingell-Johnson Report F-12-R-2, Job 1. 

1960b Evaluation of fish management procedures. Test of the effects of increased 
size limits on black bass and northern pike. Michigan Department of Conser- 
vation, Dingell-Johnson Report F-12-R-2, Job 3. 

1961a Evaluation of fish management procedures. Test of the effects of protective 
regulations for northern pike. Michigan Department of Conservation, 
Dingell-Johnson Report F-12-R-3, Job 1. 

1961b Evaluation of fish management procedures. Test of the effects of increased 
size limits on black bass and northern pike. Michigan Department of Conser- 
vation, Dingell-Johnson Report F-12-R-3, Job 3. 

1961c Evaluation of fish management procedures. Test of the effects of several 
management practices on a group of lakes. Michigan Department of Conser- 
vation, Dingell-Johnson Report F-12-R-3, Job 5. 

1962a Evaluation of fish management procedures. Tests of the effects of protective 
regulations for northern pike. Michigan Department of Conservation, 
Dingell-Johnson Report F-12-R-4, Job 1. 

1962b Evaluation of fish management procedures. Tests of the effects of increased 
size limits on black bass and northern pike. Michigan Department of Conser- 
vation, Dingell-Johnson Report F-12-R-4, Job 3. 

1962c Evaluation of fish management procedures. Test of the effects of several 
management practices on a group of lakes. Michigan Department of Conser- 
vation, Dingell-Johnson Report F-12-R-4, Job 5. 
CHRISTENSEN, K. E. and J. E. WILLIAMS 

1969 Status of the northern pike population in Fletcher Floodwater, Alpena and 
Montmorency counties, 1948 and 1955-1956. Michigan Department of Con- 
servation, Institute of Fisheries Research, Report 1576:1-13. 
CHRISTENSON, L. M. 

1957 Some characteristics of the fish populations in backwater areas of the Upper 
Mississippi River. M.S. thesis, University of Minnesota. 125 pp. 
CHRISTENSON, L. M. and L. L. SMITH 

1965 Characteristics of fish populations in upper Mississippi River backwater 
areas. U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Circular 212:1-53. 
CHRISTIANSEN. D.G. 

1976 Feeding and behavior of northern pike (Esox lucius Linnaeus). M.Sc. thesis. 
University of Alberta. 302 pp. 

The growth, feeding, and predatory and social behavior of pike in Kakisa 
Lake, Northwest Territories, were examined during the summers of 1973 and 
1974. Food deprivation increased aggressiveness and decreased activity and 
social tolerance of pike. 
CHUBB, J. C. 

1963a Seasonal occurrence and maturation of Triaenophorus nodulosus (Pallas, 
1781) (Cestode: Pseudophyllidae) in the pike Esox lucius L. of Llyn Tegid. 
Parasitology 53:419-433. 

1963b Observations on the occurrence of the plerocercoids of Triaenophorus nodu- 
losus (Pallas, 1781) (Cestoda:Pseudophyllidea) in the perch, Perca fluviatilis 
L. of Llyn Tegid (Bala Lake), Merionethshire. Parasitology 54:481-492. 



65 



Mature plerocercoids form the reservoir of infection for the definitive host of 

T. nodulosus, the pike. 
1963c On the characteristization of the parasite fauna of the fish of Llyn Tegid. 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 141:609-621. 

The relationship of the parasite fauna to the environment is discussed. It is 

proposed that the parasites of pike are the eutrophic element of the parasite 

fauna. 
1968 Tapeworms of the genus Diphyllobothriwn in the British Isles. Parasitology 

58(4):22. 
CHUMAKOV, K. A. 

1963 Povedenie ryb pri navodnenii. [Behavior of fish during a flood]. Prioroda 
52(10):91. 

During August floods on the Ugra River it was noted that small fish aban- 
doned the river channel in favour of floodplain shallows, in which the supply 
of food was more abundant. Larger carnivores such as pike soon followed 
this displacement of their prey. 
CHURCHILL, W. and H. SNOW 

1964 Characteristics of the sport fishery in some northern Wisconsin lakes. 
Wisconsin Conservation Department, Technical Bulletin 32:1-46. 
Outlines conclusions for the guidance of anglers, managers, and planners in 
Wisconsin, on the assumption that the findings on these lakes are generally 
true throughout the northern United States. 

CHURCHILL, W. S. 

1961 Warm water fishery research. Five Lakes studies. Study of a newly esta- 
blished northern pike population in Escanaba Lake. Wisconsin Conservation 
Department. Dingell-Johnson Report F-61-R-l/Wk.P1.4/Job G. 

1962 Warm water fishery research. Five Lakes studies. Study of a newly esta- 
blished northern pike population in Escanaba Lake. Wisconsin Conservation 
Department, Dingell-Johnson Report F-61-R-2/Wk.P1.5/Job G. 

CIEPIELEWSKI, W. 

1970 Wzrost jednolatkow szczupaka (Eso.x lucius L.) w jeziorach przyduchowych. 
[Growth of one-year pike (Eso.x lucius L.) in winterkill lakes]. Roczniki 
Nauk Rolniczych Ser.H, 92:53-66. 

Significant variability of body length within a population of one-year-old pike 
inhabiting similar conditions. 

1973 Eksperymentalnie powiekszone poglowie ryb w stawowym jeziorze Warniak. 
3. Biomasa i produkcja szczupaka Eso.x lucius L. [Experimentally increased 
fish stock in the pond type Lake Warniak, Poland. Part 3. Biomass and pro- 
duction of pike Eso.x lucius L.] Ekologia Polska 2 1 :445-463. 

1981 Population of pike (Eso.x lucius L.) in pond type Lake Warniak in 1969-1978. 
Ecologia Polska 29:35-51. [in English, Polish summary] 
Information on maximum and minimum catches, mean weight, and average 
age of individuals, population size, sex ratio, biomass, and production ranges 
CIHAR,J. 

1955 Systematical and biological notes on the pike (Eso.x lucius L.). Universitas 
Carolina, Biologica 1:1-18. 

Measurements were made on 68 pike 113-421 mm in length to determine 
what proportional relations of the body change with change in size. In young 



66 



fish (1 13-220 mm) length increases taster than weight; the opposite occurs in 
older fish. The pike ted on fish and invertebrates. 

1956 Contribution to the knowledge of the early development of the pike (Esox 
lucius L.). Universitas Carolina, Biologica, 2: 1-12. 

Postembryonic development of pike from hatching of the eggs to location and 

order of the appearance of the first scales is described in detail. A graph of 

the growth rate is included. 
1961 Rust ryb ve Slapske udolni nadrzi v r. 1959. Sbornik Ceskoslovenske Aka- 

demie Zemedelskych Ved 6(4) 
CIRCLE, H. 

n.d. Northern pike Esox lucius L. Heddon Fish Flashes mimeo release 54G. 

Mentions the thrill of pike angling, reproduction, distribution, world record 

for weight, food, and suitable tackle. 
CLARK. C. F. 

1950 Observations on the spawning habits of the northern pike, Esox lucius, in 

northwestern Ohio. Copeia 1950:285-288. 

Observations made at a hatchery pond, at Nettle Lake, and at several streams. 

Descriptions of migration, water conditions, bottom, numbers of adults, 

spawning activities, and attachment sites and hatching conditions of eggs. 

1957 Observations on the growth of the northern pike, Esox lucius L., in East Har- 
bor, Ohio. Unpublished MS, 9 pp. 

1958 Northern pike, Esox lucius Linnaeus. Prepared for the U.S. National 
Academy of Science - National Research Council. Unpublished MS. 
General information on taxonomy, common names, distribution, morphology, 
colouration, growth, maturity, life span, assocated species, fecundity, 
development, diseases and parasites, movement, predation, value and repro- 
duction, presented in tabular form. Differences between pike populations 
from Canada and USA were considered. 

1960 Lake St. Marys and its management. Ohio Department of Natural Resources, 
Division of Wildlife, p. 56. 

An account of the introduction of pike into Lake St. Marys from 1951 through 
1955: the success cannot yet be determined. 

CLARK. C. F. and E. D. NOW 
.1954 Experimental propagation of northern pike at the St. Marys Fish Farm. Ohio 
Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife, Fish Management 
Section Investigational Report 1:1-9. 

Jar hatchery experiments involved varying fertilization and processing 
methods. Breeders were raised at this farm and from two natural locations in 
Ohio. 
1955 Operation northern pike. Ohio Conservation Bulletin 19(3):4-5, 26-28. 

Artificial propagation in Ohio involved trapping and stripping breeders, vari- 
ous fertilization and incubation techniques, problems threatening egg and fry 
survival, and maintenance. Description of hatching process and natural pro- 
pagation. 

CLARK, C. F. and F. STEINBACH 

1959 Observations on the age and growth of the northern pike, Esox lucius L., in 
East Harbor, Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science 59(3): 129-134. 

Scale samples from 688 pike were taken in March in the years 1951 to 1953. 
Growth was calculated on the assumption of direct proportion between scale 

67 



measurements and lengths of the fish at time of annulus formation. Informa- 
tion on growth rates, calculated annual increments, calculated growth, and 
life span is provided. 

CLARK, E. R. and J. A. L. FRASER 

1983 The survival and growth of six species of freshwater fish in tapwater and 
diluted and undiluted effluent from sewage percolating filters. Journal of Fish 
Biology 22:431-445. 

CLARK, G. 

1955 Game fish in Canada. Ottawa, Canadian Government Travel Bureau. 28 pp. 
CLARK, J. (1) 

1 908 An annotated list of Cornish fishes. Zoologist, Ser.4, 1 2: 1 3-29. 

The pike was introducted into a pond near Truro, but it died out or was exter- 
minated many years ago. 
CLARK, J. (2) 

1972a Northern pike behavior. U.S. Marine and Fisheries Service, End of Segment 
Report, Project 6-1 1-D, Segment 14, Job 1: 1-24. 

Pike feeding, cannibalistic, and aggressive behaviors were investigated, 
described, and were shown to be specialized and adaptive. 

1972b Suitability of various non-piscivorous diets for fingerling northern pike. U.S. 
Marine and Fisheries Service, Project Completion Report, Project 6-1 1-D, 
Segment 14, Job 3: 1-6. 

Report of an attempt to provide pike with a non-piscivorous diet that could be 
easily provided. 
CLARK, J. H. 

1974 Variability of northern pike pond culture production. M.S. thesis, Colorado 
State University. 40 pp. 

1975 Management evaluation of stocked northern pike in Colorado's small plains 
reservoirs. Ph.D. thesis, Colorado State University. 74 pp. 

Two size groups (50 mm and 377 mm) were stocked into 22 reservoirs, the 
smaller pike at a density of 62/ha and larger at 25/ha. Success rate and costs 
were compared and factors influencing success evaluated. Few statistical 
differences were seen in resident fish populations and sizes of individuals 
before and within a year of stocking. 
CLARK, T. L. 

1975 Rearing of walleye and tiger muskellunge at the Corry /Union City Fish Cul- 
tural Stations in 1975. Proceedings 7th Interstate Musky Workshop, La 
Crosse, 1975, pp. 60-67 [mimeo]. 

Describes the rearing facilities and techniques used at the Corry and Union 

City hatcheries. 
CLARKE, C. H. D. 

1940 A biological investigation of the Thelon Game Sanctuary. Bulletin of the 

National Museum of Canada, Fishes, 96:1 12-117. 
CLEARY, R. E. 

1956 The distribution of the fishes of Iowa. In Harlan, J. R., and E. B. Speaker, 
eds., Iowa fish and fishing, 3rd ed. Iowa Conservation Commission, pp. 
267-324. 

CLEERE, W. F., S. BREE and M. P. COUGHLAN 

1976 Urate oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase activities in liver extracts from 



68 



fish caught in Irish waters. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 
MB: 117. 

CLEMENS. W. A., R. V. BOUGHTON and J. A. RATTENBURY 

1945 A preliminary report on a tisheries survey of Teslin Lake, B.C. British 
Columbia Provincial Fisheries Department, Report for 1944, pp. 70-75. 

CLEMENS, W. A., J. R. DYMOND and N. K. BIGELOW 

1924 Food studies of Lake Nipigon fishes. University of Toronto Studies, Biology 
Series No. 25, Publication of the Ontario Fisheries Research Laboratory 
25:101-165. 

Ten species of fish were found in the 23 stomachs that contained food. Rela- 
tively small numbers of pike were taken in commercial gill nets and mark- 
eted, but demand was increasing. 

CLERX.J. P.M. 

1978 Studies on pike fry rhabdovirus and the immunoglobulin of pike (Esox 
lucius). Ph.D. thesis, University of Utrecht. 

CLERX. J. P. M.. A. CASTEL, J. F. BOL and G. J. GERWIG 

1980 Isolation and characterization of the immunoglobulin of pike Esox Indus. 
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 1:125-144. 

CLINTON. D. 

1815 Some remarks on the fishes of the western waters of the State of New York in 
a letter to S. L. Mitchell, M.D. Transactions of the Literature and Philosophy 
Society of New York (1814) 1:493-501. 

"Pike or pickerel, weighing from three to twelve pounds, are taken in great 
numbers in the lakes, and as high up as the whirlpool, in the Niagara River; 
their bodies are long, and nearly round; their flesh somewhat soft, but fat, and 
much esteemed when boiled; they are not good when dried or salted." 

COAD, B. W. 

1978 Poisonous and venomous fresh water fishes of Iran. Pahlavi Medical Journal 
9:388-407. 

COBLE. D. 

1973 Influence of appearance of prey and satiation of predator in food selection by 
northern pike (Esox lucius). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of 
Canada 30:317-320. 

Pike were put in tanks with fantail and regular-tail goldfish (Carassius 
auratus) or with goldfish of different colors. Physical appearance of prey did 
not affect feeding. In plastic pools four species of fish were exposed to pre- 
dation by pike that were satiated or deprived of food for either 2 or 4 weeks. 
Pike always selected carp (Cyprinus carpio) and fathead minnow 
(Pimephales promelas) over green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) and bluegill 
(Lepomis macrochirus). 

COCKERELL.T. DA. 

1913 Observations on fish scales. U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, Bulletin 32:1-174. 

Used individuals from Toledo, Ohio, to describe superficial characteristics of 
scales. 

COHEN-SOLAL, L., M. LE LOUS, J. C. ALLAIN and F. MEUNIER 

1981 Absence of maturation of collagen cross links in fish skin. Federation of 
European Biochemical Societies, Letters 123:282-284. 



69 



COLAS, H. 

1937 Das vorstrecken der Hechte. Fischerei Zeitung 40:517-521. 

1938 Das vorstrecken der Hechte. Fischerei Zeitung 41:473-475. 
COLE, W. D. 

1967 Statewide fisheries survey. Determination of conditions under which north- 
ern pike spawn naturally in Kansas reservoirs. Kansas Forestry, Fish and 
Game Commission, Dingell-Johnson Report F-15-R-2/Wk.Pl.C/Job 3:1-10. 
COLORADO DIVISION OF WILDLIFE 

1974 The strategy of today, for wildlife tomorrow. Volume 1: A strategic plan for 
the comprehensive management of Colorado's wildlife resource. Colorado 
Division of Wildlife, Report FW-10-R:l-46. 

Outline of projected supply and demand for angling coolwater species, 
including pike. 
CONNECTICUT BOARD OF FISHERIES AND GAME 

1959 A fishery survey of the lakes and ponds of Connecticut. Connecticut Board 
of Fisheries and Game, Lake and Pond Survey Unit, Report 1, Project F-4- 
R: 1-395. 
CONSEIL SUPERIEUR DE LA PECHE 

1976 Results des experimentations faites a Chauvineau en 1976. Region piscicole 
de Poitiers. [Results of experiments conducted at Chauvineau in 1976, fish 
culture region of Poitiers]. Bulletin dTnformation Conseil Superieur de la 
Peche 105:91-104. 
COOK, K. D. 

1978 Non-native predator fish development. Evaluation of non-native fish intro- 
ductions (northern pike). Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation, 
Project F-21-D-13/Job 2:1-1 1. 

The project monitored survival, growth, reproduction, and fisherman harvest 
of pike fingerlings introduced into four Oklahoma lakes. Each year for 3 
years, fingerlings were stocked at various rates. Very little survival was 
found at any lake. 
COOK, M. 

1985a Where are the pike in Eleven Mile? Colorado Outdoors 34(3 ):6-8. 

1985b How to debone a pike. Colorado Outdoors 34(4): 10-11. 
COOK, M. F. and E. P. BERGERSEN 

n.d. Movements of northern pike in Eleven Mile Reservoir, Colorado. Colorado 
State University, unpublished MS, 1 1 pp. 

Movements and habitat selected by pike were observed by using ultrasonic 
telemetry from May 1983 to October 1984. 
COOPER, G. P. 

1941 A biological survey of lakes and ponds of the Androscoggin and Kennebec 
River drainage systems in Maine. Maine Department of Inland Fish and 
Game, Fisheries Survey Report 4:7-238. 

1951 Estimation of fish populations in Michigan lakes. Transactions of the Ameri- 
can Fisheries Society 81:4-16. 

Fish population estimates, using trap nets in the Petersen mark-and-recapture 
procedure were made in 1948-50 on Sugarloaf Lake in Washtenaw County 
and during' 1950 on Fife Lake in Grand Traverse County. Pike is listed as an 
important fish species. 



70 



COOPER. G. P. and W. C. LATTA 

1954 Further studies on the fish population and exploitation by angling in Sugarloaf 
Lake. Washtenaw County, Michigan. Papers of the Michigan Academy of 
Science, Arts, and Letters 39:209-223. 
A continuation of the study conducted in 1949-5 1 . 

COOPER. G. P. and R. N. SCHAFER 

1954 Studies on the population of legal-size fish in Whitmore Lake, Washtenaw 
and Livingstone Counties, Michigan. Transactions of the North American 
Wildlife Conference 19:239-258. 

COOPER. G. P. and G. N. WASHBURN 

1949 Relation of dissolved oxygen to winter mortality of fish in Michigan lakes. 
Transactions of the American Fisheries Soeiety 76:23-33. 
A study of the effect of different degrees of oxygen depletion on the extent of 
mortality and survival of several common species of fishes in 1 1 lakes. There 
was a high survival rate of pike even in lakes where the oxygen was reduced 
to 0.3 or 0.2 ppm. 

COOPER. J. L. 

1971 The northern pike in Fort Peck Reservoir, Montana. Proceedings of the Mon- 
tana Academy of Science 3 1 :53-6 1 . 

COPE. E. D. 

1864 Partial catalogue of the cold-blooded vertebrata of Michigan. Proceedings of 
the Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia, 16:276-285. 

1865 Partial catalogue of the cold-blooded vertebrata of Michigan. Part 2. 
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia, 17:78-88. 

1 869 Supplementary synopsis of the Esoces of middle North America. Transac- 
tions of the American Philosophical Society 13:407-410. 

A definition and description of each of six species of Esox that were con- 
sidered to exist in North America at that time. 

1870 Partial synopsis of the fresh-water fishes of North Carolina. Proceedings of 
the American Philosophical Society 9:448-495. 

1877 Partial synopsis of the freshwater fishes of North Carolina. 2nd ed. Reprint 
of an article first published in Proceedings of the American Philosophical 
Society, June 1870. 
COPELAND.J. 

1975 Diet and nutrition of northern pike and tiger musky - visceral fat content on 
various diets and 'green' liver problems. Proceedings 7th Interstate Musky 
Workshop, La Crosse, 1975, pp. 36-40, [mimeo.] 
COPLAND, W. O. 

1956 Notes on the food and parasites of pike (Esox Indus) in Loch Lomond. Glas- 
gow Naturalist 17:230-235. 

A report of the stomach contents of 102 pike; the food of small pike (<20 cm) 
is considered separately from that of large pike (>20 cm). Pike were found to 
be infected with two species of parasitic helminth. 
CORBIN.G. B. 

1 873 Voracity of pike. Zoologist, Ser 2, 8:36 1 7. 

Describes two incidents of cannibalism in adult pike. Each predator 
attempted to consume an animal similar to its own size. 



71 



CORDIER,G. 

1959 Research on the concentration of cardiac glycogen in fresh-water fish. Com- 
parison with marine fish. Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de 
Biologie et de ses Filiales 153:435-437. 

CORKUM. L. D. and P. J. MCCART 

1981 A review of the fisheries of the Mackenzie Delta and nearshore Beaufort Sea, 
Canada. Canadian Manuscript Report, Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 
1613:1-55. 

CORNELL, J. H. 

1968 How fish reproduce. Wildlife North Dakota 32(10):8-9, (1 1):20-22. 
COSTEA, E. and V. CURE 

1971 Hydrobiological and ichthyological studies on the coastal lakes Tasaul and 
Gargalic in view of their use for fish management. Buletinul de Cercetari Pis- 
cicole 30:1 17-151. 
COULLOUDON, J. 

1960 Etiquetage d'esocides au moyen d'injections de latex liquide colore. Quebec 
Ministere du Chasse et des Pecheries, Journal du Bord 3(66):558-560 
Explains a method of marking muskellunge and pike with red- and blue- 
coloured latex injections. 

COURTEMANCHE, A. 

1954 The natural fecundity of the pike of Lake Munroe. Ephemerides of the Que- 
bec Biological Bureau 1:29-30. 

A pond on the edge of Lake Munroe was calculated to contain a minimum of 
two million pike fry. 
COWARD, T. A. 

1914 Faunal survey of Rostherne Mere. II. Vertebrata. Manchester Memoir 68. 
COX, P. 

1899 Fresh water fishes and batrachia of the peninsula of Gaspe, P.Q., and their 
distribution in the Maritime provinces of Canada. Transactions of the Royal 
Society of Canada Ser.2, 5:141-151. 
CRABTREE,J. E. 

1969 Region 1A fisheries studies. Walleye and northern pike study. Texas Parks 
and Wildlife Department, Dingell-Johnson Project F-7-R-17, Job 17:1-12. 
Results regarding stocked pike in Greenbelt Lake, Texas, includes length and 
weight, stomach content analysis, and spawning success. 

CRAGG-HINE, D. 

1966 Age determination in coarse fish. In Jones, J. W., and P. H. Tombleson, eds. 

Proceedings of the 2nd British Coarse Fish Conference, Liverpool, 1965, pp. 

3-6. 
CRAIG, J. F. and C. KIPLING 

1983 Reproduction effort versus the environment; case histories of Windermere 

perch, Perca fluviatilis L. and pike, Esox lucius L. Journal of Fish Biology 

22:713-727. ' 

The theoretical limits of net reproduction rates for pike were estimated from 

the upper and lower limits of fecundity, growth, mortality, age of maturity, 

and biomass of parental stock observed in Windermere, over 40 years. 
CRAIK,J.C. A. 

1982 Levels of phosphoprotein in the eggs and ovaries of some fish species. Com- 
parative Biochemistry and Physiology 72B:507-510. 

72 



CREICHTON.J.G. A. 

1892 The landlocked salmon or Wananishe. /// American game fishes. Their 

habits, habitat, and peculiarities: how, when and where to angle for them, pp. 

81-110. 
CROOKS, S. 

1972 Water level fluctuations and yellow pickerel, northern pike and lake whitefish 

in Lac Seul. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Internal Report, 33 pp. 

An investigation was begun in 1968 to determine whether yearly water level 

fluctuations of Lac Seul were effecting a reported decrease in abundance of 

several species o( fish, including pike. No relationships were found. 
CROSS. F. B. 

1967 Handbook of fishes of Kansas. University of Kansas, Museum of Natural 

History, Miscellaneous Publication 45. 357 pp. 

A pond on the edge of Lake Munroe was calculated to contain a minimum of 

two million pike fry. 
CROSSMAN. E. J. 

1959 Hook in stomach of living pike. Ontario Department of Lands and Forests 
News Release 12(1 ). 

A pike lived and had a gut filled with food in spite of a rusted hook which 
passed through the intestinal wall and was imbedded in the liver. 

1960 Variation in number and asymmetry in branchiostegal rays in the family Eso- 
cidae. Canadian Journal of Zoology 38:363-375. 

Counts of the number of branchiostegal rays on each hyoid segment may 

prove more useful as distinguishing characteristics than total counts now in 

use. 
1962a Black-spot parasite in fishes. Royal Ontario Museum, Department of Ichthy- 
ology and Herpetology, Information Leaflet, 4 pp. 

Lists some common parasites infecting the pike. 
1962b Predator-prey relationships in pikes (Esocidae). Journal of the Fisheries 

Research Board of Canada 19:979-980. 

In pike the selection of prey corresponded closely to relative abundance or 

availability of the prey species. 
1965 Hybridization in the family Esocidae. Journal of the Fisheries Research 

Board of Canada 22: 1 26 1 - 1 292. 
1971 Pike. Related forms and history. Appendix 2. /// Buller, F. Pike. London, 

Macdonald, pp. 292-307. 

Provides general information on the various species which, with the pike, 

comprise the suborder Esocoidei and compares the pike in the Old and New 

Worlds. 
1978 Taxonomy and distribution of North American esocids. American Fisheries 

Society Special Publication 1 1:13-26. 

Changes in taxonomic concepts of the family and species are traced. The 

present distribution of each species is given in detail, and suggestions are 

made concerning their distributions in the past and future. 
1979a Piking in North America. Pike Angler's Club, Magazine No. 5:7-9. 

Compares the popularity of pike angling to muskellunge angling and the 

nature of organizations devoted to each. 
1979b The record of the age of your pike. Pike Angler's Club, Magazine No. 

5:9-11. 

73 



Description and appraisal of the various methods using bony parts to deter- 
mine age. Advice on handling, mounting, and magnification of scales. 
1984 Problems in pike encountered by anglers - black spot and red sore or red 
disease. Muskies Canada Newsletter 6(9): 12-1 6. 

Discussion of Lymphosarcoma, trematode metacercaria. and bacterial 
diseases of the pike and their effects on angled pike. This same item 
appeared verbatim in: 1985. Pikelines No. 28:29-30. 

CROSSMAN, E. J. and K. BUSS 

1965 Hybridization in the family Esocidae. Journal of the Fisheries Research 
Board of Canada 22: 1 26 1 - 1 292. 

Of 1 1 possible hybrids of species in the family Esocidae. six were known 
from nature, and they are reviewed. The occurrence of a seventh is recorded. 
Of 22 possible reciprocal combinations of these species, five were previously 
known, five are still unknown, and 12 are newly described. 

CROSSMAN, E. J. and J. M. CASSELMAN 

1969 Identification of northern pike and muskellunge from axial skeletons, scales, 
and epipleurals. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 
26:175-178. 

Grooves and knobs on the vertebrae, ratio of length and width of scales, and 
ratio of lengths of rami of epipleural bones were used to separate pike and 
muskellunge in mutilated specimens, stomach contents, and archaeological 
material. 
CROSSMAN, E. J. and C. R. HARINGTON 

1970 Pleistocene pike, Esox lucius, and Esox sp., from the Yukon Territory and 
Ontario. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 7:1 130-1 138. 

Two fish dentaries from Pleistocene deposits in the Old Crow area are refer- 
able to pike. They provide the first definite fossil record of the species for 
North America. 

CROSSMAN, E. J. and J. W. MEADE 

1977 Artificial hybrids between Amur pike Esox reicherti and North American eso- 
cids. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 34:2338-2343. 
Artificial hybrids between Esox reicherti, the only species in the family Eso- 
cidae that does not occur naturally in North America, and North American 
esocids were developed. Five of a possible 10 crosses are described in detail. 

CRUEA, D. D. 

1969 Some chemical and physical characteristics of fish sperm. Transactions of the 
American Fisheries Society 98:785-788. 

The concentration of some elements and compounds found in the seminal 
fluids of various fishes were determined by atomic absorption spectrophot- 
metry and ultra-microbiochemical analyses. Histological studies showed the 
presence of several types of abnormalities. These abnormalities were 
categorized as primary or secondary on the basis of possible detriment to 
reproductive function, as observed with bovine spermatozoa. 

CSANDA, D. 

1981 Gigantic Great Lakes pike. In-Fisherman 39:79-84. 

Angler's advice on locating pike in summer and fall, techniques, and gear. 

CSANDA, D. and T. PORTINCASO 

1981 Moose Country pike. In-Fisherman 35:98-109. 

A technique for catching pike in spring, based on behaviour patterns. 

74 



CSENGO, N. 

1914 Acsuka fejvazarol. Allattani Kozlemenyek 13:107-127. 
CUERRIER, J. L. and A. COURTEMANCHE 

1 954 Fish diets and growth. Ephemerides of the Quebec Biology Bureau 1(1). 
CUERRIER. J. P. 

1962 Inventaire biologique des poissons et des pecheries de la region du lac Saint- 
Pierre. Le Naturaliste Canadien 89(6-7): 1 93-2 14. 
CUERRIER. J. P., F. E. J. FRY and G. PREFONTAINE 

1946 Preliminary list of the fishes of the region of Montreal and Lake St. Peter. Le 
Naturaliste Canadien 73:17-32. 
CUERRIER. J. P. and J. C. WARD 

1952 Analysis of creel census cards received from Prairie National Parks during 
1951 angling season. Canadian Wildlife Service, Game Fish Creel Census, 
19 pp. 

1953 Game fish creel census, 1952 season. Canada's Prairie National Parks. 
Canadian Wildlife Service, Game Fish Creel Census, 18 pp. 

1954 Analysis of creel census cards received from Prairie National Parks during 
1953 angling season. Canadian Wildlife Service, Game Fish Creel Census. 

CULL. J. L. 

1934 The 'lunge, pike and pickerel. Rod and Gun in Canada 35( 10):27— 28. 
CUNNINGHAM, C. R., J. F. CRAIG and W. C. MACKAY 

1983 Some experiments with an automatic grid antenna radio system for tracking 
freshwater fish. In Pincock, D. G., ed., Proceedings of the 4th International 
Conference on Wildlife biotelemetry, 1983. Halifax, Applied Microelectron- 
ics Institute and Technical University of Nova Scotia, pp. 135-149. 
CUPPY, W. 

The pike. In How to become extinct. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 
pp. 31-32. 
CUVIER, G. 

1910 Vorlesungen uber vergleichende Anatomic Uebers von J. F. Meckel, Teil 
III, Verdauungsorgane. 
CUVIER, M. B. and M. A. VALENCIENNES 

1846 Histoire naturelle des poissons. Vol. 18. Paris, P. Bertrand. 505 pp. 
CVANCARA, V. and C. PONTO 

1981 Current references in fish research. Vol. 6. University of Wisconsin-Eau 
Claire, 204 pp. 

Contains 3,490 titles of papers published in over 300 different scientific jour- 
nals in 1981. 
CVANCARA, V. A. 

1969 Distribution of liver allantoinase and allantoicase activity in fresh-water 
teleosts. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 29:631-638. 

1977 Current references in fish research. Vol. 2. University of Wisconsin-Eau 
Claire. 108 pp. 

1978 Current references in fish research. Vol. 3. University of Wisconsin-Eau 
Claire, 122 pp. 

Titles of fish papers published during 1977 in more than 130 different 
scientific journals. 

1979 Current references in fish research. Vol. 4. University of Wisconsin Fan 
Claire, 150 pp. 

75 



Nearly 3,000 titles taken from over 300 different scientific journals published 

during 1979. 
1980 Current references in fish research. Vol. 5. University of Wisconsin-Eau 

Claire, 166 pp. 

Titles were taken from over 300 different scientific journals published in 

1980. 
CVANCARA, V. A. and W. HUANG 

1978 Tissue alkaline phosphatase EC-3. 1.3.1 activitiy in selected fresh water 

teleosts. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. B. Comparative 

Biochemistry 60:221-224. 

Liver alkaline phosphatase activity expressed in gram of protein was 16.26 

for pike. 
CVANCARA, V. A. and L. P. PAULUS 

1976 Current references in fish research. University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, 78 
pp. 

Over 1,100 titles of fish research published in 144 different scientific journals 
during 1976. 
CVANCARA, V. A., S. F. STIEBER and B. A. CVANCARA 

1977 Summer temperature tolerance of selected species of Mississippi River 
acclimated young of the year fishes. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiol- 
ogy. A. Comparative Physiology 56:81-85. 

Under the experimental conditions described, LD (50) values for pike were 

30.8 C. 
CZAPIK, A. 

1961 Szczupak (Eso.x lucius L.). [The pike {Esox lucius L.).] Wszechswiat 

11:282. 

Possibilities of breeding juvenile pike in an aquarium. 
CZAPLICKI, J. 

1964 Sportowy polow szczupaka. [Sport catches of pike.] Wiadomosci Wedkar- 

skie 3:12-15. 

Comments on fish behaviour and proper methods of pike catches. 
CZELZUGA, B. 

1977 Carotenoids in fish. Part 18. Carotenoids in the brain of some fishes. Folia 
Histochemica et Cytochemica 15:343-346. 

1978 Karotenoidy u ryb. 9. Esox lucius (L.). [Carotenoids in fish. 9. Esox lucius 
(L.)]. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczyck 99:55-62. 

Extracts were separated by column and thin-layer chromatography. Caro- 
tenoids from the eggs, skin, gills, muscles, liver, and intestines were 
identified. Astaxanthin was the dominant carotenoid in all parts of the body 
(48.5-94.7%). 



76 



DABROWSKI. J. 

1961 Badania nad unaczynieniem powierzchni skrzelowych szczupaka i karpia. 
[Research on the vascularity of the surface of pike and carp gills.] Zeszyt) 
Naukowe Wyzszej Szkoly Rolniczej w Olsztynie I l(106):97-126. 
Morpholog) of the blood system in gills. 
DABROWSKI K. R. 

1982 The influence o\' light intensity on feeding of fish larvae and fry. I. Core- 
gonus pollan (Thompson) and Esox lucius (L.). Zoologische Jahrbuecher 
Abteilung fuer Systematik Dekologie und Geographie derTiere 86:341-351. 
DABROWSKI, T. and \1. SALACK1 

1964 Badania technologiczne nad wielkoscia masy jajnikow szczupaka jako 
surowca rybnego. [Technological studies on the weight of pike ovaries 
treated as raw material. | Zeszyty Naukowe Wyzszej Szkoly Rolniczej w 
Olsztynie I8(3):305-314. 

Studies and observations on the obtained mass of pike eggs during pike fillet- 
ing, and an estimation of its possible use on a national scale. 

1965 Wydajnosc ikry szczupaka / jezior woj olsztynakiego. [Pike fecundity in 
lakes of Olsztyn district.] Gospodarka Rybna 17(2):18-19. 
Observations on the amount of eggs obtained during pike filleting and an esti- 
mation of the amount of eggs it would be possible to obtain on a national 
seale for consumption purposes. 

DAHL. J. 

1961 Alder og vaskst hos danske og svenske brakvandsgedder. Et bidrag til distus- 
sionem om genetableringen og den danske bestand of brakvandsgedder efter 
saltvands katastrofen: 1951. Ferskvandesgedder efter saltvands katastrofen i 
1951. Ferskvandsrisk 59(2):34-38. 

DALL. W. H. 

1870 The food fishes of Alaska. Report of the U.S. Commissioner of Agrieulture 
for 1870. pp. 375-392. 

DANR RAT. J. 

n.d. Embryonic development of trout (Salmo trutta L.), pike. (Esox lucius L.) and 
roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) in waterless environment. [Translated from Polish |. 
U.S. Department of Commerce, Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and 
Technical Information. Springfield, VA. 

DANILCHENKO, O. P. 

1982 A comparison of the reaction of fish embryos and prolarvae to certain natural 
factors and synthesized compounds. Journal of Ichthyology 22: 1 23-1 34. 
Pike was one of four species studied. The reaction of embryos and prolarvae 
to solutions of natural compounds was of an adaptive nature, while their reac- 
tion to synthesized compounds showed merely tolerance. 

DANIL'CHENKO, O. P. and N. S. STROGANOV 

1975 Evaluation of toxicity to the early onotogeny of fishes of substances 
discharged into a body of water. Journal of Ichthyology 1 5:3 I 1-319. 
The effect of several antiseptics on the embryonic and early postembi vonic 
development of several freshwater teleost fishes, including pike, was investi- 
gated. The degree of toxicity of the substances was assessed from their 
influence on the eaiiv development of these fishes. 



77 



DANILENKO. T. P. 

1 983 The reproductive cycle of the pike Eso.x lucius L. in the Kanev Reservoir. 
Hydrobiological Journal l8(4):21-27. 

Data on sexual maturation of male and female pike from various /ones of the 
Kanev Reservoir are presented. 

DAUPHIN. R. 

1983 Sur un exemple de grossissement de brochetons dans une Federation depar- 
tementale d'Association de Peche et de Pisciculture. In Billard, R., ed., Le 
brochet gestion dans le milieu naturel et elevage. Paris, Institute National de 
la Recherche Agronomique, pp. 209-213. 

Fry are reared in small ponds 2,200 to 4,500 sq.m. Number of fry released 
varies from 8 to 13 individuals/sq.m. and number of juveniles recovered 
varies between 5 and 20% after 7 to 1 I weeks of rearing. 

DAVIES. E. 

1966 The parasites of the coarse fishes of the River Lugg. /// Jones, J. W., and P. 
H. Tombleson, eds.. Proceedings 2nd British Coarse Fish Conference, Liver- 
pool. 1965. pp. 94-101. 

DAVIES, E. H. 

1967 Myxosporidian infections in the fish of the River Lugg. Proceedings 3rd Brit- 
ish Coarse Fish Conference, pp. 18-19. 

1968 Rhaphidascarid infections in the fish of the River Lugg, a tributary of the 
River Wye, Herefordshire, England. Parasitology 58:22-23. 

DAVIS. H.S. 

1953 Culture and diseases o\ game fishes. Berkeley, University of California 
Press. 332 pp. 
DAVIS, J. 

1983 Early-season northerns! Angler and Hunter, March 1983, pp. 4-6. 
DAVISON, R. S. D. 

1966 Research and the Angling Association. /// Jones, J. W., and P. H. Tombleson. 
eds. Proceedings of the 2nd British Coarse Fish Conference, Liverpool, 1965, 
pp. 1 15-119. 
DAVISSON.M.T. 

1972 Karyotypes of the Teleost family Esocidae. Journal of the Fisheries Research 
Board of Canada 29:579-582. 

Representatives of all five surviving species of Esocidae were found to have 
karyotypes consisting of 50 acrocentric chromosomes. The karyotype simi- 
larity suggests a cytological basis for the ease of hybridization and shows that 
speciation can occur without karyotypic change. Evolutionary implications 
are discussed. 
DAWH.C.J. 

1970 Neoplasma of blood cell origin in poikilothermic animals; a status summary. 
Bibliothetica Haematologica 36:634-637. 
DAWE, C. J.. W. (i. BANFIELD. R. SONSTEC.ARD. C. W. LEE and H. J. MICHELITCH 

1977 Cylindroid lamella particle complexes and nucleoid intracytoplasmic bodies 
in lymphoma cells of northern pike Eso.x lucius. Progress in Experimental 
Tumor Research 20:166-180. 

Two types of intracytoplasmic structures not previously described in this neo- 
plasm were found in neoplastic cells from a Canadian specimen of malignant 
lymphoma. 

78 



DAWE. C. J.. D. G. SCARPELL1 and S. k. WELI INGS. eds. 

1976 Progress in experimental tumor research. Tumors in Aquatic .Animals Sym- 
posium, Cork, 1974. Basel. Karger, vol. 20. 438 pp. 
DAWSON. L. 

1959 Summary of northern pike production, Valentine Fisheries Station. Nebraska 
Game, Forest, and Parks Commission, 4 pp. |mimeo.| 
DAWSON. V. K. and P. A. GILDERHUS 

1979 Ethyl-P-aminobenzoate (Benzocaine): efficacy as an anesthetic for five 
species of freshwater tish. U.S. Fish and vVildlire Service, Investigations in 
Fish Control 87:1-5. 
DAY, F. 

1884 The fishes of C neat Britain and Ireland, vol. 2. London. Williams and Nor- 
gate. 388 pp. 
bEALTRY.J.T. 

1970 A summer overturn and its effects on the fish fauna oi' an old Yorkshire clay- 
pit pond. Naturalist 915:121-125. 
DEAN, B.C. 

1957 Watershed surveys and management plans. Reconnaissance impoundment 
survey — Switzer Lake, Lake County and Lost Lake. Crawford County. 
Michigan Department of Conservation. Dingell-Johnson Report F-4-R-5/Job 
5/A:l-3. 
DEAN.E. L. 

1975 Aquatic ecology and fisheries in Reindeer Lake. Saskatchewan Department 
of Tourism and Renewable Resources, Churchill River Study. Final Report 
10. 

Data on pike captured with gill nets, seines, and fishing rods included: distri- 
bution and abundance, length, weight, age (assessed by scales and otolith), 
and growth, catch distribution in standard "gangs", and food habits (deter- 
mined by 181 stomachs). 
DEAN.T. 

1982 Big reservoir pike. In-Fisherman 41:130-147. 

Attributes good pike angling in Oahe Reservoir to water level fluctuations, 
creating good spawning grounds; location; and bays. Advice to anglers on 
presentation. 
DEBEER.G. R. 

1937 The development of the vertebrate skull. Oxford University Press. 152 pp. 
Notes on works of early authora. 
DE BOISSET, L. 

1948 Poissons des rivieres de France. Librairie des Champs-Elysees, 1 : 1-237. 
DEBONT, A. F. 

1967 Some aspects of age and growth of fish in temperate and tropical waters. /// 
Gerking. S. D.. ed.. The biological basis of freshwater tish production. IBP 
Symposium, Reading. 1966. pp. 67-88. 
DECHTIAR. A. (). 

1972a Systematic status of Tetraonchus loftusi n. sp. (Monogenoidea: Tetraonchi- 
dae) and comparative studies' of /. monenteron (Wagener, 1857) Diesing, 
1858. and 7. variabilis Mi/.elle and Webb. 1953. Canadian Journal of Zool 
ogy 50:1489-1495. 
Pike is a host species for /. monenteron. The parasite was studied from 

79 



specimens of pike taken from lakes Superior and Huron. 
1972b Parasites of fish from Lake of the Woods, Ontario. Journal of the Fisheries 
Research Board of Canada 29:275-283. 

Results of a survey of the parasite fauna of fish from Lake of the Woods and 
adjacent lakes: 23 pike were examined, 23 were infected. 
DECKER. D. J.. R. A. HOWARD. JR. and W. H. EVERHART 

1978 Identifying members of the pike family found in New York. New York State 
College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Conservation 
Circular 16: 1-7. 

A brief description of distribution, growth, spawning, and feeding habits. 
DE FRE1TAS, A. S. W.. M. A. J. GIDNEY. A. E. MCKINNON and R. J. NORSTROM 

1977 Factors affecting whole body retention of methyl mercury in fish. /// Drucker, 
H., and R. E. Wildung, eds.. Implications of metals in the environment. 15th 
Annual Hanford Life Sciences Symposium, Washington. Symposium Series 
42:441-451. 
DE FREITAS. A. S. W., S. U. QADRI and B. E. CASE 

1974 Origins and fate of mercury compounds in fish. Proceedings of the Interna- 
tional Conference on Transport of Persistent Chemicals in Aquatic Ecosys- 
tems, Ottawa, 1974. 

Comparison of the mercury distribution in tissues from laboratory exposed 
fish with similar data from field studies suggest that environmentally contam- 
inated fish may obtain most of their body burden of methyl mercury by direct 
uptake from water. 
DE JAGER. S., M. E. SMIT-ONEL, J. J. VIDELER, B. J. M. VAN GILS and E. M. UFFINK 
1976 The respiratory area of the gills of some teleost fishes in relation to their 
mode of life. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 46: 199-205. 
DEKAY.J. E. 

1842. Fishes. Part 4. /// Zoology of New-York, or the New York fauna. New York 
Geology Survey, pp. 1-415. 

Mere mention of external features of pike in this early paper. 
DE KINKELIN, P., B. GALIMARD and R. BOOTSMA 

1973 Isolation and identification of the causative agent of "red disease" of pike 
{Esox lucius L. 1766). Nature 241 (5390):465-467. 

Work is described which demonstrates that "red disease" of pike is caused 
by a rhabdovirus. 
DEL CAMPILLO, C. and P. A. PELLITERO 

1973 Ichthypathologic problems in Spain with special reference to trout raising and 
methods for their control. Annali della Facolta di Veterinaria di Leon 
19:65-80. 
DE LIGNY, W. and B. L. VERBOOM 

1968 Bloedgroepenonder/oek bij snoek. [Research on bloodgroups o\' northern 
pike]. Visserij 21:177-179. [in Dutch] 
DEMCENKO. I. 

1970 Vyrascivanije scuki v prudovych chozjajstvach Ukrainy. Trudy Bel- 
lorusskogo Nauchrio-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Rybnogo Chozjajstva 
8:275-282. 
DEMCENKO, I. F. 

1961 Do pitannja rozvadennja scuki u stavsch. Kijev, Naukova praci 14:100-103. 



80 



1962 Biotechnika razvedenija scuki v stavach. Lvov, Knizkovo-zurnalne vidav- 
nictvo, pp. 64-101. 

1963 Stiki pludek pomaha zvysoval vyrobu kapra. Cs. rybarstvi 3:40. 
DEMCHENKO, I. 

1959 Fingerlings of Eso.x lucius in carp Fattening ponds. Rybovodstvi i 
Rhbolovstvo4:14-15. 

The simultaneous breeding o( 2-year-old carp {Cyprinus varpio) and com- 
mercial fingerlings of pike in drainable fattening ponds permits food 
resources o\' ponds to be utilized more fully and gives an additional yield of 
40-60 kg/ha of commercial pike fingerlings. 
DEMCHENKO. I. F. 

1963 On sexual differences in the pike {Eso.x lucius L.). Problems of Ichthyology 
3:190-193. 

Deseribes a method of differentiating sex from the urogenital and anal open- 
ings, with less than 3% error. 
DEMEL. K. 

1933 Wykaz bezkregowcow i ryb Baltyku nas/ego. [Invertebrates and fishes of the 
BalticSea.] Faun. Musei Zool. Pol. 2( 13): 1 21— 1 36. 

A review of species, their habitats and behaviour, as well as the distribution 
of invertebrates and fishes in the Baltic Sea. 
DE MONTALEMBERT. G., C. BRY and R. BILLARD 

1978 Control of reproduction in northern pike. American Fisheries Society Special 
Publication 11:217-225. 

Describes several attempts to control gamete availability in pike, including 
precocious induction of ovulation, high doses of progesterone to induce 
increase of sperm release, and cryopreservation of diluted sperm. 
DE MONTALEMBERT, G., B. JALABERT and C. BRY 

1978 Precocious induction of maturation and ovulation in northern pike {Eso.x 
lucius). Annales de Biologie Animale Biochimie Biophysique 18:969-975. 
The efficiency of partially purified salmon gonadotroph in and human 
chorionic gonadotropin administered alone or in association with a proges- 
tagen was investigated in submature females using the germinal vesicle in 
non-peripheral position as the criterion for initial oocyte stage. 
DE-MONTALEMBERT, G., J. MARCEL and R. BILLARD 

1980 Spermiation in pike. 1. Quantitative evolution of sperm release during the 
reproduction period. Bulletin Francais de Pisciculture 276:90-103. 
DENCE. W. A. 

1938 An unusual feeding incident in the great northern pike {Eso.x lucius). Copeia 
1938:96. 

An account o\' a 25-inch pike that died trying to swallow a 7-inch rock bass 
{Ambloplitcs rupestris). 
DERBACK. B. 

1947 The adverse effect of cold weather upon the successful reproduction of pick- 
erel, Stizostedion utrcum. at Heming Lake. Manitoba, in 1947. Canadian 
Fish Culturist 3:22-23. 

Pike spawn in Heming Creek, which is marshy, deep, meandering, and arises 
in a muskeiz lake from which fish are blocked b\ a beaver dam. 



si 



DERKSEN. A. J. 

1 978 A report on the results of experimental gillnetting in Cedar Lake in August 
1972, and prospects tor a commercial fishery with particular reference to 
northern pike. Manitoba Department of Northern Affairs, unpublished MS. 
Experimental gill-netting was conducted to determine if large quantities of 
pike >5 lb could be taken for export to Europe. Mercury levels of pike 5-7 lb 
exceeded 1.00 ppm, therefore a fishery could not be developed. 
DES CLERS. S. and J. ALLARDI 

1983 Efficacite de la reproduction naturelle et des repeuplements dans la Seine au 
niveau de Montereau. In Billard, R., ed., Le brochet gestion dans le milieu 
natureal et elevage. Paris, Institute National de la Recherche Agronomique, 
pp. 297-303. 

Results of 8 years of mark-recapture and laboratory experiments concerning 
reproduction and water quality, temperature, thermal shock. 
DEUFEL, J. 

1964 Cancerous pike in Ireland. Irish Naturalists' Journal 14:312-315. 
DEVILLERS.C. 

1947 Explanations in vitro de blastodermes de poissons, (Salmo, Eso.x). Experien- 
tia 3:71-74. 
DEVILLERS, C. and J. CORSIN 

1968 Les os dermique craniens des Poissons et des Amphibiens; points de vue 
embryologiques sur les "territoires osseux" et les "fusions". /// Orvig, T., ed., 
Current problems of lower vertebrate phylogeny. Stockholm, Almquist and 
Wiksell, pp. 413-428. 
DEVITSINA. G. V. and T. A. BELOUSOVA 

1978 On the participation of the trigemal system in odor reception in fish. Journal 
of Ichthyology 18:114-120. 

The trigeminal system of the pike reacts to stimulation of the olfactory lining 
by solutions of different chemical substances. Responses recorded in the 
maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve demonstrate a clear correlation with 
similar responses in the olfactory tract. 
DEVITSINA. G. V. and G. A. MALYUKINA 

1977 The functional organization of the olfactory organ in macrosomatic and 
microsomatic fishes. Journal of Ichthyology 17:432-440. 
The olfactory organ is a slowly adapting system. The character of the 
oxmatic response does not depend on the type of stimulus and is species- 
specific and governed by the functional state of the fish. The intensity of the 
response is dependent on the type and dose of the stimulus. 
DEVITSYNA, G. V. 

1973 Certain morphological and functional properties of the olfactory bulb of pike 
and burbot. Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta Seriya 6, Biologiya Pochvo- 
vedenie 28:10-18. 
1977 Comparative morphology of the olfactory analyzer in fish. Journal of Ichthy- 
ology 17:116-125. 

Species-specific traits were noted in the olfactory receptor, and features of the 
olfactory bulb were correlated with development of its sensitivity. 
DEXTER, R. W. and D. H. MCCARRAHER 

1967 Clam shrimps as pests in fish-rearing ponds. Progressive Fish-Culturist 
29:105-107. 

82 



Clam shrimp Cyzicus mexicanus become so numerous in rearing ponds as to 
clog the outlet screens. Of approximately 800 pike stomachs examined dur- 
ing 6 years, none contained clam shrimp; thus they do not contribute to fish 
production as do fairy shrimp. 
DIANA. J. S. 

1979a An energy budget tor northern pike {Esox Indus) in Lac Ste. Anne. Alberta. 
Ph.D. thesis. University of Alberta. 160 pp. 

The annual energy budget was estimated tor pike in Lac Ste. Anne by a com- 
bination of field and laboratory experiments. Pike were sampled between 
March 1976 and September 1978. Age groups to 4 fish were used, sampled 
at five intervals over the year. Maintenance requirements were estimated 
from controlled experiments. Activity patterns were measured using ultra- 
sonic telemetry. Daily rations were estimated from stomach contents. The 
annual allocation o\' energy to growth, maintenance, and reproduction was 
estimated from these data. Ration predicted from energy budgets and 
observed ration were usually in good agreement. 

1979b Northern pike activity patterns. Underwater Telemetry Newsletter 9(2): 1-3. 

1979c The feeding pattern and daily ration of a top carnivore, the northern pike 
{Eso.x lucius). Canadian Journal of Zoology 57:2 1 2 1-2 1 27. 
Food habits, digestive rates, and daily ration were determined for 1,290 pike 
collected from Lac Ste. Anne, Alberta. Data on major species consumed and 
caloric value of each species was studied. Variations in gastric evacuations 
with season and daily ration with sex and season are given. 

1980 Diel activity pattern and swimming speeds of northern pike {Esox lucius) in 
Lac Ste. Anne, Alberta. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 
37;14M-1458. 

Movements of six pike were monitored for 5-51 days by ultrasonic 
transmitters implanted surgically. The pike were inactive during 80 f /r of the 
889 5-min intervals monitored during summer and winter. No regular diel 
changes in activity were noted, except that pike were inactive at night. Swim- 
ming velocities calculated from gross displacements were maximum, 42 cm/s 
(0.91 body lengths (BL)/s); average. 23.1 cm/s (0.45 BL/s). 

1981 Latitudinal variations in the growth of northern pike. Presented at 43rd 
Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference. 

Differences in annual growth, age of first maturation, timing and magnitude 
of body and gonad production were examined for pike from four lakes in 
Michigan varying in latitude and ice cover duration. 

1982 An experimental analysis of the metabolic rate and food utilization of north- 
ern pike. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. A. Comparative Phy- 
siology 71:395-399. 

Metabolism of pike was determined by oxygen consumption and ration 
experiments for an energy budget analysis. Energy gain or depletion from the 
body was due to changes in amount o\ whole body tissue or bod) protein 
rather than specific utilization or storage of lipid. Conversion and assimila- 
tion efficiencies were also determined. 
1983a An energy budget lor northern pike {Eso.x lucius). Canadian Journal of Zool 
ogy 61:1968-1975. 

Allocation of energy by pike to maintenance, growth, and reproduction was 
estimated h\ a combination of laboratory and held techniques. Parameters 

83 



were fitted to a bioenergetics model to determine the energy budgets of pike 
from Lac Ste. Anne. Alberta. 
1983b Growth, maturation and production of northern pike in three Michigan lakes. 
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 1 12:38-46. 
Differences in age at first maturation and timing and magnitude of body and 
gonad growth were examined for pike from lakes that varied in latitude, ice- 
free season, and total mortality. 

DIANA. J. S. and W. C. MACKAY 

1979 Timing and magnitude of energy deposition and loss in the body, liver and 
gonads of northern pike (Eso.x lucius). Journal of the Fisheries Research 
Board of Canada 36:481-487. 

Pike were sampled periodically from Lac Ste. Anne, Alberta, between March 
1976 and September 1978. The yearly cycle of production and depletion was 
determined for individual 3-year-old fish. 

DIANA. J. S., W. C. MACKAY and M. EHRMAN 

1977 Movements and habitat preference of northern pike {Eso.x lucius) in Lac Ste. 
Anne, Alberta. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 106:560-565. 
Movements of nine pike in Lac Ste, Anne, Alberta, were monitored for 5 to 
47 days using ultrasonic transmitters implanted in the fishes' stomachs. None 
established well-defined home ranges. Pike were usually found within 300 m 
of shore and in water <4 m deep. No major differences were found in the 
extent of movement or in habitat selection between summer and winter. 
Daily movements were from to 4,000 m, but most <1 ,000 m. 

DIANGELO. S. 

1960 Watershed surveys and management plans. Northern pike spawning surveys 
and development plans. Michigan Department of Conservation, Dingell- 
Johnson Report F-4-R-7/Job H:l-10. 

1961 Pike marsh production 1961. Michigan Department of Conservation, unpub- 
lished MS. 2 pp. 

1962 Fish population control planning. Community pike-spawning marshes. 
Michigan Department of Conservation, Dingell-Johnson Report F-25-R-l/Job 
1:1-9. 

DIANGELO. S. and J. E. WILLIAMS 

1962 Ponds for pike. Michigan Conservationist 31(3):2-7. 
DICK.M. M. 

1964 Fishes of the western North Atlantic. Suborder Esocoidea. Memoir of the 
Sears Foundation for Marine Research 1:550-560. 
DICKINSON. W. E. 

1960 Handbook of Wisconsin fishes. Milwaukee Public Museum, Popular Science 
Handbook Ser. 8:1-86. 
DICONSTANZO, C J. and R. L. RIDENHOUR 

1957 Angler harvest in the summers of 1953 to 1956 at Clear Lake, Iowa. 
Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science 64:621-628. 
DIES, 

1927 Die Hechtkrankheit im Worthersee (in Karnten). Allgemeine Fischerei- 
Zeitung 52. 
DIPLOCK, A. T. and G.,A. D. HASLEWOOD 

1967 The ubiquinone content of animal tissues. A survey of the occurrence of ubi- 
quinone invertebrates. Biochemical Journal 104:1004-1010. 

84 



Dl PRISCO, G. I... G. MATERAZZ1 and G. CHIEFFI 

1970 /// vitro steroidogenesis in testicular tissue of the fresh water teleosl Eso\ 
Indus. General and Comparative Endocrinology 14:595—598. 
DISLER.N. N. 

1967 Development of pike {Eso.\ lucius) lateral-line sense organs. /// Morpho 
ecotogical studies of fish development, Moscow, Nauka, pp. 148—162. 
DISSELHORST. R. 

1904 Ausfuhrapparat und Anhangsdrusen der mannlichen Geschlechts organe. In 
Oppel-Lehrbach der Verleichenden Mikrokopischen Anatomie der Wirbel- 
liere 12:1-386. 
DIUZHIKOV, A. 

1959 On pike concentration in the tail-water o\' the Volga Hydroelectric Station. 
Rybnoe Khozyaistvo 3:15-16 

In the fall of 1956 pike began to descend from Kuibyshev Reservoir and con- 
tinued coming in great numbers for 2 years. By 1 958 pike concentration 
reached 70-90% by weight of catch. It was felt necessary to control the 
number of pike to prevent the loss of valuable migratory species. 
DOAN, K. H. 

1948 Studies of jack fish in Heming Lake. Fisheries Research Board of Canada. 
1964 Climate, hydrology, and freshwater fisheries. Manitoba Department of Mines 

and Natural Resources, Fisheries Branch, Manuscript Report. 35 pp. 
n.d. Control of the pike-whitehsh tapeworm in central Canada. Proceedings of the 
7th Pacific Science Congress 4:539-548. 
DOBBEN.W. H. VAN 

1952 The food of the cormorant in the Netherlands. Ardea 40( 1/2): 1-63. 
DOBIE.J. 

1966 Food and feeding habits of the walleye, Stizostedion v. vitreum, and associ- 
ated game and forage fishes in Lake Vermilion, Minnesota, with special refer- 
ence to the tullibee, Coregonus (Leucichthys) artedi. Minnesota Fisheries 
Investigations 4:39-7 1 . 

Pike are rather scarce in Lake Vermilion and only 31 adults containing food 
were taken during three summers o\' netting. Fish made up 90.3% of the total 
volume of food eaten. Most of the time the pike taken had eaten fairly large 
fish and were not in direct competition with the walleyes for small Perca 
fiavescens. 
n.d. Investigation into the food habits of the walleye. Stizostedion v. vit renin and 

associated forage fish. Unpublished MS. 
DOBIE.J. and J. B. MOYLE 

1962 Methods used for investigating productivity of fish-rearing ponds in Min- 
nesota. Minnesota Department of Conservation, Fisheries Research Unit, 
Special Publication 5:1-62. 
DOBLER, E. 

1977 Correlation between the feeding time of the pike {Eso.\ lucius) and the disper- 
sion of a school of Leucaspi us dileneatus. Oecologia 27:93-96. 
The pike eats Leucaspius predominantly when there is little light (50-759$ of 
its prey at <1 Lux). It can be supposed that the pike is opticall) superior to its 
prey at low illumination levels and profits from this advantage when catching 
its prey. 



85 



DOCKRAY.G. J. 

1974a A secretin-like factor in intestinal extracts of pike Esox Indus. General and 
Comparative Endocrinology 22:390. [Abstract] 

1974b Extraction of a secretinlike factor from the intestines of pike (Esox lucius). 
General and Comparative Endocrinology 23:340-347. 

A secretin-like factor was extracted from the intestines of pike with acetic 
acid, and was partially purified. It was concluded that a secretin-like factor 
exists in the intestines of teleost fish and that its biological properties are dif- 
ferent from those of porcine secretin. 

1975 Comparative studies on secretin. General and Comparative Endocrinology 
25:203-210. 

DOGIEL. V. A., G. K. DETRUSHEVSKI and I. I. POLYANSKI. eds. 

1961 Parasitology of fishes, trans, by Z. Kobatz. Edinburgh, Oliver and Boyd. 384 
pp. 
DOLININ. V. A. 

1973 The rate of basal metabolism in fish. Journal of Ichthyology 13:430-438. 
Gives values for basal metabolism at different temperatures in pike. 
Discusses rhythmic fluctuations, measures indicators of respiratory function. 

1974 Environmental dependence of the main parameters of the respiratory function 
in fishes differing in their activity and oxygen requirement. Journal of Ichthy- 
ology 14:122-132. 

Determined main parameters of respiratory function in pike on reduction of 
oxygen concentration from 12 to 0.2-0.4 mg/1 in water at temperatures of 5, 
10, 15, and 20 C. 

1975a Main parameters of the respiratory function in fishes during alteration in 
respiratory activity. Journal of Ichthyology 15:124-132. 
The dependence of ventilation volume, coefficient of uptake of oxygen from 
the water and frequency of respiratory movements on the degree of motor 
activity, assessed on the rate of respiratory metabolism, was determined at 
different temperatures and oxygen concentrations. A method of indirect 
assessment of the maximum possible values of the rate of respiratory meta- 
bolism and the maximum continuous swimming speed of fishes is proposed. 

1975b Mechanisms of ensuring gas exchange in fish. Journal of Ichthyology 
15:649-657. 

The absolute values and the character of change in the basic parameters of the 
respiratory function of pike with change of oxygen concentration and motor 
activity of the fish under conditions of constant, artificially-fixed volume of 
ventilation were determined. 

1976 The regulatory mechanism of the respiratory rhythm in fish. Journal of 
Ichthyology 16:176-178. 

An attempt to elucidate the regulatory features of the respiratory rhythm in 
two species of fish, differing in degree of mobility. 
DOLLFUS, R. F. 

1968 Les trematodes de 1'histoire naturelle des helminthes de Felix Dujardin 
(1845). Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris), Mem. Ser. A, Zoolo- 
gie 54(3): 119-196. 
DOLZHENKO, M. P. and V. P. VLASOV 

1961 Measures fopTncreasing fish productivity and improving the species composi- 
tion of fish in some small lakes in the Altai district. Rybnoe Khozyaistvo 

86 



13/14:46-48. 

For increasing the productivity of Lake Srostinsk it was necessary to raise the 
water level and stock it with Abramis brama and pike. 
DOMANEVSKII, L. N. 

1958 Commercial-biological characteristics of the pike of Tsimlyanskoe Reservoir. 
Izvestiya Gosudarstvennogo Nauchno-Issledovatel-skogo Instituta Ozernogo i 
Rechnogo Rybnogo Khozvaistva USSR 45:201-212. 

1959 On the role of the pike in formation of the fish fauna of Tsimlyanskoe Reser- 
voir. Rybnoe Khozyaistvo 4. 

1962 Dosupnyi ra/mer zhertv dlya shchuki. [Si/.e of prey accessible to pikej. 
Byulleterf Instituta Biologii Vodokhranilishcha 12:50-53. 

This paper establishes the relationship between the si/es of pike and the sizes 
o\' various tish species devoured by them. Because the predator population is 
generally made up of older tish. no freshwater tish is able to avoid being 
directly affected by the pike population. 

1963 Metodik ucheta shchuki Eso.x Indus L. Tsimlyanskogo vodokranilishcha. |A 
method for computing the numbers of pike Eso.x Indus L. in the Tsimlyan 
Reservoir). Voprosy Ikhtiologii 2:5 1 3-52 1 . 

DOMANEVSKY. L. N. 

1959 Some features of the biology of pike in Tsimlyansk reservoir. Trudy 6 
Soveshch, po probleme biologii vnutrennikh vodnany, pp. 415-418. 
There is a tendency towards a decrease in numbers of pike which will con- 
tinue because spawning conditions will not improve, growth rate will drop, 
and fishery on the spawning grounds will certainly not cease. 

1963 Growth characteristics of the pike (Eso.x Indus L.). Zoologicheskiy Zhurnal 
42:1539-1545. 

The growth of pike within its distribution range varies considerably and is 
influenced by the geographical position of the water body and its hydrological 
and biological peculiarities. 

1964 Some features of the interspecific relationships between pike and the dom- 
inant fish species in Tsimlyansk reservoir. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 43:71-79. 

DOMBECK. M. P. 

1979 Movement and behaviour of the muskellunge determined by radio-telemetry. 

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Technical Bulletin 1 13:1-19. 
DOMURAT. J. 

1958 Ro/.woj embrionalny szczupaka {Eso.x Indus L.) w oleju parafinowym. 

[Embryonal development of pike (Eso.x Indus L.) in paraffin oil) Polskie 

Archiwum Hydrobiologii 5:7-18. { in Polish, French summary]. 

Pike eggs fertilized in water and transferred to paraffin oil developed and 

gave 20% hatched larvae. 
1966 Embryonic development of trout (Salnio trutta L.), pike {Eso.x liu ins L.) and 

roach (Rutilus rutilus E.) in waterless environment. Polskie Archiwum 

Hydrobiologii 3( 16): 166-173. 
DON AIRE. J. A. 

1976 El lucio, coloso de los embalses. Trofeo 78:59-61. 

A popular article that describes the habits of pike in relation to angling in 

Spanish reservoirs. 



87 



DONALDSON. E. M. 

1977 Bibliography of fish reproduction 1963-1974. Part 2 of 3 parts — Teleostei, 

Clupea to Ompok. Canada Fisheries and Marine Service, Technical Report 

732. 
DONETZ,J. E. 

1982 An evaluation of the current status of northern pike (Esox lucius) in Lake of 
the Woods, Ontario. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Lake of the 
Woods -Rainy Lake Fisheries Assessment Unit Report 1982-03:1-76. 

As of 1982 pike was considered to be the second most important game and 
commercial fish species in Lake of the Woods. Studies indicated that while 
populations in some areas of the lake were stable, others were stressed due to 
overfishing. The effects of stress on the population and the fisheries were dis- 
cussed. 

DOORNBOS.G. 

1979 Winter food habits of smew (Mergus albellus L.) on Lake Yssel, the Nether- 
lands: species and size selection in relation to fish stocks. Ardea 67:42-48. 

DORIER, A. 

1938 A propos de I'oeuf et de I'alevin de brochet. Bulletin Francais de Pisciculture 
10(1 10):6 1-73, 

1939 Sur la nature et 1'origine des mouvements rhythmiques de I'oeuf de brochet. 
Comptes Rendus de la Societe de Biologie 130:991-992. 

DORNESCU. G. T. and D. MISCALENCU 

1968a Etude comparative des branchies de quelques especes de I'ordre Clu- 

peiformes. Gegenbaurs Morphologisches Jahrbuch 112:261-276. 
1968b Celetrei tipure de branhii alt Teleosteenilor. Analele Universitatii Bucuresti 
Seria Stiintele Naturii 17:1 1-20. [French summary] 
DORSON, M, P. DE KINKELIN and C. MICHEL 

1983 Pathologie du brochet. /// Billard, R., ed., Le brochet gestion dans le milieu 
naturel et elevage. Paris, Institute National de la Recherche Agronomique, 
pp. 245-250. 

DOUBREUIL. E. 

1871 Note sur le brochet. Annales de la Societie Horticulture Histoire Naturel de 
Herault Ser.2, 2:29-30. 
DOUDOROFF, P. and D. L. SHUMWAY 

1970 Dissolved oxygen requirements of freshwater fishes. Food and Agricultural 
Organization of the United Nations, Fisheries Technical Paper 86:1-291. 
DOVING, K. B.. M. DUBOIS-DAUPHIN, A. HOLLEY and F. JOURDAN 

1977 Functional anatomy of the olfactory organ of fish and the ciliary mechanism 
of water transport. Acta Zoologica 58:245-256. 
DOXTATER.G. 

1967 Experimental predator-prey relations in small ponds. Progressive Fish- 
Culturist 29:102-104. 

An attempt to rate various predator species in their ability to suppress popula- 
tions of bluegill Lepomis macrochirus. 
DOYLE. J. 

1968 Pike investigations. Inland Fisheries Bulletin (Fire) 4:9-10. 
DRAGANIK, B. and J. A. SZCZERBOWSK1 

1963 Wplyw odlowow elcktrycznym agregatem pradotworczym na liczebnosc dra- 
pieznych ryb \v potoku Kosno. [The influence of catches by means of an 

88 



electric shocker on the number of predator) tish in Kosno Stream.] Zeszyt) 
Naukowe Wyzszej Szkoly Rolniczej w Olsztynie I6( 1 ):73-77. 
Catches were made in order to remove pike. eel. perch, burbot and dace From 
a stretch o\' a river. 

DRAIGHIN. P. A. 

1958 Izvestia Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno Issledov-atelskogo Institute Ozernogo i 
Rechnogo Rybnogo Khozyaistra. [Communications of the All-State Research 
Institute of the Lake and River Fisheries]. Leningrad 46: 1-105. 
Considers the scales of many species, including pike, and illustrates them. 

DRAKENBERG. T.. M. SWALRD. A. CAVE and J. PARELLO 

1985 Metal-ion binding to paralbumin. A Cd-n.m.r. study of the binding of 
different ianthanide ions. Biochemical Journal 227:71 1-717. 
1 Cd-n.m.r. studies were used to investigate the binding of Ianthanide ions to 
parvalbumins. It was shown that Ianthanide ions with a smaller ionic radius 
bind sequential to Cd _+ saturated parvalbumin, whereas those with a larger 
ionic radius bind with similar affinity to both the Cd site and the Ef site. 

DRIESCH. A. VON DEN 

1982 Fischreste aus der slawisch-deutschen Furstenburg auf dem Weinberg in Ilit- 
zacker (Elbe). Neue Ausgrabungen und Forschungen in Niedersachsen 
15:395-423. 

Fish remains from the 11th- 13th centuries were 47.9% pike. Notes large 
average size of specimens and infers size reduction in Elbe fishes. 

DRILHON. A.. J. M. FINE and E. MAGNIN 

1961 Etude des proteines seriques d'Esox lucius et d'Esox masquinongy. [Study of 
the serum proteins of Esox lucius and Esox masquinongy] Comptes Rendus 
Seances de la Societe de Biologie et des ses Filiates 155:451-453. 

DRIMMELEN. D. E. VAN 

1950 Kunstmatige teelt van snoek en het doorkweken van snoekbroed. 

Visserijnieuws 2(12) 
1969 Northern pike culture, a summary of literature data, results of research of the 
Organization and experience with culture techniques. Special Report for the 
Organization for Improvement of Inland Fisheries, Utrecht. 242 pp. 

DRYDEN. R. L. and C. S. JESSOP 

1974 Impact analysis of the Dempster highway on the physical environment and 
fish resources of Frog Creek. Environment Canada, Resource Management 
Branch. Central Region Technical Report CEN/T-74-5: 1-59. 
The impact of improper culvert design and effects on the hydrology and tish 
biology of Frog Creek are discussed. Fish migration discharge design, as 
required by Environment Canada, is defined. 

DUBE,J. and Y. GRAVEL 

1980 Les grands brochets n'aiment pas I'obscurite des tuyaux. Eau Quebec 
13:164-180. 

DIBE. J. and Y. GRAVEL, ed. 

1979 Proceedings of the 10th warm water workshop. Special Publication. NE 
Division of the American Fisheries Society. Montreal. Ministere du Loisir, 
de la Chasse et de la Peche, Direction de la Recherche faunique. 285 pp. 
Works of biologists in fields of research and management dealing mainl\ with 
management techniques and population dynamics of esocids in North Amer- 
ica. 

89 



DUBRAVIUS.J. 

1547 De piscinis ad Antonium Fuggerum. Vratislaviae. Andreas Vinglerus. 
| Modem edition: Schmidtova, A., ed., in Sbornik Filologieky CSAV 1, 
Suppl. 1(1953): 11-45.]. 

Work actually written in 1525. describes experiences in pond construction, 
and management and culture of pike. 

DUERRE. D. C. 

1966a Statewide fisheries investigations. Tagging studies on five North Dakota 
impoundments and one natural lake. North Dakota State Game and Fish 
Department. Dingell-Johnson Report F-2-R-12/Job 9. 
1966b Statewide fisheries investigations. Tagging studies on rive North Dakota 
impoundments and one natural lake. North Dakota State Game and Fish 
Department. Dingell-Johnson Report F-2-R-13/Job 9. 

DUFOUR. D. and D. BARRETTE 

1967 Polymorphisme des lipoproteines et des glycoproteines seriques chez la truite. 
| Polymorphism of serum lipoproteins and glycoproteins in the trout]. Le 
Naturaliste Canadien 94:305-308. [English summary] 

Three serum proteins of pike have antigenic determinants common with the 
serum protein of rainbow trout Sal mo gaivdneri. 

DUKRAVETS, G. M. and Y. A. BIRYUKOV 

1976 Ichthyofauna of the Nura River basin in the central Kazakh, USSR. Journal 
of Ichthyology 16:271-276. 
Brief mention o\' where pike were found. 

DULMA. A. 

1973 On the fish fauna of Mongolia. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum 
in Berlin 49:49-67. 

DUMONT. P.. R. FORT1N and H. FOURNIER 

1979 Certain aspects of the reproduction of upper Richelieu and Missisquoi Bay 
northern pike, Esox Indus L. /// Dube, J., and Y. Gravel, eds., Proceedings 
10th Warmwater Workshop, Special Publication NE Division of the Ameri- 
can Fisheries Society. Montreal, Quebec Ministere du Loisir, de la Chasse et 
delaPeche, pp. 231-248. 

Studied the relation between spring water levels and 1) spawning ground 
availability and utilization, 2) egg deposition, hatching and early develop- 
ment, and 3) year class strength. 

DUNBAR, M. J. and H. H. HILDEBRAND 

1952 Contribution to the study o\' the fishes of Ungava Bay. Journal of the 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada 9:83-128. 

Gives distribution of pike in northern Canada; occasionally taken in brackish 
water. 

DUNHAM. D. K. 

1956 How old is that fish? Wisconsin Conservation Bulletin 2 1 (7): 1 1-13. 

DUNNING, D. J.. J. T. EVANS and M. J. TARBY 

Baseline biological studies preparatory to the assessment of winter naviations: 
Fisheries data base on the St. Lawrence River. Research Foundation of State 
University of New York, Project 210-6141. 

A study of the fisheries, which included a winter creel survey and an assess- 
ment of characteristics of the fish community, concluded that if lowered water 
levels or increased turbidity resulted from extended winter navigation, fish 

90 



growth and recruitment might he adversely affected. 

DUNNING. D. J.. Q. ROSS and J. GLADDEN 

1982 Evaluation o\' minimum si/e limits for St. Laurence River northern pike. 
North American Journal of Fisheries Management 2:171-175. 
The imposition of a 660-mm minimum si/e limit resulted in a greater decline 
in total population si/e than that predicted under a 508-mm limit over a 50- 
year period. A decrease in yield was caused by an increase in the harvest of 
older females and a subsequent decrease in egg production. 

DUNST. R. 

1966 Statewide fishery research. Cox Hollow Lake. Annual changes in several 
parameters of a reservoir fish population. Wisconsin Conservation Depart- 
ment, Dingell-Johnson Report F-()83-R-OI/Wk.PI.03/Job B/PT3. 

1)1 VST. R.C. 

1969 Cox Hollow Lake. The first eight years of impoundment. Wisconsin Depart- 
ment of Natural Resources, Research Report 47:1-19. 

Development of the fishery was studied from 1958 to 1966 in Cox Hollow 
Lake, a new impoundment in southwestern Wisconsin. The three main 
species of fish, including pike, showed initial rapid population expansion and 
superior growth, followed by a tremendous decline in both population si/e 
and growth. 

DUNSTAN. T. C. and J. F. HARPER 

1975 Food habits of bald eagles in north central Minnesota. Journal of Wildlife 
Management 39:140-143. 

Dl PLINSKY. P. D. 

1982 Sperm motility of northern pike and chain pickerel at various pH values. 
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 1 1 1:768-771. 
Sperm activity was observed at pH 3.9, 4.5, 5.4. 6.0, 6.4, 6.9, 7.4. and 7.9. 
Pike sperm showed a strong trend towards increased activity time with 
increasing pH. Minimum motility occurred at pH 5.4 (28 seconds) and max- 
imum motility at pH 7.9 (67 seconds). Substantial variation in sperm motility 
time between the two pike tested did not occur. 

DURAND. J. -P. and J.-M. GAS 

1976 Quelques aspects de la reproduction du brochet {Esax Indus L., 1766) dans la 
Seine au niveau de Montereau. Croissance et comportement des alevins. dans 
di verses conditions experimentales. Memoires ISARA. 108 pp. 

DTJRBAN.W. S. M. 

1859 Observations on the natural history of the valley of the River Rouge, and sur- 
rounding townships in the counties of Argenteuill and Ottawa. Canadian 
National Geologist 4:252-276. 
Dl SHAUSKENE-DUZH, N. F., G. G. POLIKARPOV and B. I STYRO 

1969 Coefficients of the accumulation of strontium-90 in some fish. Radiobiolo- 
giya9(l):113-115. 
DYER. W.J. 

1952 Amines in fish muscle. VI. Trimethylamine oxide content o\ lish and marine 
invertebrates. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 8:314-324. 
Original determinations of the trimethylamine oxide content of 60 species of 
fish, including pike. 



91 



DYK. V. 

n.d. Nove smery v umelem chovu stiky. Zvlastni Otisk Ze, Zemedelskeho 
Archivu 9:31. 
DYKOVA. I.andJ.LOM 

1978 Histopathological changes in tish gills infected with myxosporidian parasites 
of the genus Henneguya. Journal of Fish Biology 1 2: 197-202. 
H. psorospermica developed in the artery of pike. Describes infection pro- 
cess from vegetative stage to final stages. 
DYMOND. JR. 

1922 A provisional list of the fishes of Lake Erie. University of Toronto Studies in 
Biology Series 20, Publication of the Ontario Fisheries Research Laboratory 
4:55-73. 

Reported that pike are still of considerable commercial importance in Lake 
Erie, although less abundant than formerly. 

1923 A provisional list of the fishes of Lake Nipigon. Publication of the Ontario 
Fisheries Research Laboratory 12:33-38. 

Pike were common in small bays along shore and were occasionally taken in 
fishermen's nets. 

1926 The fishes of Lake Nipigon. Publication of the Ontario Fisheries Research 
Laboratory 27:1-108. 

A description of the pike, and brief information on its distribution. 

1936 Some fresh-water fishes of British Columbia. Royal Ontario Museum of 
Zoology, Contribution 9:60-73. 

Reported that pike were native to the waters of the northern British Columbia 
tributary to the Arctic Ocean, but not found in the waters of the northern Brit- 
ish Columbia tributary to the Pacific Ocean. 

1937 New records of Ontario fishes. Copeia 1937:59. 

Reported pike from the Moose River, 1 mile above Moosonee. 

1939 The fishes of the Ottawa region. Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology, Contri- 
bution 15:1-43. 

Described the ecological conditions and geological history of the region with 
a short note on distribution and commercial importance of pike. Catch in 
pounds is listed by year and area. 

1947 A list of the freshwater fishes of Canada east of the Rocky Mountains with 
keys. Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology, Miscellaneous Publication 1:1-36. 
Reports that pike were found from Labrador to the Yukon south to northern 
British Columbia and the Great Lakes, also in northern Asia and Europe. 
Found in lakes as well as in quiet, weedy ponds and streams. 

1964 A history of ichthyology in Canada. Copeia 1964:2-33. 

A brief review of the range of pike and of published descriptions of hybrids. 
DYMOND, J. R. and J. L. HART 

1927 The fishes of Lake Abitibi (Ontario) and adjacent waters. Publication of the 
Ontario Fisheries Research Laboratory 28:1-19. 

Pike is one of the commonest species of the lake and is of commercial impor- 
tance. 
DYMOND, J. R., J. L. HART and A. L. PRITC HARD 

1929 The fishes o\' the Canadian waters of Lake Ontario. University of Toronto 
Studies in B'iology Series 33. Publication of the Ontario Fisheries Research 
Laboratory 37:1-35. 

92 



Information on distribution and commercial catch. 
DYMOND,J. R. and W. B.SCOTT 

1941 Fishes of Patricia portion of the Kenora district. Ontario. Copeia 1941:244. 
Pike were \er\ common in suitable lakes throughout the area. 
DZHUtylALIYEV, M. K. 

1°77 The morphology and trophic characteristics of the swim bladder in some ord- 
ers offish. Journal of Ichthyology 17:284-292. 
DZIEKONSKA.J. 

1954 Charakter zywienia sic doroslego szczupaka {Esox lucius L.), okonia (Perca 
fluviatilis L.) i sandac/a {Lucioperca lucioperca L.) w jezi orach. [The feed- 
ing characteristics of a mature pike (Esox lucius L.), perch {Perca fluviatilis 
L.) and perch-pike (Lucioperca lucioperca L.) in lakes]. Polskie Archiwum 
Hvdrobioloeii 2:165-183. 



93 



EALES.J.G. 

1969 A comparative study of purines responsible for silvering in several freshwater 

fishes. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 26:1939-1942. 

The major purines occurring in silvery deposition were analysed by paper 

chromatography and ultraviolet-spectrophotometry. 
EATON. J. C... J. M. MCKIM and G. W. HOLCOMBE 

1978 Metal toxicity to embryos and larvae of seven freshwater fish species. I. Cad- 
mium. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 19:95-103. 
All species were killed or their growth retarded by concentrations ranging 
from about 4 to 12 ug Cd/liter. The larvae were consistently more sensitive 
than the embryos. 

ECKROAT. L. R. 

1969 Genetic analysis in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill) plus some 

interspecific comparisons of lens proteins of Salmonidae and Esocidae. Ph.D. 

thesis, Pennsylvania State University. 

Lens protein patterns of species of Esocidae and Salmonidae were compared 

by acrylamide gel and starch gel electrophoresis to assess lens proteins as a 

method of taxonomic comparisons. 
1974 Interspecific comparisons of lens proteins of Esocidae. Copeia 1974: 

977-978. 

Comparison of the six species of Esocidae using acrylamide gel and starch 

gel electrophoresis indicated that the patterns produced by Esox lucius, E. 

masquinongy , E. reicherti were practically identical. 
ECOLE, R. A. 

1979 Recherches sur les etangs. Contribution a Tetude du brochet {Esox lucius L. 
1758). Croissance et populations. [Research on ponds. Contribution to the 
study of pike {Esox lucius L. 1758). Growth and population]. Rennis, Insti- 
tute Nationale de la Recherche Agronomique, Ecologie Hydrobiologique. 

ECONOMON, P. 

1960 Furunculosis in northern pike. Transactions of the American Fisheries 

Society 89:240. 

Describes lesions on two pike found dead in a spawning pond. 
EDDY. S. 

1938 Classification of Minnesota lakes for fish propagation. Progressive Fish- 

Culturist 41:9-13. 

Describes two typical pike lakes and one typical pike and bass lake. Lakes 

were classified by determining physical conditions, area of each bottom type 

within certain depths, temperature, oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbonates, total 

dissolved solids, and minerals. 
1941a Muskellunge and muskie hybrids. Minnesota Conservation Volunteer 

3(14);41_44. 

1941b Do muskellunge and pickerel interbreed. Progressive Fish-Culturist 
48:25-27. 

Compares scalation on the check of pike with that of muskellunge and pick- 
erel. 

1944 Hybridization between northern pike (Esox lucius) and muskellunge (Esox 
masquinongy). Proceedings of the Minnesota Academy of Science 12:38-43. 

1954 Pike — or pickeVel? Minnesota Conservation Volunteer 17(99): 1-8. 



94 



1957 How to know the freshwater tishes. Dubuque. Win. C. Brown. 253 pp. 
EDDY. S; and K. CARLANDER 

1939 Growth o\' Minnesota fishes. Minnesota Conservation Volunteer 69:8— 10. 

1942 Growth rate studies of Minnesota fish. Minnesota Department of Conserva- 
tion, Bureau of Fisheries Research, Investigational Report 28: 1-64. 

EDDY. S. and K. D. CARLANDER 

1939 The growth rate of wall-eye pike {Stizostedion vitreum (Mitehill)) in various 
lakes of Minnesota. Proceedings of the Minnesota Academy of Science 
7:44-48. 

1940 The effect o\~ environmental factors upon the growth rates of Minnesota 
tishes. Proceedings of the Minnesota Academy of Science 8: 14-19. 

EDDY, S. and T. SURBER 

1943 Northern fishes. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press. 276 pp. 
Contains first description of mutant pike. 

1947 Northern fishes with special reference to the upper Mississippi Valley. 2nd 
ed. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press. 276 pp. 
Key to family, family discussion, species discussion of pike, and silver pike 
illustrated. 
1960 Northern fishes with special reference to the upper Mississippi Valley. Rev. 
ed. Newton Centre, Massachusetts, C. T. Brantford. 276 pp. 
EDDY. S.. R. C. TASKER and J. C. UNDERHILL 

1972 Fishes of the Red River, Rainy River, and Lake of the Woods, Minnesota, 
with comments on the distribution of species in the Nelson River drainage. 
Bell Museum of Natural History, University of Minnesota, Occasional Papers 
11:1-24. 

Brief description of distribution. 
EDDY. S. and J. C. UNDERHILL 

1974 Northern fishes. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press. 414 pp. 
1978 How to know the freshwater fishes. 3rd ed. The Pictured Key Nature Series, 
Wm. C. Brown. 215 pp. 
EGERMAN. F. F. 

1936 Material on the ichthyofauna of the Kuchurgan Liman (Dniester River Basin) 
collected in 1922-1925. Tr. Chern. Azv. Nauchn-Prom. 2:1-88. [in Rus- 
sian] 
EGGELING. H. VON 

1908 Dunndarmerelief und Ernahrung bei Knockcnfischen. Zeitschrift fuer 
Naturwissenschaftlich 43:486-488. 
EGGERS.J. 

1983 67 lbs 3 oz! The pike of the century? Coarse Angler. 

1984 Russen in Amerika. [Russians in America]. Voor en door de Visser 
19(12):16-19. [in Dutch] 

EIGENMANN.C. H. 

1894 Results of explorations in western Canada and the northwestern United 
States. Bulletin of the U.S. Fish Commissioner 14( 1895): 101-132. 
EINSELE, E. 

1964 Uber die Wirkung von U.nterwassersprengungen auf Fische und Fischbes- 
tande. Osterreichische Fischerei 17:121-132. 



95 



EINSELE, W. 

1952 Zur Frage der Abhangigkeit des Laichreifeeintrittes und der Laichablage bei 

Fischen von Wassertemperatur und Witterung. Osterreichische Fischerei 5. 
1958 Biotechnische Hinweise zur Frage der Erbrutung Hechten und zur Frage des 
Transportes und Aussetzens von Hechtsezlingen. Osterreichische Fischerei 
11. 
EISLER.R. 

1957 Some effects of artificial light on salmon eggs and larvae. Transactions of the 
American Fisheries Society 87:151-162. 

Cites work of Haempel and Lechler ( 193 1 ) who found that eggs of pike were 
especially sensitive to light and easily destroyed. 
EKBAUM E. 

1937 On the maturation and the hatching of the eggs of the cestode Triaenophorus 
crassus Forel from Canadian fish. Journal of Parasitology 23:293-295. 
Observations of T. crassus taken from pike at several localities in Ontario and 
Manitoba at various times of the year. 
EKSTROM, V. C. 

1835 Die Fische in dem Scheeren von Morko; aus dem Schwedischen ubersetzt 
und mit einigen Anmerkungen versechen von Dr. F. C. H. Creplin, Berlin. 
269 pp. 
EL-BASTAVIZI, A. M. and G. A. SMIRNOVA 

1972 Change in the phospholipids of frozen pike during storage. Fishing Industry 
3:57-59. 

ELKINS, W. A. 

1937 A fish yield study for certain lakes in the Chequamegon National Forest. 
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 66:306-312. 
Brief information on distribution, angling, size. 
ELLIS, J. E. and E. N. PICKERING 

1973 The catching efficiencies of a 21.3-meter (headrope) standard wing trawl and 
a 21.3-meter electrical wing trawl in the Saginaw Bay area of Lake Huron. 
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 102:1 16-120. 

Gives number and size of pike captured by both methods. 
ELROD, J. H. and T. J. HASSLER 

1969 Estimates of some vital statistics of northern pike, walleye, and sauger popu- 
lations in Lake Sharpe, South Dakota. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and 
Wildlife, Technical Paper 30:1-17. 
ELSER, H. J. 

1961 Record Maryland fish. Maryland Conservationist 38(2): 15-17. 
ELSTER, H.-J. and H. MANN 

1950 Experimented Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Physiologie der Befruchtung bei 
fischen. Archiv fuer Fischereiwissenschaft 2:49-73. 
EMBODY, G.C. 

1910 The ecology, habits and growth of the pike, Eso.x lucius. Ph.D. thesis, Cornell 

University, 84 pp. 
1915 The farm fishpond. Cornell Reading Courses, Country Life Ser. 3:213-252. 
1918 Artificial hybrids between pike and pickerel. Journal of Heredity 9:253-256. 
ENDRES. A. 

1969 Un vivier natuVel dans une arise de la Maine en aval de Meaux. Les marais 
de Lesches. Bulletin philologique et historique (jusqu'a 1610) de comites 

96 



travaux historiques el scientifiques 1 : 1 S4— 204. 

Pike spawning habitat is described. The history of the spawning areas is 
detailed, including conflicts over water use and local poaching. In the I960's 
continued fishing and poaching life of the area was threatened by the estab- 
lishment of a pike hatchery to supply fry to regional fish pond operations, the 
plan to dam the river for a recreational lake, the increase in pollutants from 
the upper Marne, and the plan to dam it for a recreational lake. 
ENGASHEV. V.G. 

1965 Seasonal dynamics of the invasion o\' pikes by the nematode Raphidascaris 
acus. Trudy Uzbekskogo nauchno-IssledovateTskogo Instituta Veterinarii 
16:199-202. [in Russian j 

ENGELBRECHT, H. 

1958 Untersuchungen uber den Parasitenbefall der Nut/lische im Greifswalder 
Bodden und Kleinen Haff. [Investigations on the occurrence of parasites in 
commercial fishes in the Griefswalder Bodden and the Kleine Haff). 
Zeitschrift fuer Fischerei und deren Hilfswissenschaften 7:481-51 1. 
EPLER. P. and K. BIENIARZ 

1978 Breeding fish oocytes in vitro as a method for investigating the hormonal 
mechanism of their reproduction. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczyck, Ser. H, 
Rybactwo98:175-193. 
ERGENS. R. 

1964 Vysledky vyzkumu zdravotniho stavu stiky (Esox lucius) v Lipenske udolni 
nadrzi. Zprava CSAV, pp. 1-27. 

1966 Results of parasitological investigations on the health of Esox lucius L. in 
Lipno reservoir. Folia Parasitologica 13:222-236. 

1971 The species of the genus Tetraonchus Diesing, 1858 (Monogenoida) 
recovered from fishes of Mongolia. Folia Parasitologica 18:139-148. [in 
Czechoslovakian] 
ERICKSON.G. 

1978 In pursuit of lunker northerns. Fins and Feathers Fishing Annual, 
1978:20-24. 
ERIKSON.G. 

1978 The search for the elusive northern. Fins and Feathers, May 1978. 
ERIKSSON. L.-O. and S. ULVELAND 

1977 Long-term telemetric system for gill strokes of fish. Aquilo Ser Zoologica 
17:61-64. 

The system is based on ultrasonic transmission and allows continuous meas- 
urement of opercular rate of free-swimming fish kept in tanks or ponds for 
periods of up to one year. 
ERLINGE. S. 

1968 Food studies on captive otters Lutra lutra L. Oikos 19:259-270. 

The food habits of otters in the field are discussed in the light of feeding 
experiments carried out on captive otters. 

1969 Food habits of the otter Lutra lutra L. and the mink Mustcla vison Schreber in 
a trout water in southern Sweden. Oikos 20: 1-7. 

The differences in food habits were primarily due to different adaptations of 
the two predators but to some extent to competition. 



97 



ESCHMEYER. R.W. 

1935 Analysis of the game-fish catch in a Michigan lake. Transactions of the 
American Fisheries Society 65:207-223. 

1936 A second season of creel census on Fife Lake. Transactions of the American 
Fisheries Society 66:324-334. 

Catch statistics given include size, number, catch per hour, weather condi- 
tions, comparison of winter fishing. 
1938 Summary of a four year creel census on Fife Lake, Michigan. Transactions 
of the American Fisheries Society 68:354-358. 
ESLAM1. A. H., M. ANWAR and S. KHATIBY 

1972 Incidence and intensity of helminthoses in pike (Eso.x lucius) of Caspian Sea 
(Northern Iran). Riv. It. Piscis. Ittiop. 7:1 1-13. 

Three species of helminths were found in 78.9% of the 109 pike examined; 
one in the body cavity, and two in the alimentary canal. 
EUROPEAN INLAND FISHERIES ADVISORY COMMITTEE 

1968 Report on extreme pH values and inland fisheries. European Inland Fisheries 
Advisory Committee Working Party on Water Quality Criteria for European 
Freshwater Fish, Technical Paper 4: 1-24. 
EVANS, H. 

1966 River authorities and freshwater fishery research. /// Jones, J. W., and P. H. 
Tombleson, eds. Proceedings of the 2nd British Coarse Fish Conference, 
Liverpool, 1965, pp. 111-114. 
EVERHART. W. H. 

1950 Fishes of Maine. Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Game. 53 pp. 
EVERMANN, B. W. 

1898 Key to the species of Lucius. Recreation 9:207. 

1902 Pike, pickerel, mascalonge. Forest and Stream 59: 193. 

An attempt to correct misconceptions that might have arisen as a result of pre- 
vious articles. Includes a key for identification of the species. 
1905 Report on inquiry respecting food-fishes and fishing grounds. Report of the 

U.S. Commissioner of Fisheries for 1 904, pp. 8 1 - 1 62. 
1916 The fishes of Kentucky and Tennessee: a distributional catalogue of the 
known species. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 35(858):295-368. 
EVERMANN, B. W. and E. L. GOLDSBOROUGH 

1901 Notes on the fishes and mollusks of Lake Chautauqua, New York. New York 
Forest, Fish, and Game Commission, 6th Annual Report (1900), pp. 357-366. 

1902 Notes on the fishes and mollusks of Lake Chautauqua, New York. Report of 
the U.S. Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries 27: 1 69- 1 76. 

1907a The fishes of Alaska. U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, Document 624: 1-360. 
1907b A checklist of the freshwater fishes of Canada. Proceedings of the Biological 

Society of Washington 20:89-120. 

Under each species is given all the Canadian localities from which it has been 

recorded, together with references to the publications in which such records 

were made. 
EVERMANN, B. W. and W. C. KENDALL 

1896 An annotated list of the fishes known from the state of Vermont. Report of 

the U.S. Fish Commissioner for 1894, pp. 579-604. 
1902a Notes on the fishes of Lake Ontario. Report of the U.S. Commissioner of 

Fish and Fisheries for 1901, pp. 209-216. 

98 



1902b An annotated list of the fishes known to occur in Lake Champlain and its tri- 
butary waters. Report oi the U.S. Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries for 
1901. pp. 217-225. 

1902c An annotated list of the fishes known to occur in the St. Lawrence River. 
Report of the U.S. Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries for 1901, pp. 
227-240. 
EVS1N. V.N. 

1969 The pike of lakes Knent, Yavr. Doklady Otdelov i Komissn 
Geograficheskogo Obshchestv SSSR 9:138-148. 



99 



FABRI.Z. J. 

1984 Activity pattern of the thyroid gland and distribution of its hormones in tis- 
sues of fishes characterized by different ecology. Voprosy Ikhtiologii 
24:340-343. 

Regularities in iodine and thyroid homeostasis have been revealed in pike. 
The highest contents of total and hormonal iodine were found in the tissues of 
pike. Maximum iodine concentrations were recorded in the liver, kidneys, 
spleen and blood, and minimum values in the cerebrum. 

FABRICIUS. E. 

1950 Heterogeneous stimulus summation in the release of spawning activities in 
fish. Report Institute of Freshwater Research Drottningholm 31:57-99. 
Discusses some phenomena that help explain the relationship between time of 
spawning and water temperature. 

FABRICIUS, E. and K.-J. GUSTAFSON 

1958 Some new observations on the spawning behaviour of the pike, Esox lucius L. 
Report Institute of Freshwater Research Drottningholm 39:23-54. 
Spawning activities viewed in the field and in aquaria were recorded on him. 
Slow motion pictures were analysed to provide a detailed account of the 
spawning act. Aggressive behaviour, courtship, and responses from ripe and 
unripe females were observed. 

1959 Gaddans och abborrens lekbeteende. Svensk Fiskeri Tidskrift 68:6-13. 
FAGERSTROM. T., B. ASELL and A. JERNELOV 

1974 Model for accumulation of methyl mercury in northern pike Esox lucius. 
Oikos 25:14-20. 

The correspondence between the calculated concentration of methyl mercury 
in lateral muscle tissue and empirically observed values is acceptable though 
the calculated values in the lower weight range are somewhat high. 
FAGERSTROM, T., R. KURTEN and B. ASELL 

1975 Statistical parameters as criteria in model evaluation: kinetics of mercury 
accumulation in pike Esox lucius. Oikos 26: 109-1 16. 

Analysed mercury accumulation by means of computer simulations. Showed 
that patterns of temporal variations of processes at the individual level were 
reflected in statistical parameters at the population level. 
FAGO, D. 

1971a Statewide fishery research. Factors influencing success of northern pike pro- 
duction in managed spawning and rearing marshes. Wisconsin Division of 
Forestry, Wildlife, and Recreation, Project F-83-R-6: 1-15. 
Gives production of fingerlings from stocked pike in two Wisconsin marshes. 
Fingerlings from one marsh were tagged and released. Also, two lakes were 
stocked with fingerlings. 

1971b Statewide fishery research. Factors influencing success of northern pike pro- 
duction in managed spawning and rearing areas. Wisconsin Conservation 
Department, Project F-83-R-7: 1-3. 

The Pleasant Lake managed spawning marsh produced 1,218 fingerlings in 
1970 from previously stocked pike. The fingerlings were tagged and released 
into the lake. 

1973 The northern's finicky spawning needs. Wisconsin Conservation Bulletin 
38(2): 18-19." 



100 



1983 Distribution and relative abundance of tishes in Wisconsin. Black, Trem- 
pealeau, and Buffalo riser basins. Wisconsin Department of Natural 
Resources. Technical Bulletin 140:1-120. 

1985 Distribution and relative abundance of fishes in Wisconsin. V. Grant and 
Platte. Coon and Bad Axe, and LaCrosse river basins. Wisconsin Department 
of Natural Resources. Technical Bulletin 152:1-112. 

Includes numerous tables, distribution maps of the species, and discussion of 
many aspects of tish distribution in the three basins. 
PACK). D. M. 

1977 Northern pike production in managed spawning and rearing marshes. 
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Technical Bulletin 96:1-30. 
Two marshes were stocked with spawning pike to determine factors that 
influence production. Average length, weight, fecundity, stocking rate, and 
ratio of the fish are provided. Influential factors were spawning stock, aquatic 
vegetation, egg survival. food supply, and physical and chemical factors. A 
Fortran program was developed to analyse stomach contents, /ooplankton. 
and benthic samples. 
FALCON. J. 

1979a L'organe pineal du brochet {Eso.x lucius L.). I. Etude anatomique et cytoloo- 
gique. [The pineal organ of the pike, Eso.x lucius L. I. A light and electron 
microscopic study.] Annales de Biologie Animale Biochimie Biophysique 
19:445-465. 

Detailed description of the pineal organ with some discussion as to the possi- 
ble functions of specific components. 

1979b The pineal organ of the pike, Eso.x lucius L. II. An electron microscopic 
study of photoreceptor cell differentiation and regression and variations of the 
photoreceptive potential in different pineal regions. Annales de Biologie Ani- 
male Biochimie Biophysique 19:661-688. 
FALCON. J.. M. T. JUILLARD and J. P. COLLIN 

1980a The pineal organ of the pike Esox lucius. 4. Endogenous serotonin and mono 
amine oxidase activity of a histochemical ultracytochemical and pharmaco- 
logical study. Reproduction Nutrition Developpement 20:139-154. 

1980b The pineal organ of the pike Esox lucius. 5. Radioautographic study of in 
vivo and in vitro incorporation of indoleaminergic precursors. Reproduction 
Nutrition Developpement 20:991-1010. 
FALCON. J. and H. MEISSL 

1980 Structure and function of the pineal organ of the pike Esox lucius. Pfluegers 
Archiv European Journal of Physiology 384 (Suppl.). 

1981 The photosensory function of the pineal organ of the pike Esox lucius: corre- 
lation between structure and function. Journal of Comparative Physiology, A. 
Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology, 144:127-138. 

FALCON. J. and J. P. MOCQUARD 

1979 The pineal organ of the pike {Esox lucius L.). III. Intrapineal pathways for 
conduction of photosensory messages. Annales de Biologie Animale 
Biochimie Biophysique 14:1043-1062. 
FALCONER, H. 

1868 Miscellaneous notes on Indian /oology. II. Note on an Indian species of 
Esox. In Murcheson, C. ed., Palaeontological memoirs and notes of the late 
Hugh Falconer, vol. 1:589-590. 

101 



FALK. M. R. and L. W. DAHLKE 

1974 Data on the lake and round whitetish, lake cisco, northern pike and Arctic 
grayling from Great Bear Lake, N.W.T. Canada Department of the Environ- 
ment, Data Report CEN/D-74-l:1-52. 

Creel census program was conducted from 1971 to 1973. Data and sum- 
maries on length, weight, age, growth, sex, and maturity of pike are 
presented. 
FALK, M. R. and D. V. GILLMAN 

1975a Mortality data for angled Arctic grayling and northern pike from the Great 
Slave Lake area. Northwest Territories. Canada Department of the Environ- 
ment, Data Report Series CEN/D-75-1 : 1-24. 

Results of this study provide data on which possible regulation changes such 
as mandatory barhless hooks, fly-fishing only restriction, or minimum size 
limits may be based. 

1975b Data on the lake and round whitefish, lake cisco, northern pike, Arctic grayl- 
ing and longnose sucker from the east arm of Great Slave Lake, N.W.T. , 
1971-74. Canada Department of the Environment, Data Report Series 
CEN/D-75-2:l-95. 

Data on length, weight, age, growth, sex, and maturity are summarized in 
tabular and graphical form. 

1980 Status of the Arctic grayling and northern pike sport fisheries in the Brabant 
Island-Beaver Lake area of the Mackenzie River, Northwest Territories. 
Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 1553:53. 
FALK. M. R., D. V. GILLMAN and L. W. DAHLKE 

1974 1973 creel census data from sport fishing lodges on Great Bear and Great 
Slave Lake, Northwest Territories. Canada Department of the Environment 
Data Report Series CEN/D-74-5: 1-28. 

Data on numbers of fish caught, released, and retained, and average weight. 
Maps show areas fished. 
FALKUS. H. and F. BULLER 

1975 Falkus & Buller's freshwater fishing. London, MacDonald & James. 
FARABEE, G. B. 

1970 Factors influencing the vulnerability of largemouth bass to angling and the 
comparative learning ability of selected fishes. M.A. thesis, University of 
Missouri. 94 pp. 

Selected species, including pike, differed in degree of development of a con- 
ditioned response. 

FARRAN.G. P. 

1946 Local Irish names of fishes. Irish Naturalists' Journal 8:9-12. 

FAUBFRT, N., M. DUBREUIL, L.-R. SEGUIN and D. ROY 

1979 Propagation du grand brochet, Esox lucius L., au futur reservoir de LG 2, 
Baie James avec ou sans amenagement approprie. [Propagation of northern 
pike, Esox lucius L., in a future reservoir LG 2, James Bay, with or without 
appropriate management] /// Dube, J., and Y. Gravel, eds.. Proceedings 10th 
Warmwater Workshop, Montreal, 1977. Special Publication NE Division of 
the American Fisheries Society, Quebec Ministere du Loisir, de la Chasse et 
de laPeche, pp. 219-230. 

A program to' study repercussions on activity of fish made by the future dam 
and reservoir will determine whether existing populations of pike are 

102 



adequate to ensure natural propagation. A description of the reservoir is 

given, with growth rates and activity patterns that may be expected of the 

pike when the reservoir is filled. 
FEDAK, V. S.. A. P. KOVAL and V. F. PROKOPFNKO 

1973 Die Messung der Schleimschicht bei Fisehen. Gidrobiologicheskii Zhurnal 

9(4): 100-102. [in Russian). 
FED1N.S. P. 

1958 Znachenie shchuki \ bor'be s malotsennoi i sornoi rybol. (The importance of 

the pike in the struggle with interior and mud fish]. Rybnoe Khoziaistvo 

3:25-27. 

Information on distribution, sexual maturity, spawning, growth rate, food, and 

interaction with mud fish. 
FEDYAKHINA. R. F. 

1980 Biology of pike from Lake Lacha. Voprosy Ikhtiologii 20:59-64. 
FELDT. \V. and M. MELTZER 

1978 Concentration factors of the elements cobalt, manganese, iron, zinc and silver 
for fish. Archiv fuer Fischereiwissenschaft 29( 1-2): 105. 
FELLEGY.J. 

1975 Interview with the Kiels: big northern specialists. Fins and Feathers January 
1975. 
FERGUSON. A. and F. M. MASON 

1981 Allozyme evidence for reproductively isolated sympatric populations of 
brown trout Salmo trutta in Lough Mel v in, Ireland. Journal of Fish Biology 
18:629-642. 

FERNANDEZ ROMAN. E. 

1982 El lucio en Europa. Caza y Pesca 477:612-614. 

This popular article summarizes the angling of pike in several European 
countries and records of the bigger examples caught. 
FERREIRA. J. T.. H. J. SCHOOBEE and G. L. SMIT 

1984 The anaesthetic potency of benzocaine-hydrochloride in three freshwater fish 
species. South African Journal of Zoology 19:46. 
FETTERROLF. C. M.. Jr. 

1952 A population study of the fishes of Wintergreen Lake, Kalamazoo County, 
Michigan; with notes on movement and effect of netting on condition. M.S. 
thesis, Michigan State College. 127 pp. 
FICKLING. N. 

1982a Pike fishing intf^O's. Enfield, England, Beekay. 222 pp. 
1982b The identification of pike by means of characteristic marks. Fisheries 
Management 13:79-82. 

The markings of pike were found to be specific to individual fish. The subse- 
quent recapture of pike after two years of growth indicated that the markings 
could be used for the positive identification o\' specific pike. 
FIEBIGER.J. 

1927 Zur hechtenseuche im Worthersee. Osterreichische Fischerei-Zeitung 24. 
FILATOV. D. P. 

1935 Udalenie i peresodka zachatka glaza u embriona shchuki. Arkhiv for Ana 
tomii. Gistologii, i Embriologii 14:45-50. 116-121. 



103 



FILIPSSON,0. 

1966 Gaddexplosition i nydamt kraft-verksmagasin. Svensk Fiskeri Tidskrift 

75:142-143. 
1972 Sotvattenslaboratoriets provtiske- och provtagningsmetoder. Information fran 
Sotvattenslaboratoriet, Drottningholm 16:1-24. 
Use of metapterygoid for aging. 
FILOSOFOVA-LYZLOVA, E. M. 

1972 Isoenzymes of aspartate and alanine amino transferase of somatic muscles of 
some lower vertebrates. Biochemistry 37(3, part 1):408-413. 

FIMREITE, N. and L. M. REYNOLDS 

1973 Mercury contamination of fish in northwestern Ontario. Journal of Wildlife 
Management 37:62-68. 

Mercury levels were determined in lateral musculature of fish taken upstream 
and downstream from a chlorine plant and from lakes not contaminated from 
any known source. Maximum levels in pike were 27.8, 50-60 miles down- 
stream from the plant. 
FINNELL, L. 

1984 Statewide fish research. Northern pike studies. Northern pike life history and 
competition with salmonids. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Job Progress 
Report F-34: 1-20. 

1985 Statewide fish research. Northern pike studies. Northern pike life history and 
competition with salmonids. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Job Final Report 
F-34: 1-65. 

FINNELL, L. M. 

1983 Statewide fish research. Northern pike studies. Colorado Divison of 
Wildlife, Job Progress Report F-34: 1-29. 
FISCHTHAL, J. H. 

1947 Parasites of northwest Wisconsin fishes. 1. The 1944 survey. Transactions of 

the Wisconsin Academy of Science 37:157-220. 
1950 Parasites of northwest Wisconsin fishes. 2. The 1945 survey. Transactions of 

the Wisconsin Academy of Science 40:87-1 13. 
1952 Parasites of northwest Wisconsin fishes. 3. The 1946 survey. Transactions of 
the Wisconsin Academy of Science 41:1 7-58. 
FISH, M. P. 

1932 Contributions to the early life histories of sixty-two species of fishes from 
Lake Erie and its tributary waters. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of 
Fisheries, Bulletin 47:293-398. 
FITZMAURICE, P. 

1978 Resume of pike research in Irish waters and scientific data related to pike 
angling. Report of the Pike Committee to Bord Failte Eireann, April 30, 
1978. Appendix IV. Irish Tourist Board - Bord Failte. 
1983 Some aspects of the biology and management of pike {Esox lucius L.) stocks 
in Irish fisheries. Journal of Life Science pp. 161-173. 
FITZPATRICK, D. A. and K. F. MCGEENEY 

1975 Comparative immunology of vertebrate urate oxidase EC- 1.7. 3. 3. Compara- 
tive Biochemistry and Physiology, B, Comparative Biochemistry 51:37-40. 
FLEGEL, E. 

1965 Hechtsufzuchf. Deutscher Angelsport 17:194-195. 



104 



FLEROVA. G. L, V. I. MARTEVTYANOV and R. A ZAPRl DNOVA 

1980 Electrolyte content in the blood serum o\ fresh water tishes. Biologicheskie 
Nauki 3:46-51. 

FLICK. W. A. 

1977 Some observations on age, growth, \\xk\ habits, and vulnerability of large 
brook brout Salvelinus fontinalis from tour Canadian lakes. Le Naturaliste 
Canadien 104:353-360. 

FLICKINGER. S. A. and J. H. CLARK 

1978 Management evaluation of stocked northern pike in Colorado's small irriga- 
tion reservoirs. American Fisheries Society Special Publication I 1:284-291. 
Pike of 50 mm and 377 mm were stocked into several small irrigation reser- 
voirs. Out of 18 introductions of 50-mm pike and 4 of 377-mm pike, 2 and 4 
respectively resulted in populations of a density that would attract fishermen. 

FLOURENS. P. 

1957 Recherches experimentales sur les proprietes et les fonctions du systeme dans 
les animaux vertebres. /// Brown, M. E., ed. The physiology of fishes. New 
York. Academic Press, vol. 2, p. 43. 
FOCANT. B. and F. HURIAUX 

1976 Light chains of carp and pike skeletal muscle myosins. Isolation and charac- 
terization of the most anodic light chain on alkaline pH electrophoresis. 
FEBS (Federation of European Biochemical Societies) Letters 65:16-19. 
This work dealt with 1 ) isolation of a light chain, the fast-moving component 
in alkaline urea gel. and 2) their characterization by molecular weight deter- 
mination, ultraviolet absorption, and amino acid analysis. 
FOCANT. B., F. HURIAUX and I. A. JOHNSTON 

1976 Subunit composition of fish myofibrils: The light chains of myosin. Interna- 
tional Journal of Biochemistry 7: 129. 
FOGLE, N. E. 

1961 Report of fisheries investigations during the second year of impoundment of 
Oahe Reservoir, South Dakota, 1959. South Dakota Department of Game, 
Fish and Parks, Dingell-Johnson Project F-l-R-9(Jobs 12- 14): 1-43. 

1963a Report of fisheries investigations during the fourth year of impoundment of 
Oahe Reservoir, South Dakota, 1961. South Dakota Department of Game, 
Fish and Parks, Dingell-Johnson Project F-l-R-1 KJobs 10- 12): 1-43. 

1963b Report of fisheries investigations during the fourth year of impoundment of 
Oahe Reservoir, South Dakota, 1962. [The title is "fourth year", but the report 
apparently refers to the fifth year of impoundment.! South Dakota Depart- 
ment of Game, Fish and Parks, Dingell-Johnson Project F-l-R-12(Jobs 
10-12): 1-43. 

1965 Report of fisheries investigations during the third year of impoundment of 
Oahe Reservoir, South Dakota, 1960. South Dakota Department of Game. 
Fish and Parks, Dingell-Johnson Project F- 1 -R- 1 0( Jobs 9-1 2): 1-57. 
FOLEY. J. O. 

1925 The spermatogenesis of Umbra limi with special reference to the behavior o\~ 
the spermatogonia! chromosomes and the first maturation division. Ph.D. 
thesis. University of Wisconsin. 
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION ()l I HE UNITED NATIONS 

1959 Current bibliography for aquatic sciences and fisheries. Rome. Biology 
Branch, Fisheries Division. 

105 



1977 Yearbook fisheries statistics; catches and landings, 1976. Rome, Food and 
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, vol. 42. 

1981 Report of the 1 1th session of the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Com- 
mission. Stavanger, Norway, May 28-June 3, 1980. Food and Agriculture 
Organization of the United Nations, Fisheries Report 248:1-56. 
FORBES, S. A. 

1878 The food of Illinois fishes. Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History 
l(2):71-87. 

1888 Notes on the food of the fishes of the Mississippi Valley. Transactions of the 
American Fisheries Society 17:37-66. 

Pike are almost wholly piscivorous, only a single specimen out of the 37 
examined having taken dragonflies; 20 had taken gizzard shad Dorosoma 
cepedianum, which made nearly half of the food of the entire group. 

1890 Studies of the food of freshwater fishes. Illinois Laboratory of Natural His- 
tory 2. 
FORBES. S. A. and R. E. RICHARDSON 

1908 The fishes of Illinois. /// Natural history survey of Illinois, State Laboratory 
of Natural History, pp. 205-209. 

1920 The fishes of Illinois. 2nd ed. State Department of Registration and Educa- 
tion, Division of Natural History Survey. 357 pp. 
Gives world-wide distribution. 
FORELLE, F. 

1857 On the classification of fishes. With particular reference to the fishes of 
Canada. Article 43. /// Billings, E., ed.. The Canadian naturalist and geolo- 
gist, Montreal, J. Lovell, vol. 1, pp. 275-283. 
FORNEY, J. L. 

1967 Utility of a small spawning impoundment for increasing northern pike pro- 
duction. New York State Division of Fish and Game, Project F-17-R- 
ll/Wk.P1.02/JobA:l-3. 

Upstream migrating pike were captured in a trap net during the spawning runs 
in 1964-66. Adults were transferred to the impoundment, and spawned in 
early April. Fewer young were produced in 1966 than in 1964 or 1965, but 
the average size was larger. Yield in weight was 49.4 lb in 1964, 23.5 lb in 
1965, and 44.2 lb in 1966. 

1968 Production of young northern pike in a regulated marsh. New York Fish and 
Game Journal 15:143-154. 

From 1964 to 1967 the production and survival of young pike were studied in 
an experimental marsh on Oneida Lake. Recoveries during subsequent 
spawning runs suggested that few pike survived that were less than 65 mm 
long when they left the marsh. 
1977 Evidence of inter- and intraspecific competition as factors regulating walleye 
{Stizostedion vitreum vitrewri) biomass in Oneida Lake, New York. Journal 
of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 34: 1 8 1 2-1 820. 
Reviews the events that led to the decline of the pike population. Reduction 
of wetlands, canalization, and less identifiable cultural changes nearly elim- 
inated the American eel Anguilla rostrata and esocids, while the walleye 
Stizostedion vitreum population flourished, possibly due to reduced 
interspecific competition. 



106 



FORTIN, P. 

1864 Continuation of the list of tish of the Gulf and River St. Lawrence. /// 
Annual report of Pierre Fortin, Esq., commanding the expedition for the pro- 
tection of the fisheries in the Gulf of St. Lawrence during the season of 1863, 
pp. 60-72. 
FORTIN, R.. P. DUMONT and H. FOURNIER 

1983 La reproduction du grand brochet (Eso.x Indus L.) dans certains plans dean 
du sud du Quebec. /// Billard, R., ed„ Le brochet gestion dans le milieu 
naturel et elevage. Paris, Institute National de la Recherche Agronomique, 
pp. 39-5 1 . 

Spawning activity, egg deposition, and growth of young-of-the-year were stu 
died in relation to water temperatures and water levels. 
FORTIN. R.. P. DUMONT. H. FOURNIER. C. CADIEUX and D. VILLENEUVE 

1982 Reproduction et force des classes d'age du Grand Brochet (Eso.x lucius L.) 
dans le Haut-Richelieu et la baie Missisquoi. Canadian Journal of Zoology 
60:227-240. 

Pike were caught on the spawning grounds in April 1975-78; habitat, water 
depth, and temperature are described. Water temperature influenced the 
length of spawning and incubation periods. Factors that may determine year 
class strength are discussed. 
FORTUNATOVA. K. R. 

1955 Metodika izucenia pitania khishchykh ryb. [Methods of studying the feeding 
of predatory fishes]. Trudy Soveshchanii Ikhtiologicheskoi Komissii Aka- 
demii Nauk SSSR 6:62-84. 
FORTUNATOVA. K. R. and O. A. POPOVA 

1973 Pitanie i pishchev'ie vzaimootnoshenniia khishchnykh ryb v del'te Volgi. 
(The interrelation of nutrition and food in predatory fish in the Volga Delta.) 
Moscow. Publishing House "Science". 298 pp. 
FOURNIER. H. 

1980 Quelques aspects de la biologie du grand brochet (Eso.x lucius L.) dans une 
portion de la riviere Richelieu comprise entre la frontiere canado-americaine 
et St. Paul-de-lTle-aux-Noix. B.Sp.Sc. thesis, ITJniversite du Quebec a 
Montreal. 143 pp. 
FOWLER, H. W. 

1913 Some local fish-eating birds. Cassinia 27:6-16. 

1915 Fishes from eastern Canada. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sci- 
ence, Philadelphia, pp. 515-519. 
1918a Fishes from the middle Atlantic states and Virginia. Occasional Papers of the 

Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, 56:1-19. 
1918b A review of the fishes described in Cope's partial catalogue of the cold- 
blooded vertebrata of Michigan. Occasional Papers of the Museum (>1 /ool- 
ogy. University of Michigan, 60:1-51. 
1919 A list of the fishes of Pennsylvania. Proceedings of the Biological Societ) of 

Washington 32:49-73. 
1935 Notes on South Carolina freshwater fishes. Charleston Museum. Contribution 

7:1-28. 
1945 A study of the fishes of the southern piedmont and coastal plain. Acadcim of 
Natural Science. Philadelphia. Monograph 7:1-408. 



107 



1948 Fishes of the Nueltin Lake expedition Keewatin 1947, Part I, Taxonomy. 
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia, 100:141-152. 
FOX, D. L. 

1957 The pigments of fishes. /// Brown, M. E., ed., The physiology of fishes, New 
York, Academic Press, vol. 2, pp. 367-385. 
FRANCO, J. M. 

1973 Residual levels of chlorinated pesticides in some Spanish species and their 
relation with the environment. Investigation Pesquera 37: 1 15-145. 
FRANCOIS. Y. 

1966 Structure et developpement de la vertebre de Salmo et des teleosteens. 
Archives de Zoologie Experimental et Generale 107:287-328. 
FRANK, S. and J. VOSTRADOVSKY 

1961 Die ersten Erkenntnisse bezuglich der Anderungen, der Entwicklung und des 
Wachstums der Hechte und Plotzen in der Talsperre von Lipno. Sbornik 
KVM Ceske Budejovice 3: 147-158. 
FRANKENNE, F., L. JOASSIN, J. CLOSSET and C. GERDAY 

1971 The isolation and sequence of three high molecular weight trypsic peptides of 
pike parvalbumin. Archives Internationales de Physiologie et de Biochimie 
79:831-832. 
FRANKENNE, F., L. JOASSIN and C. GERDAY 

1973 The amino-acid sequence of the pike (Eso.x Indus) parvalbumin. FEBS 
(Federation of the European Biochemical Societies) Letters 35:145-147. 
FRANKLIN. D. R. 

1959 Some phases of the early life history of the northern pike, Eso.x lucius L. with 
special reference to the factors influencing the numerical strength of year 
classes. Ph.D. thesis, University of Minnesota. 127 pp. 

1960 Notes on the early growth and allometry of the northern pike. Copeia 
1960:143-144. 

FRANKLIN, D. R. and L. L. SMITH, Jr. 

1960a Unitized system of water-level and fish population control structures for 
spawning sloughs. Progressive Fish-Culturist 22: 138-140. 

1960b Note on the development of scale patterns in the northern pike, Eso.x lucius L. 
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 89:85. 

1960c Notes on the early growth and allometry of the northern pike Eso.x lucius L. 
Copeia 1960:143-144. 

An analysis was made of allometric growth, using 90 fish between 25 and 1 15 
mm. 

1963 Early life history of the northern pike, Eso.x lucius L., with special reference 
to the factors influencing the numerical strength of year classes. Transactions 
of the American Fisheries Society 92:91-1 10. 

Determined the relationship of adult pike abundance to the strength of result- 
ing year classes, the existence and chronology of critical survival periods, and 
the nature and origin of the mortality mechanisms involved. 
FREEMAN. R. B. 

1980 British natural history books, 1495-1900: a handlist. London, Dawson. 437 
pp. 

This publication lists 4,206 titles, including books on the fauna and flora of 
the British Isles, Ireland, the Channel Islands, and Heligoland. Most of those 
pertaining to fish will include something on pike. 

108 



FRESHWATER BIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

1961 Twenty-ninth annual report for the year ended 31 March 1961. Freshwater 
Biological Association, Ambleside, Westmoreland. 88 pp. 
FREY, D. G. 

1964 Remains of animals in Quaternary Lake and hog sediments and their interpre 
tation. Archiv fuer Hydrobiologie Beithefte 2:1-1 14. 
FROLOVA. E. N. and T. V. SHCHERBINA 

1975 A new species of the genus Azygia. Parazitologiya 9:489-493. 
FROST. G. A. 

1926 A comparative stud) of the otoliths. IV. Haplorhi. Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History 18(9). 
FROST. S.. R. I. COLLINSON and M. P. THOMAS 

1978 Fish deaths at Elton Reservoir. International Journal of Environmental Stu- 
dies 12:133. 
FROST. W . and C. KIPLING 

1967 Windermere's wave of change. The Coarse Fish Conference. Fishing. July 
1967. pp. 15-16. 

Information on sex ratio, age structure, growth, and interspecific relation- 
ships. 
FROST. W. E. 

1946 On the food relationships of fish in Windermere. 13th Biologisch Jaarboek, 
Dodonaea 1946:216-231. 

1954 The food of pike, Esox lucius L.. in Windermere. Journal of Animal Ecology 
23:339-360. 

The stomach contents of 3,060 specimens 1.05-105 cm long, collected by gill 
net. seine, and hand-net, were examined. Diet varied with size classes and 
season. Abundance and availability rather than selection determined the 
species eaten by pike. The effects of pike predation on the size and structure 
of prey populations are discussed. 

1963 The pike — its age. growth and predatory habits. /// Proceedings of the 1st 
British Coarse Fish Conference, Liverpool, 1963, pp. 35-39. 
Size data were obtained from pike gill netted from Lake Windermere, and age 
and growth information were determined from opercular bones. Two 
diagrams show age and its relationship to length and weight. 

1977 The food of char Salvelinus willughbii in Windermere. Journal of Fish Biol- 
ogy 11:531-547. 

Brief notes on diet of pike fry. Concluded that char and pike do not compete 
for food in this lake. 
FROST. W. E. and C. KIPLING 

1959 The determination of the age and growth of pike {Esox lucius L.) from scales 
and opercular bones. Journal du Conseil International pour I'ExpIoration de 
la Mcr 24:314-341. 

Both methods were examined critically and tested for validity. An equation 
that related fish length and length o\' the anterior part of the scale for Winder- 
mere pike is given. 

1961 Some observations on the growth of pike. Eso.x lucius, in Windermere. Inter- 
national Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology Proceedings 
14:776-781. 
Used opercular bones to determine age and growth {)( pike. Walford plots 

109 



were used as a method of detecting whether or not annuli were missing on 
any particular bone. 

1965 Some observations on the age and growth of pike (Esox Indus L.) in Winder- 
mere. Salmon and Trout Magazine, January 1965, pp. 21-27. 
Information on the opercular bone method of assessing age and growth, age, 
and mean length and weight of males and females caught in the 1946-47 sea- 
son, and growth of pike in other British and Irish waters compared to those of 
Lake Windermere. 

1967 A study of reproduction, early life, weight-length relationship and growth of 
pike, Esox lucius L., in Windermere. Journal of Animal Ecology 
36:651-693. 

Pike were sampled from 1944 to 1965 by gill nets. Age and growth were 
determined from opercular bones, and growth was described by the von Ber- 
talanffy equation. Changes in ovaries and testes throughout the year and the 
effects of water temperature on hatching time and growth rates were 
recorded. Behaviour of fry in aquaria and characteristics of the spawning 
area are described. 

1968a Removal of pike (Esox lucius) from Windermere and some of its effect on the 
population dynamics of that fish. Proceedings of the 3rd British Coarse Fish 
Conference, Liverpool, 1967, pp. 53-56. 

About 8,000 pike were removed since 1944 by annual gill netting. Deter- 
mined effects on abundance, size, growth rate, number of prey, and angling. 
Calculated age and growth from opercular bones. 

1968b Experiments on the effect of temperature on the growth of young pike, Esox 
lucius L. Salmon and Trout Magazine 184:170-178. 

Years in which growth of pike was better were years that had above average 
temperature in summer and early autumn. It seems that the warmer the water, 
the better the growth of pike at any age. 

1970 A study of the mortality, population numbers, production and food consump- 
tion of pike, Esox lucius L., in Windermere from 1944-1962. Journal of 
Animal Ecology 39:1 15-157. 

A total of 7,751 pike were caught in fine flax gill nets each winter from 
1944-45 to 1964-65, and tagged every year from 1949 to 1965. Information 
on mortality rate, estimated population of adult pike, population density, pro- 
duction, food consumption, and year class strengths. 
FRY. F. E. J. 

1947 Effects of the environment on animal activity. University of Toronto Studies 
in Biology 55, Ontario Fisheries Research Laboratory Publication 68: 1-62. 

A graph shows the relation between temperature and oxygen consumption. 

1955 Size, catch and population studies of lake trout, smallmouth bass, and north- 
ern pike in Manitoulin Island waters. Unpublished MS. 5 pp. 

1960 Requirements for the aquatic habitat. Pulp, Paper and Paperboard Industrial 
Waste Conference, Chicago, 1959. 

Mentions pike in a histogram depicting temperature preference of various 
stream fishes in relation to stream temperatures associated with "good fish 
faunas". 
FRY, F. E. J. and V. B. CHAPMAN 

1948 The lake trout fishery in Algonquin Park from 1936-1945. Transactions of 
the American Fisheries Society 75:19-35. 

110 



Pike were captured in a limited region in the northwest corner of the park. 
FRY. F. E. J. and J. P. CUERRIER 

1941 Liste des poissons des lacs et des rivieres du Haul Saint-Laurent et de la 
region de Montreal. Quebec Ministere de la Chasse et de la Peche, Rapport 
de la Station Biologique de Montreal et de la Station Biologique du Pare des 
Laurentides, 2(App. 3):82-99. 
FUHRMANN. O. 

1934a Le brochet. Sa nourriture et sa croissance. Bulletin Suisse Peche el Piscicul- 
ture 3:33-37. 

1934b Alexins de brochets monstrueux. Bulletin suisse Peche et Pisciculture 
7-8:123-126. 
FUIMAN.L. 

1982 Esocidae. /// Auer, N. A., ed., Identification of larval fishes of the Great 
Lakes basin with emphasis on the Lake Michigan drainage. Great Lakes 
Fishery Commission, Special Publication 82-3: 1-744 pp. 
Key to larval esocids, including pike, and descriptions from egg to 50.5 mm 
TL. Illustrations 7.9 to 50.5 m TL. 



I I 



GABEL. J. A. 

1974 Species and age composition of trap net catches in Lake Oahe, South Dakota, 
1963-1967. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Technical Paper 71-82:1-21. 
GABELHOUSE. D. W., Jr. 

1981 Use of relative stock (RSD) and catch rate for stock assessment. Proceedings 
of the 43rd Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference, 1981 . 

A "quality" size subdivision system was developed to include minimum "pre- 
ferred", "memorable", and "trophy" sizes. The approximate length ranges 
and proposed lengths estimated as percentages of world record lengths are as 
follows: for minimum Stock (10.5-13.7, 14 inches). Quality (18.9-21.5, 21 
inches). Preferred (23.7-28.9, 26 inches). Memorable (31.0-33.6, 32 inches), 
and Trophy (38.9-42.0, 40 inches). 
GABOURY. M. N. 

1982 Fish stock assessment of Burntwood Lake, 1980. Manitoba Department of 
Natural Resources, Manuscript Report 82-15:1-80. 

Pike were smaller than in other northern lakes but relatively numerous. Pike 
populations appeared healthy and could withstand more consistent and inten- 
sive exploitation. 
GABOURY, M. N. and J. W. POTALAS 

1982 The fisheries of Cross, Pipestone and Walker lakes, and effects of hydro- 
electric development. Manitoba Department of Natural Resources, 
Manuscript Report 82-14:1-198. 

Assesses the fish stocks of the lakes and describes impacts of the current 
water level regime as regulated by the Jenpeg hydro-electric impoundment. 

GABRIELSON. I. N. and F. LAMONTE 

1950 The fisherman's encyclopedia. 2nd ed. Harrisburg, Stackpole and Hech. 698 
pp. 

GAGE, S. H. 

1942 Zymogen granules in the fishes. Transactions of the American Fisheries 
Society 72:263-266. 

All American fishes except Amphioxus and the Cyclostomata have a pancreas 
in which there is an abundance of zymogen granules. These are the precur- 
sors of the digestive ferment of pancreatic juice. Mingled with the exocrine 
pancreatic tissue is the islet or internal secreting endocrine tissue, with minute 
particles that are especially large in pike. 

GAJDUSEK, J. and V. RUBCOV 

1983 Investigations on the microstructure of egg membranes in pike, Esox lucius. 
Folia Zoologica 32:145-152. 

GALAT. D. L. 

1973 Normal embryonic development of the muskellunge {Esox masquinongy). 
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 102:384-391. 
GALINA, N. V., E. F. MARTINSON and V. I. REDIKSON 

1958 On the biotechnique in artificial breeding of pike. Rybnoe Khoziaistvo 
2:26-28. 

Gives recommendations for collecting, fertilizing, transporting, and incubat- 
ing pike eggs. 
GAMMON, J. R. 

1965 Device for collecting eggs of muskellunge, northern pike, and other scatter- 
spawning species. Progressive Fish-Culturist 27:78. 

112 



Describes the construction o\' a tray that reduces the difficulty of collecting 
eggs of fish species that scatter their eggs. 
GARADI. P. 

1978 Csukaevadek tavi elonevelesenek tapasztalatai a Temperaltvizu Hals/aporito 
Gazdasagban. Halaszat 24:94-95. 
GARDNERS. A. 

1926 Report on the respirator) exchange in freshwater fish, with suggestions as to 
further investigations. Fishery Investigations, Ministry of Agriculture, Fish, 
and Food (Great Britain), Ser. 1, Sea Fish, 3:1-17. 

Two pike were placed in a tub of water at I 1 C. The water temperature was 
slowly raised to 27 C, at which the pike became more active and respiration 
deeper. At 30 C, movements became convulsive and both fish turned over. 
GARDNER. J. A. and G. KING 

1923 On the respiratory exchange in fresh water fish. Part 4. On pike. Biochemi- 
cal Journal 17:170-173. 
GARRARD. J. 

1886 The game fishes of the west. The mascalonge of the Mississippi system. The 
American Angler, pp. 12-14. 

Discussed the discrepancy over identification and naming of esocids, includ- 
ing pike. Argued that scientific names were not correctly descriptive. 
GASBARINO. P. 

1985 Trophy northern pike. Angler & Hunter 10( 1 ):20-22. 
GASOWSKIEY. M. 

1962 Krablouste i ryby (Cyclostome et Pisces). Kluc/e do oznaczania kregowcow 
Polski Czesc. 1. Polska Akademia Nauk, Zaklad Zoologiesystematyc/nejwk- 
rakow/ie, pp. 1-240. 
GAY. M. 

1975 The beginner's guide to pike angling. London, Pelham. 
1978 Pike from pits and lakes. /// Guttfield, F., ed.. The big fish scheme. London, 
Benn. 
GEE. A. S. 

1978 The distribution and growth of coarse fish in gravel-pit lakes in south-east 
England. Freshwater Biology 8:385. 
GEE. J. H., K. MACHNIAK and S. M. CHALANCHUK 

1974 Adjustment of buoyancy and excess internal pressure of swimbladder gases in 
some North American freshwater fishes. Journal of the Fisheries Research 
Board of Canada 31: 1139- 1141. 

Young-of-the-year pike taken from inlet streams of large lakes became 
significantly more buoyant in current than in still water. 

GEE. J. H.. R. E. TALLMAN and H. J. SMART 

1978 Reactions of some great plains fishes to progressive hypoxia. Canadian Jour- 
nal of Zoology 56:1962-1966. 

Fish were examined in progressive hypoxia to see if they used dissolved oxy- 
gen in the surface film. Pike were active only when breathing the surface 
film. 

GEIGER.W., II. J. MENGandC. RUHLE 

1975 Effects of simulated pumped storage operation on northern pike fry. 
Schwei/erische Zeitschrift fuer Hydrobiologie 37:225-234. 

An examination of the effects on pike fi\ of periodic, simulated water level 

I 13 



fluctuations produced by pumped-storage operations. Daily fluctuations of 10 
cm caused a significant increase in the daily mortality rate. Waves reduced 
the detrimental effect of water level fluctuations, at least during the adhesive 
phase of fry. 

GELINEO, S. 

1969 Hamoglobinkonzentration im Blut. Bulletin de FAcademie Serbe des Sci- 
ences Classe des Sciences Mathematiques et Naturelles 46(12):25-67. 

GENGERKE. T. 

1977 Commercial fisheries investigations. Northern pike investigations. Iowa 
Conservation Commission, Project Completion Report, Project 2-225- 
R:l-42. 

Data on life history characteristics, population size, length-weight relation- 
ships, condition factors, age and growth, fecundity, and movement were col- 
lected from pike from the Mississippi River, 1974-77. Concentrations of 
dieldrin, DDE, heptochlor epoxide, chlordane, mercury and PCB's in pike 
flesh were less than FDA tolerance levels. Recommendations for returning 
pike to the commercial fishery are presented. 

GENINA, N. V. 

1958 Iskusstvennoje razvedenije scuki i vozmoznosfjejo transportirovki. Nauc- 
naja konferencija po izuceniju vodojemov Pribaltiki 6:104-105. 

GENINA, N. V., E. F. MARTINSEN and V. Y. REDIKSON 

1958 O biotekhnike iskusstvennogo razvedaniya shchuki. [On biological methods 
of the pike.] Rybnoye Khozyaystvo 34(2):26-28. 

Detailed description of a method of artificial breeding of pike. Incubation 
lasted 8 days at temperatures of 12-13 C. 

GENSCH, R. 

1979 Results and information on the rearing of fish brood in illuminated cage in the 
VEB Inland Fishery, Frankfurt. Zeitschrift fuer Binnenfischerei 26(2):38-41. 
Results of rearing pike and other species in 2x2x2 m cages with artificial light 
to attract zooplankton. 

GEOFFROY, C. J. 

1735 Suite de Pexamen chimique des chairs des animaux, ou de quelques-unes de 
leurs parties, etc. Memoirs de FAcademie de Science, Paris, 1732:17-30. 
GEORGE, C.J. 

1980 The fishes of the Adirondack Park. New York Department of Environmental 
Conservation. 93 pp. 

Changes in the distribution of pike in the park since 1930 were reviewed, 

along with feeding and reproductive habits. The North American angling 

record from 1940 was mentioned. 
GEORGES. D. 

1964 Evolution morphologique et histologique des organes adhesifs du brochet 

{Esox lucius L.). Travaux Laboratoire d'Hydrobiologie et de Pisciculture de 

F University de Grenoble 56:7-16. 
GEORGESCAULD, D and H. DUCLOHIER 

1969 Transient fluorescence signals from pyrene labeled pike nerves during action; 

potential possible implications for membrane fluidity changes. Biochemistry 

and Biophysical Research Communications 85:1 186-1 191. 



114 



GERDAY. C. 

1976 The primary structure of the parvalbumin II of pike {Eso.x lucius). European 
Journal o\' Biochemistry 70:305. 
GERKING. S. D. 

1945 The distribution of the tishes of Indiana. Investigations of Indiana Lakes and 

Streams 3(1): 1-1 37. 
1955 Key to the fishes of Indiana. Investigations of Indiana Lakes and Streams 

4(2): 1-86. 
1959 The restricted movements of fish populations. Biological Reviews 
34:221-242. 
GESNER 

1558 Tigurini Historiae Animalium. 

First to mention Emperor's pike captured 1497 in lake in Wurtemburg. A 
copper ring around the gill region with the inscription saying that it had been 
placed in the lake by Emperior Frederick II 1230, 267 years earlier. The fish 
was 19 feet long, 250 lb. An oil painting hangs in the castle of Lautern, Swa- 
bia. The skeleton, in the cathedral at Mannheim, consists of vertebra of more 
than one individual. 
GIANOTTI. F. S. and G. GIOVINAZZO 

1975 Four years of fishery, 1972-1975, in Lake Trasimeno. Rivista di Idrobiolo- 
gica 14:283-329. 
GIANOTTI. F. S.. G. GIOVINAZZO and L. GORI 

1975 Four years of fishery, 1968-1971, in Lake Trasimeno. Rivista di Idrobiolo- 
gica 14:209-262. 

GIBB. B.. I. BECKER and M. KRAEMER 

1974 Immunobiological studies in the antigenic character of indigenous fishes. 
Part 4. Gel chromatographic and sedimentation analytic findings. Biolo- 
gisches Zentralblatt 93:537-544. 
GIBBINSON.J. 

1974 Pike. London, Osprey. 
GIBBS. J. 

1976 King of the weedbeds. Outdoor Life 158(5):66-67, 1 14, 1 16, 1 18. 
Colourful portrayal depicting struggle with angler, past records of size, enor- 
mous appetite, and hunting behaviour. Advice on angling strategy and lures, 
based on feeding habits and preferred locations. 

GIBSON. M. B. and J. W. MACPHERSON 

1954 Esox lucius x Eso.x masquinongy hybrids. University of Toronto, Department 
of Zoology, Ontario Fisheries Research Laboratory Report. 3 pp. 
GIBSON. R. J. and C. E. HUGHES 

1969 Investigation of the angling potential in the Spruce Woods Provincial Park. 
Manitoba Department of Mines and Natural Resources, MS Report 
69-10:1-28. 

Pike were found in four of the six ox-bow lakes studied. If encouraged, fish 
immigration from Assiniboine River could provide angling and make use of 
the excellent nursery areas in the lakes. Pike stocking on a "put and take" 
basis in Muckie Manitou Lake was considered. 
GIERALTOWSKI, M. 

1938 Sprawa /arybiania wod otwartveh s/c/upakiem. | Stocking o\ open waters 
with pike. | Pr/eglad Rybacki 11:193-195. 

I 15 



GIHR, M. 

1957 Zur Entwicklung des Hechtes. |On the development of the pike]. Revue 
Suisse de Zoologie 64:356-470. 

Describes morphology of embryo and post-embryonic stage during which it 
attaches itself to a nearby object. Towards the end of this stage, it begins 
tilling its air bladder, and with much effort rises to the surface. Describes 
morphology for each successive stadium of the free phase. 

1958 Vom Hechtei /urn Vollhecht. Osterreichische Fischerei-Zeitung 1 1(8). 
GILDERHUS, P. A., B. L. BERGER and R. E. LENNON 

1969 field trials of antimycin A as a fish toxicant. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 
Investigations in Fish Control 27:1-21. 
GILDERHUS. P. A.. B. E. BERGER. J. B. SILLS and P. D. HARMAN 

1973 The efficacy of quinaldine sulfate as an anesthetic for freshwater fish. U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, Investigations in Fish Control 49:1-9. 
The efficacy of the anesthetic was little affected by water temperature, but the 
compound lowers the pH of some soft waters to below 6, the point at which it 
becomes ineffective as an anesthetic. All fish retained some reflex action, 
thus some large fish were difficult to handle. 
GILES, N. 

1984 Development Of the overhead fright response in wild and predator-naive 
three-spined sticklebacks, Gastcrosteus aculeatus L. Animal Behaviour 
32:276. 
GILL. T..ed. 

1898 "Report in part" of Samuel L. Mitchill, M. D., on the fishes of New York. 
Washington. 
GILL. T.N. 

1896 The families of synentognathous fishes and their nomenclature. Proceedings 
of the U.S. National Museum 18:167-178. 
GILLEN, A. L.. R. A. STEIN and R. E. CARLINE 

1981 Predation by pellet-reared tiger muskellungc on minnows and bluegills in 
experimental systems. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 
1 10:197-209. 

Pike-muskellunge hybrids were size-selective in their choice of prey. In both 
aquaria and ponds they switched more rapidly to minnows than to bluegill. 
GILTAY.C. M. 

1832 Commentatio de Esoce lucio neurologue descripto et cum religuis vertebratis 
animalibus comparata. Lugduni Batavorum. 

1833 Commentatio ad quaestionem..."Quaeritur descripto neurologica Esocis 
///(//...cum reliquis vertebratis animalibus. ..comparata". Annales Academie 
Lugduno Batavae. 

GIRARD,C. I . 

1854 Observations upon the American species of the genus Eso.x. Proceedings of 
the Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia, 6:386. 

The "large number of species" was separated into two groups depending upon 
cheek scalation. The maskallonge (£. nobilior) and those with naked cheeks 
and opercular apparatus were called pikes, and E. reticulums and those with 
scaled cheeks and operculars were called pickerels. 



1 16 



GIRSA, I. I. 

1969 Reaction to light in sonic freshwater fishes in the course of early development 
and in altered physiological states. Problems of Ichthyology 9: 1 26- 1 .VS. 
GLASS, R. I ... T. P. KR1CK and A. E. ECKHARDT 

1974 New series o\' fatty acids in northern pike {Eso.\ litems). Lipids 9: 1004-1008. 
GLASS, R. U I ■ P. KRICK, D. L. OLSON and P. L. THORSON 

1977 The occurrence and distribution o\' furan fatty-acids in spawning male fresh 
water fish. Lipids 12:828-836. 

GLA/l NOVA.G. A. 

1974 The content o\ fibrinogen and the activity of fibrin stabilizing factor in various 
vertebrates. Zhurnal Evolyutsionnoi Biokhimii i Fiziologii 10:303-304. 
GODDARD, J. A. and L. C. REDMOND 

1978 Northern pike, tiger muskellunge, and walleye populations in Stockton Lake. 
Missouri: a management evaluation. American Fisheries Society Special 
Publication 11:313-319. 

A three-stage tilling coupled with spring releases of pike fry and fingerlings 
into Stockton Lake for three successive years resulted in good survival, 
exceptional growth, and a quality fishery. With a minimum size limit of 762 
mm. harvest averaged 1.5 kg/hectare. 

GODFREY. J.. Jr. 

1945 Muskies unlimited. Outdoors 13(8): 10-1 1, 36. 

GOEDDE. L. E. and D. W. COBLE 

1981 Effects of angling on a previously fished and an unfished warmwater fish 
community in two Wisconsin lakes. Transactions of the American fisheries 
Society 110:594-603. 

Population structure and other vital statistics were determined for the pike 
population in Allen Lake (fished) and Mid Lake (unfished) for two successive 
3-year periods. Population statistics in Mid Lake changed after angling. 

GOEDMAKERS. A. and B. L. VERBOOM 

1974 Studies on the maturation and fecundity of the pike, Eso.x lucius L. Aquacul- 
ture 4:3-12. 

GOETHBERG. A. 

1976 Bioassay technique using fish for effluent tests. 4. FAO/SIDA training course 
On aquatic pollution in relation to production of living resources. Food and 
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. TF-INT — I73(SWE) Suppl. 
1:68-78. 
GOLD. J. R.. W. J. KAREL and M. R. STRAND 

1980 Chromosome formulae of North American fishes. Progressive Fish-Culturist 
42:10-23. 
GOLDSPINK. C. R. and J. W. BANKS 

1975 A description of the Tjeukemeer fishery together with a note upon the yield 
statistics between 1964 and 1970. Journal of Fish Biology 7:687-708. 

Pike data include: monthly catches, total catch, some catches by individual 
fishermen in other Frisian lakes, and winter monthly catch by seine and gill 
net. 
GOLDWALD, D. S. 

1967 Die Behandlung mit Methylenblau hie Saprolegniabefall von Hechteiern. 
Deutsche Fischerei Zeitunc 14:161-164. 



I 17 



GOODE, G. B. 

1884 Natural history of useful aquatic animals. The Fisheries and Fishery Industry 
of the U.S., Section 1:1-895. 
GORDON. D., N. A. CROLL and M. E. RAU 

1978 Les parasites des animaux sauvage du Quebec. 1. Les parasites des poissons 
et des mamiferes de la region de Schefferville. [Parasites of wild animals in 
Quebec. I. Parasites of fish and mammals in the Schefferville region]. Le 
Naturaliste Canadian 105:55. 

Five species of fish (including pike) were examined during June-September 
1976. The parasites identified are listed in a table. 
GORDON. W.J. 

Our country's fishes and how to know them. London, Simpkin, Marshall, 
Hamilton, Kent. 152 pp. 
GOROVAIA. S. L. 

1969 Concerning the structure of the olfactory organ in some fish. Vestsi. Akad. 
Navuk. Belarus. SSR Ser. Siyalagichnykh Navuk 5:1 17-1 19. 
GORSL1NE.T. 

1981 Ontario's great northern pike. Ontario Out of Doors I3(3):32-33, 62, 67-68. 
Summary of recent large catches, good locations, suitable angling methods. 
GOSLINE, W. A. 

1960 Contribution toward a classification of modern Isospondylous fishes. Bulletin 
of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology, 6(6). 
Considerable discussion of the systematic position and phylogeny of esocids 
as revealed by caudal skeleton. 
GOSSELIN-REY, C, G. HAMOIR and R. K. SCOPES 

1968 Localization of creatine kinase in the starch-gel and moving-boundary elec- 
trophoretic patterns of fish muscle. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board 
of Canada 25:271 1-2714. 

Figure shows starch-gel patterns of white muscle extracts stained for creatine 
kinase. Gives migration after 4-hr electrophoresis at 20 v/cm in the cold, 
using a discontinuous system at pH 8.4. 
GOTHBERG, A. 

1977 Depleting a lake of fish for decontamination. Proceedings 20th Limnological 
Congress, Copenhagen, 1977. 306 pp. 

Tagged pike with low mercury concentrations were put into a lake to study 
quantitative changes in mercury content of muscle and liver tissues. 
GOTTBERG, G. 

1917a On the growth of pike in the Aland Islands. Suomen kalatalous 4:191-21 1. 

[in Swedish]. 
1917b Om gaddens tillvaxt i Alands skargard. Finlands Fisherier 4:223-243. 
1922 On the migrations of pike in the Aland Islands. Fiskeritidskrift Finland 
30:1-6. [in Swedish]. 
GOTTWALD, S. 

1956 Zwalczanie plesni na ikrze sielawy i szczupaka przy pomocy zieleni malachi- 
towej. [Malachite green for the prevention of mould development upon pike 
and vendace eggs.] Unpublished manuscript, 22 pp. 

Use of malachite green and a practical method of its application for eggs 
incubated in jars. 



118 



1958a Zagadnienie dalszego obnizania stral ikry szczupakow i sielawy. [Problem of 

decreasing the losses of pike and vendace eggs.) Gospodarka Rybna 
10(3):26-27. 

Errors and mishandlings during artificial fertilization of eggs and their tran- 
sport. Periods of high susceptibility of eggs to external factors. 

1 958b Zwalczanie plesni na ikrze sielawy i szczupaka przy pomocy zieleni malachi- 
towej. [Combating fungus on eggs of Coregonus albula L. and pike h\ 
means of malachite green.] Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych, Ser. B, 
73(2):295-3il. 

Studies on the treatment oi mould occurring on eggs of pike and vendace dur- 
ing incubation. Eggs were washed in a solution of malachite green. Descrip- 
tion of the procedure, apparatus, solutions used, and the results of treatment. 

I960 Z biologii zaplodnienia i rozwoju ikry szczupaka. [Biology of pike fertiliza- 
tion and egg development.] Gospodarka Rybna 1 2(2):26— 28. 
Proper methods of fertilizing pike eggs in artificial conditions and their bio- 
logical background. Estimations of the period during which eggs can be kept 
in closed jars. 

1966a New methods applied during incubation and hatching of pike hatch. Gospo- 
darka Rybna 18(4):6-7. 

1966b Zastosowanie blekitu metylenowego do zwalczania plesni na ikrze szczu- 
paka. [The application of methylene blue for combating fungus on pike 
eggs.] Gospodarka Rybna 18(1()):8-10. 

1970 Experimentelle Apparaturen zur Herstellung von Sauerstoffgradienten. 
[Apparatus for creating a gradient in oxygen concentration]. Archiv fuer 
Hydrobiologie Beithefte 68:143-150. 
GOTTWALD, S., Z. KLEBUKOWSKA and A. WINNICKI 

1965 Masowa smiertelnosc ikry szczupaka. [Mass mortality of pike eggs.] Gospo- 
darka Rybna 17(9):8-9. 

Mass mortality of eggs and significant deformation of pike embryos in a 

hatchery caused by an environmental factors during the early stage of embryo 

development. 
GOTTWALD. S. and Z. PLACZKOWSKI 

1958 Proby polepszania wynikow inkubacji ikry szczupaka. [Attempts to improve 

factors connected with the incubation of pike eggs.] Gospodarka Rybna 

10(8-9):21-22. 

Experimental study of the negative effect of long-term egg transport. High 

losses due to improper and prolonged storage of eggs in closed transporters. 
GOTTWALD. S. and A. WINNICKI 

1966 Observations on the abnormal development of fish egg aerola. Zeitschrift 
fuer Fischerei und deren Hilfswissenschaften 14( 1/2): 101-1 10. [in German]. 

GOUBIER, J. and Y. SOUCHON 

1982 Controle de l'cpoque de reproduction du brochet par retard de maturation. 
[Delay of the spawning period in pike J. Bulletin Franc ais de Pisciculture 
286:247-254. 

By keeping brood fish at a low temperature during winter and early spring, 
spawning was delayed by 1—2 months. Production of pike fingerlings 
obtained from such breeders were comparable to those of control lots, but a 
better growth was observed. 



I 19 



GOULD. W. R.. Ill and W. H. IRWIN 

1965 The suitabilities and relative resistances of twelve species of fish as bioassay 

animals for oil-refinery effluents. Proceedings of the Southeast Association 

of Game and Fish Commissioners 16:333-348. 
GRABDA.J. 

1971 Pasozyty kragloustych i ryb. Katalog fauny pasozytniczej Polski. [Parasites 
of Cyclostomata and fish. The catalogue of parasitic fauna of Poland.] Vol. 
2. 304 pp. 

GRABDA-KAZUBSKA. B. and L. EJSYMONT 

1969 Studies on morphology, variability and systematic status of Echinorhynchui 

borealis Linstow, 1901 (Acanthocephala, Echinorhynchidae). Acta Paras i to] 

iogica Polonica 17( l/19):65-87. 
GRAFF. D. R. 

1968 The successful feeding of a dry diet to esocids. Progressive Fish-Culturist 
30:1 52. 

Reports success in converting pike to dry food after starting them on 1 ) trout 
starter. 2) daphnia, and 3) graded daphnia followed by sucker fry. 

1972 Observations on interactions between juveniles of Esox litcius and Esox 
masquinongy. M.Ed, thesis, Pennsylvania State University. 72 pp. 

A study o\~ the competition between young pike and young muskellunge, 
including behaviour, feeding, postures (threat, alarm, submission), and rela- 
tive survival. 

1978 Intensive culture of esocids: the current state of the art. American Fisheries 
Society Special Publication 1 1:195-201. 

Discusses use of artificial diet, hatchery design, techniques, and pathology in 
culture of pike and pike-muskellunge hybrids. 
GRAFF. D. R. and L. SORENSON 

1969 The successful feeding of a dry diet to esocids. Pennsylvania Fish Commis- 
sion, unpublished MS. 13 pp. 

Of several hatchery diets, only commercial trout food was readily accepted by 
pike in both experimental and production situations. Pike accustomed to a 
diet of daphnia and graded sucker fry converted to trout food and were main- 
tained on it for several months. 

1970 The successful feeding of a dry diet to esocids. Progressive Fish-Culturist 
32:31-35. 

GRASSE, P. P. 

1958 Traite de zoologie, anatomie, systematique, biologic Tome 13, Agnathes et 

poissons, anatomie, ethologie, systematique. Paris, Libraries de FAcademie 

de Medecine. 
GRAVEL, Y. and J. DUBF 

1979 Plan de conservation du grand brochet, Esox lucius L., au lac Saint-Louis, 
Quebec. /// Dube, J., and Y. Gravel, eds., Proceedings 10th Warmwater 
Workshop, Special Publication NE Division of the American Fisheries 
Society. Quebec Ministcre du Loisir, de la Chasse et de la Peche, Montreal, 
pp. 27-59. 

Pike populations in Lake St-Louis have decreased because of the destruction 
of spawning grounds. Work has begun on physical improvement on the one 
remaining excellent habitat, with encouraging results. 



120 



1980 Les conditions In cinques el le role de la vegetation dans une frayere a grands 
brochets Eso.x lucius Linne. Eau Quebec 13:229-230. 

The effects of degradation and elimination of numerous spawning areas and 
habitat modification b\ regulation of water levels are discussed. Importance 
of vegetation in spawning habitats are noted and solutions to the problem are 
made. Observations are made on migration-stimulation factors for young 
pike related to self-defence against cannibalism. 
GRAY.T. E. 

1850 Fishes. /// Rae, J., ed., Narrative of an expedition to the shores of the Arctic- 
Sea. 1846-1847. London, T. W. Boone, pp. 204-205. 
GREELEY..!. R. 

1934 Fishes of the Raquette watershed with annotated list. Section 2. /// A biologi- 
cal survey of the Raquette Watershed. New York State Conservation Depart- 
ment. Supplement to the 23rd Annual Report (1933), Biological Survey 8, pp. 
53-108. 

1938 Fishes of the area with annotated list. Section 2. /// A biological surve\ of 
the Allegheny and Chemung watersheds. New York Conservation Depart- 
ment. Supplement to the 27th Annual Report (1937), Biological Survey 12, 
2X7 pp. 

1939a A biological survey of the freshwaters of Long Island. New York Conserva- 
tion Department, Supplement to the 28th Annual Report (1938). 

1939b Fishes of the watershed with annotated list. New York Conservation Depart- 
ment, Supplement to the 29th Annual Report ( 1939). 

1940 Fishes of the watershed with annotated list. Part 2. /// A biological survey of 
the Lake Ontario watershed. New York Conservation Department, Supple- 
ment to the 29th Annual Report (1939). 261 pp. 
GREELEY. J. R. and S. C. BISHOP 

1932 Fishes of the Upper Hudson watershed. Section 2. New York Conservation 
Department. Supplement to the 22nd Annual Report (1932), pp. 64-101. 
GREEN. D. M..Jr. 

1978 Fisheries investigations of Canadarago Lake. New York State Department of 
Environmental Conservation, Dingell-Johnson Project F-29-R, Job la: 1-36. 
Attempted to establish size, age, and species composition of the fish commun- 
ity, to be used as a baseline for assessing longterm changes in population 
structure following nutrient reduction. 
GREEN. R. 

1976 Breeding behavior of ospreys Pandion haliaetus in Scotland. Ibis 
118:475-490. 

Study at Loch Garten illustrated seasonal and diurnal changes in proportions 
of pike and trout in catch. Species composition of catch varied with prevail- 
ing weather conditions. 
GREENBANK.J. 

1950 The length-weight relationship of some upper Mississippi River tishes. 
Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee, unpublished MS. 12 pp. 
Gives a length-weight regression for pike. 

1954 Sport fisheries survey. Katmai National Monument. U.S. Department of the 
Interior, National Parks Service, Administration Report. 31 pp. 

1957 Creel census on the upper Mississippi River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Special Scientific Report Fisheries 202. 

121 



GREENE. C. W. 

1935 The distribution of Wisconsin fishes. Wisconsin Conservation Commission. 
235 pp. 

Map of distribution in Wisconsin. 
GREGORY. R. W.. A. A. ELSER and T. LENHART 

1984 Utilization of surface coal mine wastewater for construction of a northern 
pike spawning/rearing marsh. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Bio- 
logical Services, Report 84/03:1-44. 

This report illustrates potential problem areas in the planning, construction, 
and operation of such a project and stimulates ideas for developing other 
innovative uses of wastewater for fish and wildlife habitat enhancement. 
GREGORY. R. W. and T. G. POWELL 

1969 Warm-water fisheries investigations. Northern pike introduction. Colorado 
Game, Fish and Parks Department, Dingell-Johnson Report F-034-R-04, Job 
03:1-7. 
GREGORY. W. K. 

1933 Fish skulls: a study of the evolution of natural mechanisms. Transactions of 
the American Philosophy Society 23:1-481. 
GRENHOLM, A. 

1923 Studien uber die Flossenmuskulatur der Teleostier. Uppsala Universitets 
Arsskrift, pp. 55-57. 
GRIER, H. J. and J. R. LINTON 

1977 Ultrastructural identification of the Sertoli cell in the testis of the northern 
pike, Esox lucius. American Journal of Anatomy 149:283-288. 
GRIFFIN, P. J. 

1953 The nature of bacteria pathogenic to fish. Transactions of the American 
Fisheries Society 83:241-253. 

A review of published material; mentions Pscudomonas hydropyila from 
organs and blood of pike with "red sore" disease. 
GRIMALDI.E. 

1972 Lago Maggiore: effects of exploitation and introductions on the salmonid 
community. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 29:777-785. 
1974 Dependence of visceral infestation of perch Perca fluviatilis by larvae of 
Diphyllobothrium latum Cestoda Pseudophyllidaea on the phenomenon of 
re-infestation. Bollettino di Zoologia 41 :497. 
GRIMAS, U. and N.-A. NILSSON 

1965 On the food chain in some north Swedish river reservoirs. Report Institute of 
Freshwater Research Drottningholm 46:31-48. 
Stomach contents of pike from six reservoirs were tabulated. 
GRIMM, MP. 

1980 De samenstelling van de snoekpopulatie in view Nederlandse wateren. [The 
composition of northern pike populations in four waters in the Netherlands.] 
Annual Report Organisatie ter Verbetering van de Binnenvisseri 
1978/79:57-81. 
1981a The composition of northern pike {Esox lucius L.) populations in four shal- 
low waters in the Netherlands, with special reference to factors influencing 0+ 
pike biomass. Fisheries Management 12(2):61— 76. 

Populations were sampled during a 4-5 year period, using mark-recapture 
methods. Factors influencing 0+ pike biomass were intraspecific predation 

122 



and amount of aquatic vegetation. 
1981b intraspecific predation as a principal factor controlling the biomass of north- 
ern pike {Esox lucius). Fisheries Management I2(2):77-79. 

Intraspecific predation plays a major role in the regulation of numbers of 
small pike <4I cm fork length. In lour "natural" waters the biomasses of 
these pike, especially of the 0+ class, were negatively correlated with those of 
larger pike. 

1982a Regulation of biomass of small (<41 cm) northern pike {Esox lucius L.) with 
special reference to the contributions of individuals stocked as fingerlings 
(4-6 cm). /// Documents presented at the Symposium on Stock Enhancement 
in the Management of Freshwater Fisheries, Budapest, 1982. vol. I, pp. 
1-18. 

The composition and abundance of four pike populations were monitored 
from 1974 to 1982. Stocked pike did not contribute extra biomass to the 
population. 

1982b The evaluation of the stocking of pike fingerlings. Hydrobiological Bulletin 
16:285-286. 

In order to evaluate the stocking of artificially propagated pike fingerlings the 
composition and abundance of populations in four shallow waters were moni- 
tored during a 5-8 year period. 

1983a Regulation de la biomasse de brochet {Esox lucius L.) de petite taille (<41 
cm) et efficacite de ('introduction d'individus de 4-6 cm. /// Billard, R., ed., 
Le brochet gestion dans le milieu naturel et elevage. Paris, Institute National 
de la Recherche Agronomique, pp. 253-270. 

The composition and abundance of four pike populations were determined 
from 1974-82. The biomasses of the 0+ class and those of classes <35-41 
cm were negatively correlated by exponential function with the biomasses of 
larger fish. 

1983b Regulation of biomasses of small (<41 cm) northern pike (Esox lucius L.) 
with special reference to the contribution of individuals stocked as fingerlings 
(4-6 cm). Fisheries Management 14(3): I 15-134. 
GRIMM. M. P.. and R. G. RIEMENS, 

1975 Het evaluatienoderzoerk van pootsnoek. Report Organisatie ter Verbetering 
van de Binnenvisseruk. pp. 71-89. 
GROCHOWALSKI.J. 

1954 Produkcja szczupaka handlowego /. wycicru. [Production of market pike 
from larvae.] Gospodarka Rybna 6(2): 19. 

Spring stocking of ponds with pike in order to clear the ponds of weed fish. 
This method gives pike of 150-200 g individual weight in autumn. 
GRODZINSKI.Z. 

1971 Anatomia i embriologia ryb. [Anatomy and embryology of fishes.] Warsaw, 
PWRiL. 316 pp. 
GROEBNER.J. F. 

I960 Appraisal of the sport fishery catch in a bass -pan fish lake of southern Min- 
nesota; Lake Francis, LeSueur County, 1952-1957. Minnesota Department 
of Conservation, Investigational Report 225:1-17. 

Annual loss of catchable-si/.e pike was estimated as 0.769. Pike catch 
declined over the years studied, although the average size taken by summer 
angling remained about the same. 

123 



1964 Contributions to fishing harvest from known numbers of northern pike finger- 
lings. Minnesota Department of Conservation, Investigational Report 
280:1-24. 

Fingerling production, abundance of two-year or older pike, exploitation and 
mortality rates in a 456-acre lake were estimated from 1957-60. The effect 
of population density on mortality rate, condition factor, harvest, and number 
of pike caught per man hour of fishing are discussed. 

GROEN. C. L. and T. A. SCHROEDER 

1978 Effects of water level management on walleye and other cool water fishes in 
Kansas reservoirs. American Fisheries Society Publication 1 1:278-283. 
Discusses water level conditions affecting the following aspects of pike popu- 
lation: recruitment, reproduction, stocking success, growth, and size. 

GROSS. G. W. and G. W. KREUTZBERG 

1978 Rapid axoplasmic transport in the olfactory nerve of the pike. 1. Basic 
parameters for proteins and amino acids. Brain Research 139:65-76. 
The maximum transport velocity for protein was determined at two tempera- 
tures. Intact nerves revealed only wavefronts of radioactivity, whereas remo- 
val of the cell bodies 4 hours after isotope application produced characteristic 
peak and saddle regions that demonstrated a loss of material by the peak dur- 
ing transport. Studies also conducted on the olfactory of another species sug- 
gest that axoplasmic transport in C-fibres is independent of fibre length. Free 
amino acid V-max is identical to the protein V-max. The pike olfactory sys- 
tem presents evidence that a common, temperature correctable V-max may 
exist in all nerves. 

GROSS, G. W. and D. G. WEISS 

1977 Sub cellular fractionation of rapidly transported axonal material in olfactory 
nerve evidence for a size dependent molecule separation during transport. 
Neuroscience Letters 5( 1-2): 15-20. 

GRUPCHEVA, G. I. 

1966 Investigation of Myxosporidia of fish from the Bulgarian sector of the 
Danube. Godishnik na Sofiiskiya Universitet Biologisheski Fakultet Kniga i 
Zoologiya Fiziologiya i Biokhimiya na Zhivotnite 60:147-165. 

GUERIN, F. 

1984 Exploitation modalities in aquaculture of zooplankton produced in stabiliza- 
tion lagoons. Cent. Natl. Mach. Agric. Genie Rural Eaux For. Montpellier 
(France), 178 pp. 

Experiments on zooplankton calorization through aquaculture processes have 
been worked out and young pike have been intensively cultured. 

GUEST, W. C. 

1977 Technique for collecting and incubating eggs of the fathead minnow. Pro- 
gressive Fish-Culturist 39: 1 88. 

GUIBERT, F. 

1972 Fishing in Mont-Tremblant Park 1967 season. Quebec Service du Faune, 
Rapport 6:105-131. 

GUILFORD. H.G. 

1965 New species of Myxosporidia from Green Bay (Lake Michigan). Transac- 
tions of the American Microscopical Society 84:566-572. 



24 



GULIDOV. M. V. 

1969a Embryonic development of the pike {Eso.x lucius L.) when incubated under 
different oxygen conditions. Problems of Ichthyology 9:84 1 -S3 1 . 
An account of experimental data on the effect of oxygen conditions on the 
development of pike. Upper and lower threshold concentrations were esta- 
blished. There is a pattern in the variation in mortality of eggs and number 
hatched when oxygen is varied and qualitative development of embryos is 
established. 
1969b Survival and certain features of development of pike (Eso.x lucius L.) 
embryos at different oxygen conditions of incubation. Doklady Biological 
Sciences 189(1— 6):81 1-813. 

G( LIN, V. V. and G. P. RUDENKO 

1974 Procedure for assessment of fish production in lakes. Journal of Ichthyology 
13:813-823. 

Data on biomass and production of 34 pike caught in Lake Demenets in July 
1961 . using gill nets and polyehlorpinene. 

GULISH.W. J. 

1970 Bluegill predation by three fish spceies. Indiana Aeademy of Seience 
139-147. 

Pike were less effective as bluegill predators than were largemouth bass 
(Micropterus salmoides), but more effective than white catfish (Ictalurus 
cat us). 

GUNTHER. A. 

1866 Catalogue of the Physostomi, containing the families Salmonidae, Percopsi- 
dae, Galaxidae, Mormyridae, Gymnarchidae, Esocidae, Umbridae, Scom- 
bresocidae, Cyprinodontidae, in the collection of the British Museum. Lon- 
don, vol. 6. 368 pp. 

GUROVA. G. V.. S. K. KRASNOV and N. D. MAZMANIDI 

1970 The effect of certain halides of phosphorus on fish during ontogeny, trans, by 
R. M. Howland. Voprosy Vodnoi Toksikologii, an SSSR, "Nauka", Moscow, 
pp. 136-141. 

GUTIERREZ-CALDERON, E. 

1952 Ellucio. [The pike.] Madrid 8(44): 1 13-132. 

A brief account of the life history of the pike and of its introduction from 
France to Spain in 1949. 

1954 El lueio en Espana. Caza y Pesca 140:490-493. 

1955 Acclimatation du brochet en Espagne. International Association of Theoreti- 
cal and Applied Limnology Proceedings 12:536-542. 

Presents the results of culture experiments with pike in Spain. Shows the 
results of its sexual precocity and rate of growth in relation to the high tem- 
perature of Spanish waters. 

1957 Section de biologie de las aguas continentales. [The section of the biology of 
continental streams.] Anales del Instituto Forestal de Investigaciones y 
Experiencias Madrid 29: 1 47- 1 8 1 . 

The major part of this section is devoted to a study of the feeding o\' pike and 
trout (Salmo i ride us). 

1969 El lucio (Su biologia y aprovechamiento) Folleto Informative 2. Ministere 
Agriculture S.P.C.C. y PN, Madrid. 87 pp. 
A booklet on several aspects of pike biology and experiences with pike 

125 



reproduction in a hatchery in Spain. Shows records of big pike caught in 

Spanish rivers and a list of restocking done from 1949 to 1960. 
GUTIERREZ-CALDERON, E. and E. SCAPARDINI-ANDREU 

1950 Aclimatation del lucio en Espana. [Introduction of pike in Spain.] Madrid 

6(36):725-728. 

Pike introduced from France for release in the Tagus, thrived and reproduced 

when 1 1 months old. 
GYURKO, S. and Z. I. NAGY 

1971 Distribution structure and trophic relationships of the fish population of the 

upper course of the Muresh River. Studii se Cercetari Piscicole Institutul de 

Cercetari si Proiectari Alimentare 4:31 1-348. 



126 



HAAKH.T. 

1929 Studien uber Alter mid Wachstum der Bodenseefische. Archiv fuer Hydro- 
biologic 20:214-295. 
HAAS. R. L. 

1943 A list o( fishes of Mcllenry County, Illinois. Copeia 1943: 162. 
One specimen was found in the Fox River drainage. 
HABEKOV1C. D. 

1979 Krvna svojstva stuke {Esox lucius L.). [The blood properties of the pike 
{Esox lucius L.).] Ribar. Jugosl. 34(4):73-77. 
HADLEY, W. F. 

1970 Radio tracking investigation of the movement of carp (Cyprinus carpio) and 
pike {Esox lucius) in Cedar Creek, Anoka County, Minnesota. American 
Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 50th Annual Meeting, New 
Orleans, 1970. 
HAEGEMAN.J. 

1979 Coloring a northern pike. American Taxidermist Magazine 13(l):4-6. 
Step-by-step instructions for painting a pike for mounting. 
HAEMPEL. O. and H. LECHLER 

1931 Uber die Wirkung von ultravioletter Bestrahlung auf Fischeier und Fischbrut. 
Zeitschrift fur Vergleichende Physiologie 14:265-272. 
HAEN. P. J. and F. J. OROURKE 

1969a Comparative electrophoretic studies of soluble eye lens proteins of some Irish 
freshwater fishes. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Section B, Bio- 
logical, Geological and Chemical Science, 68(4):67-75. 
1969b Comparative electrophoretic studies of the water-soluble muscle proteins of 
some Irish freshwater fishes. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Sec- 
tion B, Biological, Geological and Chemical Science, 68(7): 101-1 10. 
HAFFNER. C. 

1912 Der Hecht in Aquarium. Blattchen Aquarien und Terrarien Kunde 
23:206-208. 
HAGENOW, K F., VON 

1860 Fisch un Vogel. Arch. Ver. Freunde Naturgesch. Mecklenburg 14:453-454. 
HAGENSON, I. and J. F. O'CONNOR 

1979 A fisheries inventory of Obukowin and Aikens lakes, 1978. Manitoba 
Department of Natural Resources, Fisheries Manuscript Report 79-75:1-54. 
Aikens Lake Lodge has had no major adverse effect on the pike population of 
Obukowin Lake. 

HAIDER, G. and U. PAGGA 

1983 Untersuchengen an Rheinfischen im Bereich des BASF. [Investigations on 
Rhine fishes in the area of BASF]. Verhandlungen Geseilschaft Oekol 
10:293-297. 
HAIME, J. 

1874 A history of fish culture in Europe from its earlier records to 1854. Report of 
the U.S. Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries 1871-72(App. D):463-492. 
HAKANSON, L. 

1980 The quantitative impact of pH, bioproduction and Hg-contamination on the 
Hg content of fish. Environmental Pollution 1:285-304. 



127 



HAKKARI. L. and P. BAGGE 

1983 The densities of pike yearlings in Lake Saimaa. /// Hirvonen, L., ed., 
Saimaan tutkimus, vol. 2, pp. 137-140. [in Finnish]. 
HAKKILA. K. and A. NIEMI 

1973 Effects of oil and emulsifiers on eggs and larvae of northern pike {Esox 
lucius) in brackish water. Aqua Fennica: 44-59. 

The experiment was conducted in brackish water (salinity 5.89? ). Not all sub- 
stances studied increased the mortality of eggs, but all increased the 
occurrence of abnormal larvae. High temperatures increased the toxicity of 
emulsifiers. The resistance of larvae varied greatly at different stages of 
development. 
HAKKINEN.I. 

1978 Diet of the osprey Pandion haliaetus in Finland. Ornis Scandinavica 
9:111-116. 
HAKOKONGAS, M. 

1971 On the biology of pike, Esox lucius L., in different seasons. M.S. thesis. 
University of Oulu. 50 pp. [in Finnish]. 
HALKETT, A. 

1898 Report of the expedition to Hudson Bay and Cumberland Gulf in the steam- 
ship "Diana" under the command of Wm. Wakeham. Report Canadian 
Department of Marine Fisheries, Sessional Papers, 32(9):80-83. 
1913 Checklist of the fishes of the Dominion of Canada and Newfoundland. 
King's Printer, Ottawa. 138 pp. 
HALL, D. J. and E. E. WERNER 

1977 Seasonal distribution and abundance of fishes in the littoral zone of a Michi- 
gan lake. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 106:545-555. 
A team of divers performed seven censuses from May to October 1976. 
There was little habitat segregation in spring when temperatures rose and 
food was abundant; during summer species distributions and abundances 
were quite constant, considerable habitat segregation was apparent. 
HALLET, C. 

1977 Contribution a Letude du regime alimentaire du martin-pecheur {Alcedo 
atthis) dans la vallee de la Lesse. (Contribution to the study of the diet of the 
kingfisher {Alcedo atthis) in the Lesse Valley.] Aves 14:128-144. 
Pike were practically non-existent in pellets. 
HALLOCK, C. 

1877 The sportsman's gazetteer and general guide. The game animals, birds and 
fishes of North America; their habits and various methods of capture. New 
York, Forest and Stream Publication. 688 pp. 
1886 Fsox at sea! The American Angler 9(8). 

Reports two 1859 sightings of pike at sea, one incident being several miles 
from land. Two were seen off Australia, and several were seen off Java. 
HALME, E. 

1957 Gaddmarkningar utforda av Timmero spinnliskeklubb r. f. [Pike tagging by 
Timmero spinfishing club.] Fiskeritidskrift for Finland, Ny Ser., 1:8-15. 

1958 Pike laggings performed by Timmero spinnfiskeklubb rf. Suomen kalas- 
tuslehti 2:35-41. [in Finnish!. 



128 






HALME, E. and S. HURME 

1952 Studies on fishing waters, fishes and fishery in the sea areas off Helsinki. 
Helsinki. 157 pp. [in Finnish]. 
HALME, E. and E. KORHONEN 

I960 Migrations of pike in our coastal waters. Kalamies 4:1— 12. [in Finnish]. 
HALNON.L. 

I960 Fishery investigations of Lake Champlain and other waters. To collect 
management information on larger Vermont lakes and to appraise new and 
existing regulations. Vermont Fish and Game Department, Project F-l-R- 
8/Job5:l-27. 
HALNON.L. C. 

1959 Fisheries investigations of Lake Champlain and other waters. Investigation of 
the effect of a season for shooting northern pike during spawning. Vermont 
Fish and Game Department, Project F-l-R-7/Job 2: 1-14. 
Shooting pressure had little effect on reproductive intensity or success, prob- 
ably due to weather conditions and water turbidity. Throughout the summer 
the number of yearlings in the shooting area and a nearby refuge were similar. 
HALVORSEN.O. 

1968 Studies of the helminth fauna of Norway. XII. Axygia lucii (Muller, 1776) 
(Digenea, Azygiidae) in pike (Eso.x lucius L.) from Bogstad Lake, and a note 
on its occurrence in lake and river habitats. Nytt Magasin for Zoologi 
16:29-38. 

Infections were found in 91 r /r of the pike from Bogstad Lake. Gives informa- 
tion on intensity, seasonality, size of A. lucii, size of pike infected. There 
appears to be a second intermediate host in the life cycle of A. lucii. 
HALVORSEN, O. and K. ANDERSEN 

1973 Parasites in fresh water environments. Fauna 26:165-189. 
HAMACKOVA. J.. J. KOURIL and S. CHABERA 

1977 Prehled metod odchovu pludku stiky obecne Eso.x lucius L. [Methods of rear- 
ing technologies of pike fry.] Buletin Vyzkumy Ustav Rybarsky a Hydro- 
biologicky Vodnany 13(2):25-31. 
HAMACKOVA, J.. Z. SVOBODOVA and J. KOURIL 

1975 Hematologicke hodnoty stiky obecne {Eso.x lucius L.) z rybnicniho chovu v 
predvyterovem obdobi. [Hematological values of pond-farmed pike (Eso.x 
lucius L.) in the pre-spawning period]. Zivocisna vyroba 20:851-860. 
HAMER.C. 

1975 Big northerns run deep. Fins and Feathers, April 1975, pp. 18-20. 

An account of angling a 16-lb and an 18-lb pike in a lake close to St. Paul. 
HAMES. R. 

1970 Northern pike spawning area investigations (1965-1966). Connecticut Board 
of Fisheries and Game, Project Completion Reports (unpublished). 4 pp. 
HAMPTON, J. F. 

1948 Fighting pike. Salmon and Trout Magazine 123: 108. 
HANKINSON.T. L. 

1908 A biological survey of Walnut Lake, Michigan. Michigan State Board Geo 

logical Survey Report 1907:157-288. 
1916 Results of the Shiras expeditions to Whitefish Point, Michigan: fishes. Michi- 
gan Geological and Biologieal Survey. Publication 20, Biology Series. 
4:111-170. 

129 



1920 Report on investigations of the fish of the Galien River, Berrien County, 
Michigan. University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology, Occasional Papers, 
89:1-141. 

1929 Fishes of North Dakota. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts 
and Letters 10:438-460. 
HANNERZ, L. 

1968 Experimental investigations on the accumulation of mercury in water organ- 
isms. Report Institute of Freshwater Research Drottningholm 48: 1 20- 1 76. 
HANNON, M. R., Y. A. GREICHUS, R. L. APPLEGATE and A. C. FOX 

1970 Ecological distribution of pesticides in Lake Poinsett, South Dakota. Tran- 
sactions of the American Fisheries Society 99:496-500. 
Concentrations of pesticides were determined on six samples of pike by gas 
chromatograph and thin-layer chromatography. Higher fat content of fish 
was correlated with higher insectide levels. Residue levels increased with 
age. No significant difference was found between sexes, or between fall and 
spring collections. 
HANSEN. J. P. 

1983 Raubhsche angeln — Hecht, Barsch, Zander. [Fishing predators — pike, perch, 
pike-perch.] Munich, BLV Verlagsgesellschaft. 
A guide for sport fishing. 

1985 Tag sommargaddan pa metgrej. Fiske Journalen 7-8(July-August): 16-17. 
HANSON, A. 

1966 Differences in the value of N-acetyl histidine in freshwater and marine 
teleosts. Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie 
160:265-268. 
HANSON, H. 

1958 Operation fish rescue. Progressive Fish-Culturist 20:186-188. 

Method of rescuing pike from freeze -out lakes. In one winter season 52,699 
pike weighing 20,861 lb were taken from a 1,549-acre lake. 
HARAMO. J. 

1966 Echo sounding in freshwater fishery research. In Jones, J. W., and P. H. 
Tombleson, eds., Proceedings of the 2nd British Coarse Fish Conference, 
Liverpool, 1965, pp. 120-125. 
HARKA, A. 

Growth rate of pike in River Tisje. Halazzati 27:83 
HARKNESS, W. J. K. 

1936a Biological study of Lake Nipissing. North Bay Nugget, February 14, 1936, 
Article No. 4. 

1936b Biological study of Lake Nipissing. North Bay Nugget, April 9, 1936, Article 
No. 12. 

1936c Biological study of Lake Nipissing. Nipissing's pike, maskinonge are 
observed by biologist. North Bay Nugget, April 17, 1936, Article No. 13. 
HARKNESS, W. J. K. and J. L. HART 

1927 The fishes of Long Lake, Ontario. Publication of the Ontario Fisheries 
Research Laboratory 29:2 1-3 1 . 

The pike is common, especially in the shallow water at the north and south 
ends of the lake, and in bays. 



130 



HARLAN. J. R. and E. B. SPEAKER 

1956 Iowa fish and fishing. 3rd ed. Iowa Conservation Commission. 377 pp. 
HARPER. F. 

1948 Fishes of the Nueltin Lake expedition, Keewatin 1947. Part 2 — Historical 
and field notes. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Science, Philadel- 
phia, 100:153-184. 
1961 Field and historical notes on freshwater fishes of the Ungava Peninsula and 
on certain marine fishes of the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Jour- 
nal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 77:312-342. 
Lists the occurrences of pike on the peninsula prior to 1961. The earliest 
record of pike mentioned was a reference to Cartwright (1792), from 
Sandwich Bay and White Bear River. 
HARRINGTON. R. W.. Jr. 

1947 The breeding behavior of the bridled shiner, Notropis bifrenatus. Copeia 
1947:186. 

Bridled shiner is an important forage fish for the early stages of pike. 
HARRIS. A. J. 

1980 Pike attacking adult moorhen. British Birds. 73(3):159. 
HARRIS, J. E. 

1938 The role of the fins in the equilibrium of the swimming fish. Journal of 
Experimental Biology 15. 
HARRISON. A. C. 

1959 Progress report of fish populations, Humboldt study area. Iowa Conservation 
Commission, Quarterly Biology Report 1 1(2):24-29. 

Gives information on stocking, susceptibility to electrofishing, angling suc- 
cess, and growth. 
HARRISON, E. J. 

1978 Comparative ecologic life histories of sympatric populations of Eso.x lucius 
and Esox masquinongy of the upper Niagara River and its local watershed. 
Ph.D. thesis, State University of New York at Buffalo. 303 pp. 
Collected 623 pike during 1975 and 1976. Investigated length-weight rela- 
tionship, age and growth and mortality. Determined population estimate and 
movement patterns by mark-recapture studies. 
HARRISON. E. J. and W. F. HADLEY 

1978 Ecologic separation of sympatric muskellunge and northern pike. American 
Fisheries Society Special Publication 1 1:129-134. 

With the exception of a few one-year-old fish, no muskellunge were found in 
tributaries of the upper Niagara River during 1975-77, but 97% of pike were 
collected in tributaries. Differential adaptation to river current may be an 
important factor in coexistence. 

1979 A comparison of the use of cleithra to the use of scales for age and growth 
studies. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 108:452-456. 

1982 Possible effects of black-spot disease on northern pike. Transactions of the 
American Fisheries Society 1 I 1:106-109. 

Of the 623 Niagara River pike examined, 22% were diseased. Attempts to 
identify the causative digenic trematode were unsuccessful. Suggests that 
retarded growth and increased mortality were related to infection. 

1983 Biology of the northern pike in the upper Niagara River watershed. New 
York Fish and Game Journal 30:57-63. 

131 



Several life-history parameters of pike in the upper Niagara River watershed 
were determined and compared with similar data for other populations. Infor- 
mation on length-weight, age at maturity, and survival. 
HARRISON, H. M.. C. OFARRELL and T. E. MOEN 

1961 Progress report, renovation of the Winnebago River. Iowa. Iowa Conserva- 
tion Commission, Quarterly Biology Report 13:32-37. 

Two years after eradication of the fish population and restocking, fry stocking 
of pike established a good seed stock population. 
HARRISON. J. S. 

1963 Northern pike survive. New Mexico Wildlife 8(6): 10. 
HART. J. L. 

1931 On the daily movements of the coregonine fishes. Canadian Field-Naturalist 
45(l):8-9. 

Between September 10 and 14, 1925, gill nets captured equal numbers of pike 
during day and night sets. 
HART, P. J. B. and B. CONNELLAN 

1979 On pike predation in a fishery. Proceedings of the 1st British Freshwater 
Fisheries Conference, Liverpool, pp. 182-195. 

A progress report on the development of a computer model as a management 
tool to determine the best levels of angling mortality and densities of pike and 
prey. 

1984 Cost of prey capture, growth rate and ration size in pike, Eso.x lucius L., as 
functions of prey weight. Journal of Fish Biology 25:279-292. 
HART, P. J. B. and T. J. PITCHER 

1969a Field trials of fish marking using a jet inoculator. Journal of Fish Biology 
1:383-385. 

Pike 210-940 mm marked with Durazol Blue on body and fins retained a 
mark of average quality for 4 months in the held. The mark can be applied 
easily and quickly with minimal damage to the fish. 

1969b Population densities and growth of five species of fish in the River Nene, 
Northamptonshire. Journal of the Institute of Fisheries Management 4:69-86. 
HARTLEY. P. H. T. 

1940 The food of coarse fish. Freshwater Biological Association of the British 
Empire, Scientific Publication 3:1-33. 

1947a The coarse fishes of Britain. Freshwater Biological Association, Scientific 
Publication 12:1-40. 

1947b The natural history of some British freshwater fishes. Proceedings of the 
Zoological Society of London 1 17: 129-206. 

1948 Food and feeding relationships in a community of freshwater fishes. Journal 
of Animal Ecology 17:1-14. 

A total of 62 pike were examined to determine feeding habits. Adult pike 
were found to feed only upon fish while juveniles ate both fish and inver- 
tebrates. 
HARTMANN. J. 

1977 Fischereiliche Veranderungen in Kulturbedingt eutrophierenden Seen. 
Schweizerische Zeitschrift fuer Hydrologie 39:243-254. 

1978 Growth of fishes during oligotrophic, mesotrophic and eutrophic status of 
Lake Constance. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fuer Hydrologie 40:32-39. 



32 



HARVEY. H. H. 

1980 Widespread and diverse changes in the biota of North American lakes and 
rixers coincident with acidification. /// Drablos, D., and T. Tollan, eds.. 
Proceedings International Conference, Norway, 1980, pp. 93-98. 

HARVEY, H. II. and J. F. COOMBS 

1971 Physical and chemical limnology of the lakes of Manitoulin Island. Journal 
of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 28:1883-1897. 
Winterkills o( pike were observed in three lakes on Manitoulin Island from 
1965 to 1970, but the presence of older age-classes of fish in most lakes sug- 
gested that extensive winterkills were not common. 

HASANEN. E. and J. K. MIETTINEN 

1963 Caesium- 137 content of freshwater fish in Finland. Nature 200:1018-1019. 
Especially high radiocaesium values were found in analyses of pike caught in 
1961-63. 

HASANEN. E. and V. SJOBLOM 

1968 Kalojen elohopeapitoisuus Suomessa vuonna 1967. [Mercury content o\ lish 
in Finland in 1967.] Suomen Kalatalous 36, Finlands Fiskerier, 24 pp. 
The mercury content of pike (white muscle, fresh weight) varied from 0.03 to 
5.8 mg/kg. and similar levels have been found in burbot Lota lota and perch 
Perca fluviatilis. As a result, the wood conversion industry has stopped using 
fungicides that contain mercury, and the chlorine-alkali industry has been 
required to build protection and cleaning plants. 

HASHIMOTO. Y. 

1975 Nutritional requirements of warm water fish. Proceedings of the 9th Interna- 
tional Congress of Nutrition, Mexico, 1972. Vol. 3, Foods for the expanding 
world, pp. 158-175. 

HASSELROT. T. B. 

1968 Report on current field investigations concerning the mercury content in fish, 
bottom sediment, and water. Report Institute of Freshwater Research 
Drottningholm 48:102-1 11. 

Great differences in mercury content can exist in pike caught upstream and 
downstream from a cellulose mill. 

HASSELROT. T. B. and A. GOTHBERG 

1974 The ways of transport of mercury to fish. Proceedings of the International 
Conference on Transport of Persistent Chemicals in Aquatic Ecosystems, 
Ottawa, 1974. 

Pike from a lake unaffected by phenyl mercury were tagged and moved into a 
heavily contaminated lake. After a year, mercury values in the muscular tis- 
sue had greatly increased. It is concluded that important factors in the con- 
centration of mercury are food and intake through the gills. 

H ASSINGER. R. and D. WOODS 

1974 Statewide fisheries research. Evaluation of Fintrol as a fish toxicant in deep 
softwater lakes. Minnesota Division of Game and Fish. Project F-26-R- 
5/SPI. 

Fintrol application during fall turnover successfully rehabilitated four trout 
lakes. Treatment was lethal for all target species of lish. 

HASSLER.T.J. 

1969 Biology o\ the northern pike in Oahe Reservoir. 1959 through 1965. I .S. 
Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. Technical Paper 29:1- 13. 

I \3 



Variations in length, weight, and maturity of pike were associated with sex 
and year class. Females were larger and more numerous than males. 
1970 Environmental influences on early development and year-class strength of 
northern pike in lakes Oahe and Sharpe, South Dakota. Transactions of the 
American Fisheries Society 99:369-375. 

Mortalities between 97 and 100% during early embryonic stages were associ- 
ated with sudden drops in water temperature below 10 C, prolonged tempera- 
tures near 5 C, and silt deposition of 1.0 mm per day. These factors, as well 
as dropping water levels, result in small year classes. Large year classes were 
related to stable or rising water levels and temperature, flooded vegetation, 
and calm weather. 
1982 Effect of temperature on survival of northern pike embryos and yolk-sac lar- 
vae. Progressive Fish-Culturist 44:174-178. 

Embryos and larvae were incubated at constant temperatures 3-24 C. The 
hatching range, optimum range, lethal temperatures, and maximum hatch 
temperatures were studied. The effects of embryo age and type of tempera- 
ture change (shock or tempered) on test results were recorded. Management 
implications were discussed. 

HATFIELD, C. T., J. N. STEIN, M. R. FALK, C. S. JESSOP and D. N. SHEPHERD 

1972 Fish resources of the Mackenzie River valley. Canada Department of the 
Environment, Fisheries Service, Interim Report 1, 2:1-289. 
Data on pike: length-weight relationship, length-frequency distribution, fork 
lengths by age class (age assessed by scales and otoliths), sex ratio, stomach 
contents analysis, catch summary, and heavy metal and chlorinated hydrocar- 
bon concentrations in specimens. 

HATTULA, M. L., J. JANATUINEN, J. SARKKA and J. PAASIVIRTA 

1978 A five-year study of the chlorinated hydrocarbons in the fish of a Finnish lake 
ecosystem. Environmental Pollution 15:121-140. 

In pike no statistically significant differences were observed in the concentra- 
tions of chlorinated hydrocarbons between the five limnologically different 
areas of Lake Paijanne, and the five research years. 

HAWDY, P. W. 

Life history and propagation of northern pike. Alchesay National Fish 
Hatchery, Whiteriver, Arizona. 

HAZZARD, A. S. 

Pennsylvania fishes. Pennsylvania Fish Commission, 32 pp. 

1935 A preliminary study of an exceptionally productive trout water, Fish Lake, 
Utah. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 65:122-128. 

1945 Warm-water fish management. Wisconsin Conservation Bulletin 10(10): 
12-15. 
HAZZARD, A. S. and R. W. ESCHMEYER 

1936 A comparison of summer and winter fishing in Michigan lakes. Transactions 
of the American Fisheries Society 66:87-97. 

Winter fishing is not generally harmful to summer fishing in Michigan, 
although a closed period during the spawning season seems justifiable in 
"pike" lake such as Houghton Lake. 
HAZZARD, A. S. and D. S. SHELTER 

1939 Results from experimental plantings of legal-sized brook trout (Salvclinus 
fontinalis) and rainbow trout (Salmo ii Ulcus). Transactions o\ the American 

134 



Fisheries Society 68: 1 96-2 1 0. 

HEADLAM. M. 

1939 Winter in prospect and retrospect. Salmon and Trout Magazine 97:304-308. 

HEADRICK, M. R.. M. S. BEVELHIMER, R. F. CARLINE and R. A. STEIN 

1981 Evaluation of fish management techniques. Evaluation of stocking northern 
pike in Ohio lakes. Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Federal Aid Pro- 
ject F-57-R-3. 

Pike in Lake Logan grew rapidly, but survival and harvest were poor. Popu- 
lation density was at or below the bottom of the range for natural populations. 
Most year elasses were decimated within the first year after stocking. Data on 
diet, consumption rate, growth, survival, and optimal temperatures are given. 

HEADRICK. M. R. and R. F. CARLINE 

1980 Evaluation of fish management techniques. Evaluation of stocking northern 
pike in Ohio lakes. Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Federal Aid Pro- 
ject F-57-R-2: 1-17. 

Field sampling was done from October 1979 to March 1980. Computer simu- 
lations of growth indicated that pike must feed at more than 75% of the max- 
imum rate to grow in typical Ohio lakes. Overwinter growth may account for 
61-76% of the weight attained in the first two years. Radiotelemetry indi- 
cated that pike in Lake Logan spent most of the summer where the thermo- 
cline meets the lake bottom. 

HEALEY, M. C. 

1972 Bioenergetics of a sand goby (Gobius minutus) population. Journal of the 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada 29:187-194. 

Pike are included in a table showing energy budgets for fish on restricted 
rations. 

HEALY. A. 

1956a Pike {Esox lucius L.) in three Irish lakes. Scientific Proceedings of the Royal 
Dublin Society 27(N.S.):51-63. 

A study based on scales, measurements, weights, stomach contents and some 
ovaries of pike collected 1950-54. Gives information on age, growth, matu- 
rity, condition, sex ratios, food, and reproduction. 
1956b Fishes of Lough Rea, Co. Gal way, Ireland. 2. Pike and rudd with general 
conclusions. Salmon and Trout Magazine 148:246-249. 
Summarizes the general biology of pike. Growth is discussed particularly. 

HEALY. J. A. and M. F. MULCAHY 

1979 Polymorphic tetrameric superoxide dismutase in the pike Esox lucius L. 
(Pisces: Esocidae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 62b:563-566. 
Heart muscle extracts of pike from Lake Malaren in Sweden exhibited two 
electrophoretic types of superoxide dismutase, one of which was identified as 
the cytoplasmic enzyme (s-SOD) and the other as the mitochondrial form 
(m-SOD). Individual analysis of 51 pike indicated that S-SOD was invariant 
while m-SOD displayed a pattern of variation that was explicable by a 
single-locus polymorphism. The observed m-SOD phenotype patterns sug- 
gested that the enzyme is a tetramer. This interpretation is supported by in 
vitro molecular hybridization studies. 

1980 A biochemical genetic analysis of populations of the northern pike, Esox 
lucius L., from Europe and North America. Journal of Fish Biology 
17:317-324. 

135 



Genetic variation as identified by starch gel electrophoresis and enzyme stain- 
ing was studied in seven populations of pike: northern US, Canada, Swedish 
fresh water, Swedish Baltic, the Netherlands, England, and Ireland. Mean 
heterozygosity was estimated to be 0.019. This is discussed in terms of the 
structure and possible origins of pike populations. 

HEARD, W. R., R. L. WALLACE and W. L. HARTMAN 

1969 Distributions of fishes in fresh water of Katmai National Monument, Alaska, 
and their zoogeographical implications. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Spe- 
cial Scientific Report, Fisheries 590:1-20. 

HEARTWELL, C. and L. HESS 

1977 Small impoundment investigation. Literature review of large esocids 
(muskellunge, northern pike, hybrid tiger muskellunge). West Virginia 
Department of Natural Resources, Dingell Johnson Project F-23-R-1 : 1 —40. 

HEDERSTROM, H. 

1959 Observations on the age of fishes. Report institute of Freshwater Research 
Drottningholm 40: 1 6 1 - 1 64. 

A repudiation of "Heibrun's pike" which was claimed to have a length of 565 
cm, a weight of 148 kg, and an age of 267 years - especially its age. 

HEESE. L. W. and B. A. NEWCOMB 

1982 On estimating the abundance of fish in the upper channelized Missouri River. 
North American Journal of Fisheries Management 2:80-83. 
Population estimates and 95% confidence limits were obtained by 
electrofishing during winters of 1979-80 and 1980-81 in two 16 km study 
areas. 

HEGEMANN, M. 

1958a Beitrage zur Biologie des Hechtes im Brackwasserbegiet des Briefswalder 
Boddens. Zeitschrift fuer Fischerei und deren Hilfswissenschaften 
7:459-476. 

The paper deals with the nutrition, the beginning of sexual maturity, the 
spawning season, growth in length and weight of pike from the Greifswald 
Bodden (shallow bay on the Baltic). 
1958b Ein Vorkommen von Henneguya creplini Gurley 1894 beim Hecht. [Henne- 
guya creplini Gurley 1894 found in the pike]. Zeitschrift fuer Fischerei und 
deren Hilfswissenschaften 7:513-515. 
1964 Der Hecht. Stuttgart, Ziemsen-Verlag Wittenberg. 76 pp. 

HEINRICH, D. 

1980 Die Fische. In H. Hinz, ed., Untersuchung einer Siedlungskammer in Osthol- 
stein. Vol. 4. Neumunster. 

1981 Contributions to the history of the fish fauna of Schleswig-Holstein, West 
Germany. Zoologischer Anzeiger 207:181-200. 

HELDER, T. 

1980 Effects of 2,3,7,8 - tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on early life stages 
of the pike (Esox lucius L.). Science of the Total Environment 14:255-264. 
Freshly fertilized pike eggs were exposed to TCDD at concentrations of 0.1, 
1.0, and 10 ppt (ng/liter) for 96 hours. At all concentrations egg development 
was retarded by 23% ; growth of fry was retarded for a long period after expo- 
sure. * 



136 



HELFMAN.G.S. 

1979 Fish attraction to floating objects in lakes. /// Johnson, I). L., and R. A. Stein. 
eds., Response o\' lish to habitat structure in standing waters. North Central 
Division, American Fisheries Society Special Publication 6:49-57. 
HELLA WELL, J. 

1966 Coarse fish in a salmon river. /// Jones, J. W., and P. H. Tombleson, eds.. 
Proceedings of the 2nd British Coarse Fish Conference. Liverpool, 1965, pp. 
43-48. 
HELM. W. T. 

1958 Notes on the ecology of pan fish in Lake Wingra with special reference to the 
yellow bass. Ph.D. thesis. University of Wisconsin. 
HELMS. D. 

1976 Commercial fisheries investigations. Northern pike investigations. Iowa 
State Conservation Commission Project 2-225-R: 1-18. 

Vital statistics oi pike populations in four selected pools of the Mississippi 
Riser were determined to appraise suitability of the species as a commercial 
food-fish. Also examined a questionnaire on commercial fishing, chemical 
pollutants in pike flesh, and weight change due to food-fishing processing. 
HELMS. D. R. 

1966 1965 annual survey of the Coralville Reservoir fish population. Iowa Conser- 
vation Commission Quarterly Biology Report 1 8(2):27— 32. 
An annual survey is conducted to maintain a continuous inventory and antici- 
pate population changes. Pike 13-17 inches were common in both pools and 
tailwaters. 
1975 Progress report on the first year study of northern pike in the Mississippi 
River. Iowa Conservation Commission Fishery Investigation Project 2-225- 
R-l. 

A study was conducted in pools of the river bordering Iowa to determine the 
suitability of pike as a commercial food-fish. 
HELSTROM. N. 

1978 The growth and feeding of northern pike in Tvarminne. M.S. thesis. Univer- 
sity of Helsinki. 67 pp. [in Finnish] 
HENDERSON. N. E. and R. E. PETER 

1969 Distribution of fishes of southern Alberta. Journal of the Fisheries Research 
Board of Canada 26:325-338. 
A map shows locations where pike were found. 
HENEGAR. D. 

1960a Fisheries— 1959. North Dakota Outdoors, Jan. I960, pp. 9-10, 18. 
1960b Trolling still good. North Dakota Outdoors, May 1960, pp. 15. 20. 
1969 Annual report. Fisheries Division. North Dakota Outdoors 31(7):28-34. 
HENLEY. D. T. and R. L. APPLEGATE 

1982 Seasonal distribution of esocids in a power plant cooling reservoir. Progres- 
sive Fish-Culturist 44:40-4 1 . 

Ultrasonic transmitters were implanted in ten esocids. One muskel lunge and 
two pike survived, were released, and then tracked from July 1979 to July 
1980. They were found to' be seasonally distributed in areas where tempera- 
tures were most favourable for survival and urowth. 



137 



HENSHALL.J. A. 

1919 Bass, pike, perch and other game fishes of America, new ed. Cincinnati, 
Stewart and Kidd. 410 pp. 
HERBERT, H. W. 

1851 Frank Forester's fish and fishing of the United States and British provinces of 
North America. 3rd ed. New York, Stringer and Townsend. 359 pp. 
HEROLD, R. C. 

1971a The development and mature structure of dentine in the pike Esox lucius 

analyzed by microradiography. Archives of Oral Biology 16:29-41. 
1971b Osteodentinogenesis. An ultrastructural study of tooth formation in the pike 
Esox lucius. Zeitschrift fuer Zellforschung und Mikroskopische Anatomie 
Abteilung Histochemie 1 12:1-14. 
HEROLD. R. C. and L. LANDINO 

1970 The development and mature structure of dentine in the pike Esox lucius 
analyzed by bright field microscopy, phase microscopy and polarization 
microscopy. Archives of Oral Biology 15:747-760. 
HEROLD, R. C. B. 

1974 Ultrastructure of odontogenesis in the pike Esox lucius. Role of dental 
epithelium and formation of enameloid layer. Journal of Ultrastructure 
Research 48:435-454. 

Ultrastructure of dentine, enameloid layer, inner dental epithelium, and outer 
dental epithelium were investigated by electron microscopy. 

1975 Scanning electron microscopy of enameloid and dentin in fish teeth. 
Archives of Oral Biology 20:635-640. 

HESS, L. 

1980a Small impoundment investigation. Evaluation of existing small impoundment 
esocid populations. West Virginia, Performance Report. Dingell-Johnson 
Project F-23-R-4, Job IV-2:1-15. 

1980b Small impoundment investigation. Establishment and evaluation of suitabil- 
ity of one or more strains as trophy fishes. West Virginia Performance 
Report. Dingell-Johnson Project F-23-R-4, Job IV-3: 15-24. 

1980c Small impoundment investigation. Preparation of esocid bulletin. West Vir- 
ginia Performance report. Dingell-Johnson Project F-23-R-4, Job IV- 
4:24-25. 
HESS, L. and C. HEARTWELL 

1977 Small impoundment investigation. Esocid literature review. West Virginia 
Department of Natural Resources, Project F-23-R- 1 , Job N- 1 : 1 -42. 
Evaluation and comparison of the suitability of pike, muskellunge, and pike- 
muskellunge hybrid as small impoundment sport fishes. Describes extensive 
and intensive culture and reviews production. 

1979 Literature review of large esocids (muskellunge, northern pike, hybrid tiger 
muskellunge). /// Dube, J., and Y. Gravel, eds., Proceedings of the 10th 
Warmwater Workshop, Special Publication NE Division of the American 
Fisheries Society. Montreal, Quebec Ministere du Loisir, de la Chasse et de 
la Peche. 285 pp. 

The pike-muskellunge hybrid is difficult to sample: grows rapidly, particu- 
larly in new impoundments; returns better to the angler than the muskellunge: 
and is readily accepted by a growing segment of anglers as a valued trophy. 



138 



HESSEN. D. O. 

1985 Introduction of pike Eso.x Indus to a small pond: Effects on planktivorous 
fish, zooplankton and phytoplankton. Fauna (Blindern) 36(4): 1 19-124. 
The introduction of several small pike strongly reduced the number of smelt 
Osmerus eperlanus, resulting in a strong increase of cladocera and a decrease 
of rotifera. The algal biomass, which started to increase in early summer, was 
strongly reduced as the cladocerans increased. 
HESSER.R. B. 

1978 Management implications of hybrid esocids in Pennsylvania. American 
Fisheries Society Special Publication 1 1:302-307. 
HESSLE, C. 

1934 Markningsforsok ned Gadda, 1. Ostergotlands Skargard Aren, 1928, Och 
1930. Stockholm, Mitteilungen der Anstalt fur Binnenhscherei bei 
Drottningholm. 
HEUSCHMANN.O. 

1940 Die Hechtzucht. /// Handbuch der Binnenhscherei Mitteleuropas 6:750-787. 
1957 Die Hechtartigen ordnung Haplomi (Esociformes). /// Demoll, R., and H. N. 
Maier, eds., Handbuch der Binnenhscherei Mitteleuropas, Band 111, 8:1-13. 
HICKLEY. P. and A. SUTTON 

1984 A standard growth curve for pike. Fisheries Management 15:29-30. 

Standard length for age values and corresponding standard growth curve for 
pike from six British waters. 
HICKS. D. 

1972a Great northern pike introductions. Introductions. Oklahoma Department of 
Wildlife Conservation, Project F-22-R-5/Job 1:1-4. 

Information (numbers, size or age, and date) on pike stocking and survival in 
some Oklahoma lakes. 
1972b Great northern pike introductions. Fry sampling. Oklahoma Department of 
Wildlife Conservation, Project F-22-R-5/Job 2:1-3. 

Four lakes were sampled with electrofishing gear and a fry scoop to ascertain 
the presence of natural reproduction. 
1972c Great northern pike introductions. Gonadal inspection. Oklahoma Depart- 
ment of Wildlife Conservation, Project F-22-R-5/Job 3: 1-7. 
In 1971 and 1972, 19 adult pike were collected with various nets and an 
electrofishing boat. The presence of ripeness was noted for males and 
females. Gonadal examination and egg enumeration were made for one 
female specimen. 
HICKS. D. E.. K. COOK and P. MAUCK 

1970 Great northern pike introductions. Introductions. Oklahoma Department of 
Wildlife Conservation, Project F-22-R-3/Job 1:1-3. 
HILDEN. W.. R. HUDD and H. LEHTONEN 

1982 The effects of environmental changes on the fisheries and fish stocks in the 
Archipelago Sea and the Finnish part of the Gulf of Bothnia. Aqua Finnica 
12:47-58. 
HILE. R. 

1931 Investigations of Indiana lakes. 2. Rate of growth of fishes of Indiana. Indi- 
ana Department of Conservation, Publication 107:7-55. 



139 



HILGENDORF. F. M. 

1872 Ueber ben Bau der Ohcrkinnlade beim Hecht {Esox Indus). Dresden, Sitzber. 
Ges. Isis, pp. 230-231. 

1880 Hornbekleidung der Kiefer bei Teuthis. Berlin, Sit/ber. Ges. Naturf. 
Freunde, p. 1 2 1 
HILL. K. 

1974 The northern pike population in Brown's Lake, Iowa, following a winterkill. 
Iowa Fisheries Researeh Technical Series 74-1:1-32. 

Population size, life history, seasonal food habits, length-weight relationships, 
body condition factors, body scale relationships, growth rates, and fecundity 
of pike from Brown's Lake were determined for 1970-72. 
HILL. W.J. 

1969 Statewide fisheries investigations. Fish tagging studies. North Dakota Game 
and Fish Department, Project F-2-R-16, Job 9: 1-22. 

This program continued in 1968 for its eighth consecutive year. Examined 
pike movement in two lakes, and the degree of tag loss. 
HILL, W. J. and A. H. WIPPERMAN 

1978 Northcentral Montana fisheries study. Inventory and survey of waters in the 
western half of region four. Montana Department of Fish and Game, Job Pro- 
gress Report, 20 pp. 

Pike populations were studied in two reservoirs and one lake in relation to age 
and growth, harvest, movement, and reproduction. 
HINER. L. E. 

1961 Propagation of northern pike. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 
90:298-302. 

Eggs are incubated in Downing-type jars and the fry are stocked in hatchery 
ponds at the rate of 100,000 per acre. Filtered water is used for incubation, 
and ponds are fertilized 2 weeks prior to stocking. Average yield from ponds 
during 1959 and 1960 was 35,000 fingerlings per acre. 
HINKS, D. 

1943 The fishes of Manitoba. Manitoba Department of Mines and Natural 
Resources. 102 pp. 

1957 The fishes of Manitoba. Manitoba Department of Mines and Natural 
Resources. 1 17 pp. 
HINTON. D. E., E. R. WALKER. C. A. PINKSTAFF and E. M. ZUCHELKOWSKI 

1984 Morphological survey of teleost organs important in carcinogenesis with 
attention to fixation, /// Hoover, K. L., ed.. Use of small fish species in carci- 
nogenicity testing. Bethesda, National Institute of Health, pp. 291-320. 
Key features oi' the gross and microscopic anatomy of teleost liver, digestive 
tract, kidney, and skin were reviewed from the world literature. New findings 
were obtained from light as well as scanning and transmission electron micro- 
graphs of tissues from seven freshwater fish species, including pike. 
HINT/E, A. 

1894 Gaddan sasom forellfiskare. Tidskrift Jagare Fiskeri 2:1 10. 
HIRAKI. S., M. F. MULCAHY and L. DMOCHOWSKI 

1978 Particle filament complex in tumor cells o\ northern pike Esox Indus. Texas 
Reports on Biology and Medicine 36: 1 I 1-120. 



140 



HIRN, M. 

1938 Die kunstliche Erbrutung des Hechtes. Allgemeine Fischerei-Zeitung 

6:55-38. 
HOCHMAN, I.. 

1954 Fruchtbarkeit und Ernahrungs/ustand der Hechte aus den Tiechen. Acta 
Universatis Agriculturae Brno. A 3:557-567. 

1964 Plodnosl a stav vyzivenosti st ik / rybniku. [Fecundity of pike.] Acta Univer- 
sitatis Agriculturae Brno. 

HOFER. B. 

1901 Ueber Missbildungen beim Hecht. Allgemeine Fischerei-Zeitung 26:14-15. 
HOFFMAN, G. L. 

1967 Fish and parasite check-list. /// Parasites of North American freshwater 
fishes. Berkeley . University of California Press. 
HOFFMANN. R.. C. PFEIL-PUTZIEN and M. VOGT 

1978 Cytolochemical studies on blood cells of three teleosts (carp — Cyprinus car- 
pio I... rainbow trout — Salmo gairdneri Richardson, and pike — Esax lucius 
L.). Berliner und Muenchener Tieraer/tliche Wochenschrift 91(17): 
345-350. 
HOFFMANN. R.. P. WONDRAK and W. GROTH 

1980 Seasonal anatomical variations in the testes of European pike, Esax lucius L. 
Journal of Fish Biology 16:475-482. 

The seasonal development of the testes in European pike was examined using 
w ild fish and biopsies from pike housed in tanks. The size of the tubules and 
the different cell types were measured and their histological appearance 
described. Four stages of development were distinguished. 
HOFMANN.J. 

1965 Die Aufzucht der Hechtsetzlinge. Allgemeine Fischerei-Zeitung 
90(15):449-451. 

HOGSTROM. G. 

1944 Gaddklackning i invallningsdammar. Svensk Fiskerei Tidskrift 53:131. 

HOKANSON. K. E. F. 

1977 Temperature requirements of some percids and adaptations to the seasonal 
temperature cycle. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board o\' Canada 
34:1524-1550. 

Information on the temperature requirements of pike. Temperature 
classification, lethal temperature, physiological optimum, and the temperature 
range for reproduction are provided in table form. 

HOKANSON. K. E. F.. J. H. MCCORMICK and B. R. JONES 

1973 Temperature requirements for embryos and larvae of the northern pike, Esax 
lucius (Linnaeus). Transactions o\' the American Fisheries Societ) 
102:89-100. 

The optimum temperature, median, upper, and lower tolerance limits for nor- 
mal and total hatches were recorded. The effects of embryo age on tolerance 
limits, growth, and mortality rates were evaluated. Recommendations were 
made for routine thermal bioassays for fish eggs. 

HOKE, R. A.. M. I. NORROCKY and B. I,. PRATER 

1975 Fish survey in the lower Portage River, Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science 
79:95-96. 



141 



HOLAK. H.. B. JARZAB. A. BALDYS and B. WITALA 

1979 Badania aktywnosci hipokalcemicznej ekstraktow z okolicy przegrody 
osierdziowo-otrzewnpwej szczupaka. [Hypocalcemic activity of the intersep- 
tum separating pericardial and penfoneol cavities in the pike.) Zoologies 
Poloniae 2:291-296. 
HOLCIKJ. 

1966 The fishes of the River Hornad (East Slovakia) with regard to valley water 
reservoir building. Biology Works Science Commission Special Biology Slo- 
vakia Academy of Science 12/1(4): 1-1 16. 

Suggested that death of pike in a reservoir was due to metal, mining and 
metallurgy that pollute the river with waste water. 

1968 Life history of the pike — Eso.\ Indus L. 1758, in the Klicava Reservoir. 
Vestnik Ceskoslovenske Spolecnosti Zoologicke 132:166-180. 
Deals with the life history of the pike in a reservoir (spawning, activity, mor- 
tality, age and growth). The decrease of pike abundance is related to 
unfavourable spawning conditions. Discusses the reasons for the fall in pike 
growth in relation to decrease of availability of different food components. 

1970 Abundance, ichthyomass and production of fish populations in three types of 
water-bodies in Czechoslovakia (man-made lake, trout lake, arm of the 
Danube River). Ichthyologia 2:37-52. 

1977 Changes in fish community of Klicava Reservoir with particular reference to 
Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis 1957-1972.. Journal of the Fisheries 
Research Board of Canada 34:1734-1747. 

Changes in the fauna occurred after the 1955 filling of the 60-ha mesotrophic 
reservoir in Czechoslovakia. Lithophils were replaced by phytophils and then 
by ecologically more plastic species. Fish biomass increased in the first 12 
years from 65 to 236 kg/ha but after 1967 dropped to 170 kg/ha. Pike was 
considered to have played a role in the decline of fish biomass in the reser- 
voir. 
HOLCIK.J.and I. BASTL 

1973 Ichthyocenoses of two arms of the Danube with regard to changes in species 
composition and population density in relation to the fluctuation of the water 
level in the main stream. Biological Works, Edition of the Scientific Commit- 
tee for Special Biology and of the Scientific Committee for General Biology 
of the Slovak Academy of Sciences XIX/1, 106 pp. [in Czech.] 

1976 Ecological effects of water level fluctuation upon the fish populations in the 
Danube River fioodplain in Czechoslovakia. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium 
Academiae Scientiarum Bohemoslovacae Brno 10(9): 1-46. 
Species composition, abundance, and ichthyomass of the fish communities in 
the Danube River arm of Zofin were investigated twice a year from 1969 to 
1973. Water levels were positively correlated with the number of species and 
the ichthyomass of the arm. The importance of the fioodplain for the fish 
communities was discussed. 
HOLCIK.J.and J. MIHALIK 

1968 Fresh-water fishes. Feltham, England, Spring Books. 128 pp. 
IIOLCIK. J. and K. PIVNICKA 

1972 The density and production of fish populations in the Klicava Reservoir 
(Czechoslovakia) and their changes during the period 1957-1970. Interna- 
tional Revue der (iesamten Hydrobiologie 57:883-894. 

142 



Observations concerning species composition, ichthyomass, total and avail- 
able production, harvestable yield and balance of tish populations (including 
pike) in a 67-ha reservoir in central Bohemia. 

■OLDEN, A. V. 

1973 International cooperative study of organo-chlorine and mercury residues in 
wildlife 1969-1971. Pesticides Monitoring Journal 7:37-52. 

HOLLAND. L. E. and M. L. HUSTON 

1984 Relationship of young-of-the-year northern pike to aquatic vegetation types in 
backwaters of the upper Mississippi River. North American Journal o\' 
Fisheries Management 4:514-522. 

An evaluation of the impacts of potential loss of backwaters on available fish 
nursery habitats. Although preference for habitats with submerged vegetation 
was seemingly not related to food, the overall production of young was 
clearly best in these habitats. 
HOLLER. P. 

1935 Funktionelle Analyse des Hechtschadels. Morphol. Jahrb. 76:279-320. 
HOLT. P. C. ed. 

1972 The distributional history of the biota of the southern Appalachians. Part HI: 
Vertebrates. Proceedings of a symposium sponsored by Virginia Polytechnic 
Institute, State University, Blacksburg, 1970. Association of Southeastern 
Biologists. 
HOOGLAND. R., D. MORRIS and N. TINBERGEN 

1957 The spines of sticklebacks {Gasterosteus and Pygosteus) as means of defence 
against predators (Perca and Esox). Behaviour 10:205-236. 
A description of the predatory behaviour of pike is given. Analysis of the 
experiments shows that ( 1 ) sticklebacks are rejected when, after being 
snapped up, their spines hurt the predator's mouth; (2) after very few experi- 
ences pike become negatively conditioned to the sight of sticklebacks and 
avoid them before they have made contact. 
HOOPER. F. F. 

1951 Limnological features of a Minnesota seepage lake. American Midland 
Naturalist 46:462-481. 
HOPKE. W. 
• 1909 Hechte in Karpfenteichen. Fischerei Zeitung 
1931 Das Wachstum des Junghechtes. Berlin, Mitteilungen der Fischerei Vereines. 
1938 Kunstliche Erwarmung des Speisewassers in Hechtbrautanstalten. Fischerei 
Zeitung Neudam 41:319-321. 
HORLER. A.. M. E. JARVIS and R. A. C. JOHNSTON 

1985 Creel census study on Fox, Marsh and Tagish lakes in the Yukon Territory 
1983. Canadian Manuscript Report Fisheries and Aquatic Science 
1803:1-53. 

Data were compiled from 1,103 anglers to determine catch, effort, and angler 
origin. Catch per unit effort values are presented lor each species by lake. 
Age, size, sex composition data.age-si/e. and size frequency are presented. 
HOROSZEWICZ, L. 

1964 Pokann ryb drapie/.nych w Wille. [Food of predatory lishes in Vistula 
River.] Roc/niki Nauk Rolnic/yck 84:293-314. 

Differentiation of food consumption in various river stretches, annual cycles 
of food change, and feeding differences of particular fish species. 

143 



MORTON. A.. B. C. WORSSAM and J. B. WHITTOW 

19X1 The Wallingford fan gravel. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 

of London. B. Biological Sciences 293(1064):2 15-255. 
HORVATH. L. 

1983 Elevage et production du brochet (Eso.x lucius L.) en Hongrie. /// Billard, R., 

ed., Le brochet gestion dans le milieu nature! et elevage. Paris, Institute 

National de la Recherche Agronomique. 371 pp. 

Describes methods used to obtain stocking material for natural waters where 

pike is an important sport fish. 
HOTTELL, H. E. 

1976 Growth rate and food habits of the northern pike (Eso.x lucius) and the chain 

pickerel x northern pike hybrid (E. niger x E. lucius) in two North Georgia 

reservoirs. M.S. thesis. University of Georgia. 72 pp. 

Results of stocking ( 1 ) pike in stages of sac fry, rtngerling, and subadult in a 

338-ha reservoir; and (2) 50-75 mm hybrids in a 97-ha reservoir. 
HOWARD. H. C. and R. E. THOMAS 

1970 Behavior of northern pike fry as related to pond culture. Progressive Fish- 

Culturist 32:224-226. 

Behaviour of fry has significant implications in pond culture. Ponds stocked 

with eyed eggs and newly hatched fry are more productive than ponds 

stocked with 1- to 3-day-old fry. Success requires flooded vegetation to 

which newly hatched fry can attach. 
HUBBS. CARLL. 

1920 A comparative study of the bones forming the opercular series of fishes. 
Journal of Morphology 33:61-71. 

Describes branchiostegals of the order Haplomi. 

1921 A note on unilateral reactions of the melanophores of the head in fishes. 
American Naturalist 55(638):286-288. 

1922 Variations in the number of vertebrae and other meristic characters of fishes 
correlated with the temperature of water during development. American 
Naturalist 56(645):360-372. 

Results of this experiment using two fish species were similar to those 

obtained for pike. 
1924 Studies of the fishes of the order Cyprinodontes. Miscellaneous Publication, 

Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 13:1-31. 
1926 A check-list of the fishes of the Great Lakes and tributary waters with nomen- 

clatorial notes and analytical keys. Miscellaneous Publication, Museum of 

Zoology, University of Michigan 15: 1-77. 
1929 The fishes. /// Christy, B. H., ed.. The book of Huron Mountain. The Huron 

Mountain Club. 
1955 Hybridization between fish species in nature. Systematic Zoology 4( 1 ): 1—20. 

Mentions two other esocids that crossbreed with pike. General discussion of 

role of environmental factors. 
1979 List of the fishes o\' California. Papers of the California Academy of Science 

133:1-51. 
HUBBS, CARL L. and D. E. S. BROWN 

1929 Materials for a distributional study of Ontario fishes. Transactions of the 

Royal Canadian Institute 17( 1 ): 1-56. 



144 



Habitat description of collection stations. List of species with note of general 

locality and station numbers. 
HI BBS. CARL L. and C. W. GREENE 

1928 Further notes on the fishes of the Cheat Lakes and tributary waters. Papers of 

the Michigan Acadeim of Science. .Arts and Letters 8:371-392. 
HI BBS. CARL L. and K. F. LAGLER 

1939 Keys for the identification of the lishes of the Greal Lakes and tributary 

waters. Ann Arbor, published by the authors. 37 pp. 
1941 Guide to the fishes of the Great Lakes and tributary waters. Bulletin of the 

Cranbrook Institute of Science 18:1-100. 
1949 Lishes of Isle Royale. Lake Superior. Michigan. Papers of the Michigan 

Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 33:73-133. 

Information on theory of how pike were introduced, present distribution in 

Isle Royale lakes, and types of water bodies they inhabit. 

1957 List of fishes of the Great Lakes and tributary waters. Michigan Fisheries 
1:1-6. 

1958 Fishes of the Great Lakes region. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press. 
213 pp. 

HI BBS. CARL L. and A. M. WHITE 

1923 A list of fishes from Cass Lake, northern Minnesota. Copeia 1923: 103-104. 
Collected fish during summer of 1921 and followed sequence of species and 
numbers adopted by Surber. 

HI BBS. CLARK 

1972 A checklist of Texas freshwater fishes. Texas Parks and Wildlife Depart- 
ment, Technical Series 1 1:1-1 1 . 
Successful introduction of pike as a game species. 

HUBER. E. H. and H. R. KITTEL 

1961 A creel census of a Minnesota northern pike-centrarchid lake, Linwood Lake. 
Anoka County, 1 95 1 - 1 957. Investigative Report 227: 1-11. 
No significant trends were observed in fishing pressure and harvest from 
December 1, 1951, to March 31, 1957. Fishing success seemed to be affected 
mostly by relative strength of the year class being exploited. 

HUBERT. W. A. 

•1980 Tiger muskie dynamics and ecology in public fishing lakes. Iowa Coopera- 
tive Fishery Research Unit, Project 2378. 
Outlines a proposed research project. 

HUBLEY. R.C.Jr. 

1961 Incidence of lamprey scarring on fish on upper Mississippi River, 1956-58. 
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 90:83-85. 
During 3 years of fishing surveys, more than one-third of all fish scarred were 
pike. 

ill CHSON, D. R. and J. M. SHEPPARD 

1963 Some scuba observations for the fresh-water angler. Ontario Fish and 
Wildlife Review 2(2): 15-19. 

Pike were very wary. They were usually found singly, and never with more 
than two in a group in larger bodies of water. Most pike were seen near 
dense weed beds. They showed a wide range of flight and a tendenc) to 
return to the original location. 



45 



HUDD. R.. M. HILDEN, L. URHO, M.-B. AXELL and L.-A. JAFS 

1984 Fishery investigations (in 1980-1982) of the Kyronjoki River estuary and its 
influence area in the Northern Quark of the Baltic Sea. National Board of 
Waters, Report 242:1-275. 
HUET. M. 

1948 Esociculture; la production de brochetons. Bulletin Francais de Pisciculture 

148:121-124. 
1960 Traite de pisciculture. Brussels, De Wyngaert. 369 pp. 

1970 Traite de pisciculture, 4th ed. Brussels, De Wyngaert. 718 pp. 

1972a Textbook of fish culture. Breeding and cultivation of fish. London, Fishing 
News (Books). 436 pp. 

1972b Elevage et maturation de geniteurs brochets en petits etangs. International 
Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology Proceedings 18: 
1128-1134. 

During a period of several years, at least 15 female pike out of 18 matured 
sexually. They produced 250,000 to 350,000 eggs. Temperature was regu- 
lated between 9 and 10 C. 

1976 Reproduction, incubation et alevinage du brochet. European Inland Fisheries 
Advisory Committee Technical Paper 25:147-163. 
HUET, M„ A. LELEK, J. LIBOSVARSKY and M. PENAZ 

1969 Contribution a Identification des zones piscicoles de quelques cours d'eau 
de Moravie (Tcheoslavaquie). International Association of Theoretical and 
Applied Limnology Proceedings 1 7(2): 1 103-1 111. 
HUET, M. and J. A. TIMMERMANS 

1958 Esociculture. Production de brochetons de sept semaines. Station de 
Recherches Eaux Forets Groenendaal, Travaux Ser. D, 24:1-10. 

1959 Production de brochetons de sept semaines. Bulletin d 'Information Conseil 
Superieur de la Peche 1 : 1 5-2 1 . 

HUGGHINS, E. J. 

1959 Parasites of fishes of South Dakota. South Dakota Department of Game, 
Fish, and Parks, Bulletin 484: 1-73. 
HUGGINS. A. K.. G. SKUTSCH and E. BALDWIN 

1969 Ornithine-urea cycle enzymes in teleostean fish. Comparative Biochemistry 
and Physiology 28:771-776. 
HUGGLER.T. 

1975 Big pike through the ice: tripping the flags. Fins and Feathers, December 
1975. 
HUGHES, T. 

Pike. /// Miller, K., ed.. Writing in England Today, the last fifteen years, pp. 
125-126. 

A poem about pike. 
HUISMAN,E. A. 

1975 Hatchery and nursery operations. European Inland Fisheries Advisory Com- 
mittee Technical Paper 25: 101-1 10. 
HUISMAN. E. A.. J. H. KOEMAN and P. V. I. M. WOLFF 

1971 An investigation into the influence of DDT and other chlorinated hydrocar- 
bons on the fertility of the pike. Organization for the Improvement of the 
Freshwater Fishery, Annual Report, April 1970 - March 31, 1971. pp. 69-86. 



146 



HUNER.J. V. 

1983 The northern pike - a cosmopolitan species. Farm Pond Harvest 17(3): 12-14. 
29. 

HUNER, J. V. and O. V. UNDQUIST 

1983 How Finland stocks her rivers and lakes. Fish Farming International 
l()(4):l()-l I. 

The production and stocking of try and tingerlings of high value species is an 
important part o( Finland's fisheries program. Pike is a speeies of partieular 
importanee. 

HUNN.J. B. 

1972a Blood chemistry values for some fishes of the upper Mississippi River. Jour- 
nal of the Minnesota Aeademy of Seienee 38:19-21. 

Plasma eoneentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium magnesium, chloride, 
inorganic phosphate, glueose, laetie aeid, total carbon dioxide, whole blood 
pH, and hematoerit were determined for nine species of fish, including pike. 
All pike sampled were ripe males. 
1972b Concentrations of some inorganic constituents in gallbladder bile from some 
freshwater fishes. Copeia 1972:860-861. 
The pike sampled for this study were mature males captured from the wild. 

HUNN, J. B.. R. A. SCHOETTGER and E. W. WHEALDON 

1968 Observations on the handling and maintenance of bioassay fish. Progressive 
Fish-Culturist 30:164-167. 

Ten-day pre-test holding period, using pond-reared or field-eolleeted fish 
(ineluding pike) involved preparation of Daphnia for food, diet, and feeding 
schedule, and hematological examination. 

HUNT. B. P. and W. F. CARBINE 

1951 Food of young pike, Esox lucius L., and associated fishes in Peterson's 
Ditehes, Houghton Lake, Michigan. Transactions of the American Fisheries 
Society 80:67-83. 

Stomach contents of 551 pike (1 1-152 mm in length) were examined. Food 
organisms were listed and changes in diet with increased size were recorded. 
Competition for food, predation, cannibalism, as mortality factors in young 
pike are discussed. 

HUNT, R. L. 

1965 Food of northern pike in a Wisconsin trout stream. Transactions of the Amer- 
ican Fisheries Society 94:95-97. 

Stomachs of 91 pike were analysed. Only one item was present in each of the 
24 stomachs containing food. Seven food species were represented, and 88 f /r 
of the diet was fish. 

HUNTER. G. W.. Ill and J. S. RANKIN 

1941 Parasites of northern pike and pickerel. Transactions of the American 
Fisheries Society 69:268-272. 

The parasitic fauna of pike from a Connecticut lake was investigated. Two 
species of trematodes, two of tapeworms, one each of roundworms, spiny- 
headed worms, protozoa, and parasitic Crustacea are reported. 

HUNTER. J. G. 

1968 Fishes and fisheries. /// Beals, C. S., ed.. Science, History and Hudson Bay. 
Canada Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, vol. I, 502 pp. 



147 



HUNTER. M. 

1907 Voracious pike. Canadian wilds. Columbus. A. R. Harding, pp. 220-224. 

Reminiscences of a Hudson's Bay officer with 40 years of experience at vari- 
ous posts from 1863 to 1903; tells about the Hudson Bay Company, northern 
Indians, and their modes of hunting and trapping. 

HUNTINGFORD, F. A. 

1976 The relationship between anti-predator behaviour and aggression among 
conspecifics in the three-spined stickleback, Gastcrosteus aculeatus. Animal 
Behaviour 24:245-260. 

1982 Do interspecific and intraspecific aggression vary in relation to predation 
pressure in sticklebacks. Animal Behaviour 30:909-916. 
HURLEY. D. A. and W. J. CHRISTIE 

1977 Depreciation of the warmwater fish community in the Bay of Quinte, Lake 
Ontario. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 34:1849-1860. 
The sequence of species shifts since the 1930's is interpreted in terms of 
climatic changes and the influences of man. Eutrophication, high fishing 
intensity, and low water levels were considered responsible for the decline of 
the pike population. Decrease in piscivores increased the instability of the 
community. 

HURUM. H.J. 

A history of the fish hook. London, A & C. Black. 
HUTCHINSON, H. G. 

1904 Pike. ///Fishing. London. Vol.2. 
HUVER.C. W. 

1960 Occurrence of a northern pike in Fisher's Island Sound. New York Fish and 
Game Journal 1 2(1): I 13. 

In August 1959 anglers caught a pike 17 miles east of the mouth of the Con- 
necticut River. It is suggested that the pike was a stray, which came down- 
stream from the Connecticut River to Long Island Sound and followed the 
less saline inshore waters to Fisher's Island Sound. 
HYSLOP. E. J. 

1980 Stomach contents analysis: a review of methods and their application. Jour- 
nal of Fish Biology 17:41 1-429. 



148 



IGNAT'EVA. G. M. 

1974a Dependence of egg cleavage rate on temperature in the carp, pike, and peled. 

Ontogenez 5:27-32. 
1 974b Relative duration of the same periods of early embryogenesis in teleosts. 

Ontogenez 5:427-436. 
IGNAT'EVA. G. M. and N. N. ROTT 

1970 Time relationships between processes occurring before the start of gastrula- 

tion in teleosts. Doklady Akademii NAUK SSSR. Seriya Biologiya 

190:484-487. 
IGN VTIEVA.G. M. 

1976a Regularities of early embryogenesis in teleosts as revealed by studies of the 

temporal pattern of development. Part I. The duration of the mitotic cycle 

and its phases during synchronous cleavage divisions. Wilhelm Roux's 

Archives o\' Development Biology 1 79:301-3 1 2. 
1976b Regularities of early embryogenesis in teleosts as revealed by studies of the 

temporal pattern of development. Part 2. Relative duration of corresponding 

periods of development in different speeies. Wilhelm Roux's Archives of 

Development Biology 179:313-325. 
IGNATIEVA. G. M. and N. N. ROTT 

1970 The temporal pattern of interphase prolongation and nuclear activities during 

early embryogenesis in Teleosti. Wilhelm Roux's Archives of Development 

Biology 165:103-109. 
IL'YENKO. A. I. 

1970 Concentration of strontium-90 and eaesium-137 by freshwater fishes. Journal 

of Ichthyology 10:860-862. 

A study of the movement of artificial radioisotopes from the food into the 

body under natural conditions. It is considered that the bulk o\' the radioiso- 
tope enters from food and not from the environment. 
1972 Some features of caesium- 137 concentration in fish populations of a body of 

freshwater. Journal of Ichthyology 12:149-153. 

Pike were caught in 1969-70 in a body of water in which caseium-137 con- 
tent was artificially modified nonperiodically. A study was made of seasonal 

variation in the content of this radioisotope in the muscle of pike; it did not 

coincide with the variation of its content in the water. 
INCE. B. W. 

1979 Metabolic effects of partial pancreatectomy in the northern pike. Eso.\ Indus 

L. Journal of Fish Biology 14:193-198. 

A 1(W( pancreatectomy did not cause the development of a diabetic state in 

pike over a one-month period. 
INCE, B. W. and A.THORPE 

1975 Hormonal and metabolite effects on plasma free fatty-acids in the northern 

pike Eso.x lucius. General and Comparative Endocrinology 27:144-152. 

The effects of intraarterial injections of bovine and codfish insulin, glucagon. 

adrenalin, noradrenalin, glucose, and amino acids on plasma free fatty acid 

(FFA) levels were studied in the pike, which were cannulated to permit serial 

blood sampling. 
1976a The effects of starvation and force-feeding on the metabolism of northern 

pike. Eso.x lite ins L. Journal of Fish Biology 8:79-88. 

Pike are well adapted for periods of prolonged starvation and hepatic and 

149 



extra-hepatic lipid and glycogen stores serve for metabolic needs during food 
shortage. The endocrine basis for these changes in the tissue and blood con- 
stituents is discussed. 

1976b The in vivo metabolism of C-glucose and C-glycine in insulin-treated 
northern pike (Esox lucius L.). General and Comparative Endocrinology 
28:481. 

1978 The effects of insulin on plasma amino acid levels in the northern pike Esox 
lucius L. Journal of Fish Biology 12:503-506. 

The data support the hypothesis that insulin plays a major role in the regula- 
tion of protein metabolism in pike. 
INLAND FISHERIES TRUST 

The validity of scale reading. Iontaobhas Iascaigh Intire Ioncorportha Bal- 
nagowan, Mobhi Boreen, Glasnevin, Dublin 9. 7 pp. 

1972 Annual report 1971/72. 22nd Annual General Meeting of the Inland Fisheries 
Trust Incorporated, 1972. 96 pp. 

Over 45,000 pike weighing almost 23 tons were removed from lakes and 
rivers being developed as trout fisheries. 

1973 Pike fisheries. Annual Report of the Inland Fisheries Trust Incorporated 
1972/73. 

1977 Development of brown trout lakes. Pike removal. Annual Report Inland 
Fisheries Trust Incorporated, pp. 8-10. 

INSKIP, P. D. 

1980 Annual and seasonal variability in growth of sympatric muskellunge (Esox 
masquinongy Mitchill) and northern pike (Esox lucius Linnaeus). M.S. thesis, 
University of Wisconsin. 1 1 9 pp. 

1982a Northern pike (Esox lucius Linnaeus). Unpublished MS. 50 pp. 

Extensive compilation consisting of brief summaries of present published 
knowledge of biological requirements as they apply to habitat use. Includes 
habitat suitability index models based on these data. 

1982b Habitat suitability index models: northern pike. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Ser- 
vice, FWS/OBS-82/10.17:l-40. 

Presents models intended for use in impact assessment and habitat manage- 
ment activities. Literature concerning the habitat requirements and prefer- 
ence of pike is reviewed and then synthesized into HSI models, which are 
scaled to produce an index between (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimal 
habitat). 
INSKIP, P. D. and J. J. MAGNUSON 

1983 Changes in fish populations over an 80-year period: Big Pine Lake, Wiscon- 
sin. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 1 12:378-389. 
IOWA CONSERVATION COMMISSION 

1961 Calculated total lengths at each annulus for various species of fish taken from 
De Soto Bend, September 25-29, 1961. Unpublished MS, 13 pp. 
IVANOV. M. E. 

1956 Yaitsevye obolochki ryb, ikh sravnitelnaya morfologiya i ekologicheskoe 
snachenie. |Fish egg membranes, their comparative morphology and ecologi- 
cal significance]. Vestnik Leningradskogo Universiteta 21:79-90. 
IVANOV. N. M. 

1978 Innervatsiya mochevyvodyashchikh putej kostistykh ryb. [Innervation of the 
urinary tract of bony fishes). Journal of Ichthyology 18:341-346. 

1 50 



Study o\' the fine structure and histochemistry o\ nervous apparatus of urinary 
paths of bony fishes, including pike. 
IVANOVA. M. N. 

On the speed of digestion of Wwd by young pike. Biologiya Vnutrennykh vod 
[nformatsionii Byulleten 48:42-45. 

1959 Diet o\' pike of the Rybinsk Reservoir. /// Akatova, N. A., et al., eds., Tran- 
sactions of the 6th Conference on the Biology of Inland Waters. 1957. 
Translated from Russian by Israel Program for Scientific Translations, pp. 
326-332. 

Pike older than one year fed exclusively on fish between 10 and 600 mm. 
The majority of pike fed on fish whose body length was <!()() mm. Low- 
value fish comprised l().y/ ( of their diet. 

1963 O pitanii khishchnykh ryb v pervye chetyre goda sushchestvovaniya 
Gor'kovskogo vodokhranilishcha. [Observations on the feeding of preda- 
ceous fishes during the first four years of the existence of the Gor'Kovoe 
Reservoir.) Trudy Instituta Biologii Vodokhranilishcha Akademii Nauk 
SSSR 5:81-86. 

Immature pike fed on fish, frogs, and invertebrates. Adults fed exclusively on 
fish. 

1966 Age-dependent and local changes in the food composition of pike in the 
Rybinsk Reservoir. Trudy Instituta Biologii Vnutrennikh Vod Akademii 
Nauk SSSR 10:111-118. 

1968 Pishchevye ratsiony i kormovye koeffitsienty khishchnykh ryb v rybinskom 
vodokhranilishche. [Nutritive rations and food coefficients of predatory fishes 
in Rybinsk Reservoir]. Trudy Instituta Biologii Vnutrennikh Vod Akademii 
Nauk SSSR 17(20): 189-198. 

Information on digestion rates throughout the year, daily and yearly food 
ration of fingerlings, yearlings, juveniles, and adults, and food coefficients of 
juveniles and adults. The effects of predators on the valuable and low value 
species were studied. 

1969 The behavior of predatory fish during feeding. Problems of Ichthyology 
9:574-577. 

Mature pike are solitary predators that feed mainly during the hours of dark- 
ness. They may hunt temporarily in schools, particularly when food is abun- 
dant. Pike change their method of hunting, depending on conditions, or if 
behaviour of the prey changes. 

1970 On age and local changes of food of the pike in the Rybinsk Reservoir. 
Memorial University, St. John's, Library Bulletin 4(6):9- 1 1 . 

Young pike fed almost exclusively on underyearlings of several species. 
especially perch Perca fluviatilis and roach Rutilus rutilus. Lor large size 
pike, the main influence on the composition of food came from different fac- 
tors, especially the place of feeding. Sexually mature specimens \ct\ both in 
the shoreline zone (in spring) and in the open water (in fall). 
IVANOVA. M. N. and A. N. LOPATKO 

1979 Determining diet in predatory fishes. Journal of Ichthyology 19(4): 157-160. 
Observations on the feeding of pike were obtained using different gear. Esti- 
mations of food ration size were made from the gear type used. 

1983 Leeding behaviour of pike Esox lucius (Esocidae), larvae from the progen) of 
a single pair of spawners. Journal of Ichthyology 23:171-1 73. 

151 



A study of the feeding behaviour and nature of food of pike larvae. The abil- 
ity of individual larvae to catch and hold prey differ. Maintenance of young 
pike with equal concentrations of prey determined the quanitative difference 
in the progeny of a single female. 
1VANOVA. M. N., A. N. LOPATKO and L. V. MALTSEVA 

1982 Rations and food coefficients of young pike Esox lucius L. in the Rybinsk 
Reservoir. Voprosy Ikhtiologii 22:233-239. 
IVLEV. V. S. 

1939a The energy balance of growing larvae of Silurus glanis. Doklady Akademii 
Nauk SSSR 25:87-89. 

1939b The effect of fasting on the conversion of energy in fish growth. Dkolady 
Akademii Nauk SSSR 25:90-92. 

1954 The relation of metabolic rate to size in fish. Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 
Imeni I. M. Sechenova 40:717-721. 

1961 Experimental ecology of the feeding of fishes. Newhaven, Yale University 
Press. 
IZYUMOV. N. A. 

1959 The formation of the parasitic fauna of fish in the Rybinsk Reservoir. Byul- 
leten' Instituta Biologii Vodokhranilishch Akademii Nauk SSSR 4:38-40. 
Changes in the parasitic fauna of fish in the Rybinsk reservoir were observed 
over 8-9 years. Henneguya oviperda, a specific parasite of female pike 
gonads, is reported for the first time in the reservoir. 



15: 



JACOB. B. 

1969 Natural marshes vs. controlled spawning ponds. Michigan Department of 

Natural Resources. 
.1 U'OKSH \(il \. E. 

1913 Untersuchungen uber des Darmsystem der Fische unci Dipnoer. Jena 

Zekschrift fuer Naturwissenschaftlich 49:521-524. 
JACOBSSON, S. and T. JARV1 

1976 Anti-predator behavior of 2-year-old hatchery reared Atlantic salmon Salmo 

salar and a description o\' the predatory behavior of burbot Lota lota. Zoolo- 

gisk Rev> 38(3):57-70. 
J \Ki \R. 1.. H. DAUSTER and A. KIVVUS 

1980 Aufzucht von Hechtsetzlingen in erfeuchteten Netzgehegen. [Rearing of 

young pike in illuminated net cages]. Fischerei Teichwirt 3 1 :323-326. 

This east European rearing method concentrates zooplankton by phototaxis, 

making it more available to the larvae. German experiments are described. 

including cage construction, optimal stocking density and diseases. 
J \kl BOWSKI.M. 

1965 Cutaneous sense organs o\' fishes. II. The lateral-line organs in the burbot 

{Lota lota L.) and pike (Eso.x lucius L.). Acta Biologica Cracoviensia, Series 

Zoologia 8:87-100. 
JAKUBOWSKI. M.. W. BYCZKOWSKA-SMYK and Y. MIKHALEV 

1969 Vascularization and size of the respiratory surfaces in the Antarctic white- 
blooded fish Chaenichthys rugosus Regan (Percoidei, Chaenichthyidae). 

Zoologica Poloniae 19:303-317. 

Area of capillaries per 1 g of body weight for pike 105-222 g: gills - 1593 

mm. skin - 52 mm, skin and fins together - 77 mm. Surface ratio of gill 

vessels to skin vessels - 30.6: 1 ; including fins - 2 1 .2: 1 . 
JALABERT, B. 

1976 In vitro oocyte maturation and ovulation in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), 

northern pike {Eso.\ lucius), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). Journal of the 

Fisheries Research Board of Canada 33:974-988. 

The efficiency of various steroids in initiating maturation was studied. Some 

mediators likely to act on ovulation have been identified. 
JALABERT. B. and B. BRETON 

1974 In-vitro maturation of pike Esox lucius oocytes. General and Comparative 

Endocrinology 22:391. [Abstract] 

The gonadotropic steroid most effective in initiation o\' maturation was 20 

beta-dihydro, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone. The presence of hydrocortisone 

enhanced the effect of gonadotropic extracts. 
JW1SON.G.C. 

1973 Michigan's 1972 sport fishery. Michigan Department o\' Natural Resources, 

Surveys and Statistical Services Report 122:1-6. 
IANEC-SUSLOWSKA, W. 

1957 Osteologia szczupaka. [Pike osteology. 1 Warsaw, PWN. 99 pp. 
J WISCH.J. L. 

1976 Fish management at Starve Hollow Lake 1970-1975. Indiana Department of 

Natural Resources, pp. 1-10. 

ball drawdowns, addition of structure, a 14-inch size limit on largemouth bass 

Micropterus salmoides, and supplemental stockings of channel cattish 

153 



Ictalurus punctatus and pike were used in an effort to improve the fishery of 
Starve Hollow Lake. 
JANISZEWSKI. M. 

1934 Szczupak na wedce. [Pike angling.] Przeglad Rybaeki 7(5): 172—181 . 

Details of pike biology of use for anglers. 
1938a Szczupak na wedce. [Pike angling.) Wiadomosci Wedkarskie 3(3):34-35. 

Details of pike biology for use of anglers. 
1938b Szczupak na wedce. Dokonczenie. [Pike angling. Last part.) Wiadomesci 
Wedkarskie 3(4):41-42. 
JANKE 

1925 Zahmung eines freilebenden Hechtes. Blattchen Aquarien und Terrarien 
Kunde 
JARA. Z. 

1968 Polish general parasitology during the period of 1964-1967. Monografie 
Parazytologiczne 6:57-90. 

JARDINE. A. 

1898 Pike and perch, illustrated. London. Pike, pp. 1-143. 
JARVENPA, O. 

1962 Save wetlands for northern pike. Conservation Volunteer 25(146):8-12. 

Categorizes pike spawning areas into five different types, and describes 
Minnesota's efforts to acquire, improve, and manage natural spawning and 
rearing areas. 
JARVENPA, O. M. 

1962 Northern pike spawning area management in Minnesota. Minnesota Depart- 
ment of Conservation, Annual Progress Report, 4 pp. 

1963 Northern pike production from controlled spawning areas and shallow lakes 
in Minnesota. Minnesota Department of Conservation, Annual Progress 
Report. 4 pp. 

JARVENPA, O. M. and W„ K1RSCH 

1969 Propagation of pike in multi-purpose lake management. Journal of the Min- 
nesota Academy of Science 36:52-55. 

JARVENPAA. T., M. TILLANDER and J. K. MIETTINEN 

1970 Methylmercury: half-time of elimination in flounder, pike and eel. Suomen 
Kemistilehti B 43:439-442. 

JARVI.T. H. 

1931 Tagged pikes. Suomen Kalastuslehti 1 1:183-191. [in Finnish] 
JASINSKI, A. 

1965 The vascularization of the air bladder in fishes. Part II. Sevruga (Acipenser 
stellatus), grayling (Thymallus thymallus L.), pike (Esox lucius L.), and 
umbra {Umbra humeri Walbaum). Acta Biologica Cracoviensia, Series 
Zoologia 8:200-210. 

Physical description of air bladder, its associated organs and blood systems. 
Two figures accompany the text on pike. 
1977a Intraendothelial canaliculi in choroidal capillaries of pike, Esox lucius 
(Teleostei). Bulletin de TAcademie Polonaise des Sciences, Serie des Sci- 
ences Biologiques 25:452-454. 
1977b Endothelial \o perivascular cell junctions. Bulletin de EAcademie Polonaise 
des Sciences, Serie des Sciences Biologiques 25:455-458. 



154 



JASKOWSKI.J. 

1962 Materialy do znajomosci ichtiofauny Warty i jej doplywow. (Materials on 
the ichthyofauna in the Warta River and its tributaries.! Fragmenta Faunistica 
9(28):449-499. 

Faunistic and physiographic review of fishes in the Warta River and its main 
tributaries. 
JEFIMOVA. A. J. 

1949 Scuka Ob - Irtyskogo basiejna. I/v. VNIORKh 28 
JENKINS. J. T. 

1954 The fishes of the British Isles both freshwater and salt. London. Frederick 
Warne. 408 pp. 
JENKINS. R. E.. E. A. LACHNER and F. J. SCHWARTZ 

1972 Fishes of the central Appalachian drainagees: their distribution and dispersal. 
/// The distributional history o\' the biota of the southern Appalachians. Part 
III: Vertebrates. A symposium sponsored by Virginia Polytechnic Institute 
and State University and the Association of Southeastern Biologists. 
Blacksburg, Virginia, 1970. 

JENKINS. R. M. 

1968 The influence of some environmental factors on standing crop and harvest of 
fishes in US reservoirs. Reservoir Fishery Resources Symposium, Georgia, 
1967. pp. 298-321. 

1969 The influence of engineering design and operation and other environmental 
factors on reservoir fishery resources. Water Resources Bulletin 6: 1 10-1 19. 
The apparent effect of selected reservoir environmental variables on fish 
standing crop in 140 large impoundments was explored through partial corre- 
lation and multiple regression analyses. Partial correlation revealed a nega- 
tive effect of water level fluctuation on pike. 

1970 Large reservoirs - management possibilities. Proceedings of the Annual 
Midwest Fish and Game Commission 36:82-89. 

Suggests controlled water level fluctuation and improved substrate to enhance 
spawning and survival of pike. 

1973 Reservoir management prognosis: migraines or miracles. Proceedings of the 
27th Annual Congress Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commis- 
sioners, pp. 374-385. 

1982 The morphoedaphic index and reservoir fish production. Transactions of the 
American Fisheries Society 1 1 1:133-140. 
JENKINS, R. M. and D. I. MORAIS 

1971 Reservoir sport fishing effort and harvest in relation to environmental vari- 
ables. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 8:371-384. 

JENNINGS, J. T. 

1954 The fishes of the British Isles both freshwater and salt. London, Frederick 
Warne. 408 pp. 

JENNINGS, T. L. and F. FRANK 

1965 Results of an experimental muskellunge-silver northern pike cross. Iowa 
Conservation Commission, Quarterly Biology Report 17(4): 1-3. 
Apparently a cross between a male muskellunge and a female silver northern 
pike could occur in the wild and produce healthy, rapidly growing individu 
als. Hybrids could be distinguished from purebreds in most instances since 
none of the hybrids examined had all of the characteristics of either parent. 

155 



JESSOP. C. S., T. R. PORTER, M. BLOUW and R. SOPUCK 

1973 Fish resources of the Mackenzie River Valley. Special report, an intensive 

study of the fish resources of two main stem tributaries. Department of the 

Environment, Fishery Service, Winnipeg. 148 pp. 
JESTER. D. B. 

1977 Effects of color, mesh size, fishing in seasonal concentrations and baiting on 
catch rates of fishes in gill nets. Transactions of the American Fisheries 
Society 106:43. 

Gives catch rates oi' several species, including pike, in 16 replications of 
baited and unbaked white experimental gill nets. 

JOASS1N. L.. F. FRANKENNE and C. GERDAY 

1971 Cleavage of pike parvalbumin II by cyanogen bromide. Archives Interna- 
tionales de Physiologic et de Biochimie 79:834-835. 

JOHAL, M. S. 

1978 Further notes on the growth of pike, Eso.x lucius, from Czechoslovakia 
(Pisces, Esocidae). Vestnik Ceskoslovenske Spolecnosti Zoologicke 
44:105-115. 

Growth rate of pike was studied from the scales of 270 specimens collected 
during 1956-1976. Pike of seven year classes were recorded. 

JOHANSSON. N. and J. E. KIHLSTROM 

1975 Pikes (Eso.x lucius L.) shown to be affected by low pH values during first 
weeks after hatching. Environmental Research 9: 12-17. 
Newly hatched pike sac fry from artificially fertilized eggs were reared for 
eight days in water solutions with different pH values. At pH 6.8 the mortal- 
ity was 17%, 26% at pH 5.0, and 97% at pH 4.2. 

JOHNELS, A. G., M. OLSSON and T. WESTERMARK 

1968 Eso.x Indus and some other organisms as indicators of mercury contamination 
in Swedish lakes and rivers. Bulletin de FOffice International des Epizooties 
69:1439-1452. 

JOHNELS, A. G. and T. WESTERMARK 

1969 Mercury contamination of the environment in Sweden. /// Chemical Fallout: 
Current research on persistent pesticides. Publication of Rochester University 
Conference on Toxicity; Selected Water Resources Abstracts 3(23 ):40. 

JOHNELS, A. G., T. WESTERMARK, W. BERG. P.I. PERSSON and B. SJOSTRAND 

1967 Pike (Eso.x Indus L.) and some other aquatic organisms in Sweden as indica- 
tors of mercury contamination in the environment. Oikos 18:323-333. 
Activation analysis of mercury content in axial musclature of pike was used 
to estimate the level of mercury in the water environment. The concentration 
factor from water to pike was 3000 or more. The relation between mercury 
content and weight and age of fish specimens is discussed. 

JOHNSON, F. H. 

1957 Northern pike year-class strength and spring water levels. Transactions of the 
American Fisheries Society 86:285-293. 

A high spring water level during spawning and a small decline in the levels 
during egg incubation represent good conditions for the production of a 
strong pike year class. 

JOHNSON, F. H. and J. B, MOYLE 

1969 Management of a large shallow winterkill lake in Minnesota for the produc- 
tion of pike (Esdx Indus). Transactions o\' the American Fisheries Society 

156 



98:691-697. 

Management of a large shallow winterkill lake for production of fingerling 
and yearling pike is described. Pike are removed from the lake in winter In 
attracting them to traps through which a How of aerated water is directed 
from large capacity pumps. Trapping is done in the lake and in the outlet. 
JOHNSON. F. H. and A. R. PETERSON 

1955 Comparative harvest of northern pike by summer angling and winter dark- 
house spearing from Ball Club Lake. Itasea County, Minnesota. Minnesota 
Department of Conservation, Investigational Report 164:1-1 1. 
Concludes that neither angling nor spearing appear to detrimentally affect the 
pike population of this lightly fished lake. The entire population was better 
harvested by a combination of angling and spearing than would have been 
done by angling alone. 
JOHNSON. L. 

I960 Studies of the behaviour and nutrition of the pike {Esox lucius L.). Ph.D. 
thesis. University of Leeds. 181 pp. 

1966a Temperature of maximum density of freshwater and its effect on circulation 
in Great Bear Lake. Journal of the Fisheries Researeh Board of Canada 
23:963-973. 

1966b Experimental determination of food consumption of pike, Esox lucius, for 
growth and maintenance. Journal of the Fisheries Researeh Board of Canada 
23:1495-1505. 

Under simulated field conditions changes oeeurred in growth and seasonal 
maintenance requirements, which were partially independent of temperature. 
Values are given for maintenance requirements, maintenance coefficient, 
coefficient of utilization, and efficiency of utilization. Pike were found to 
have low maintenance requirements and high values for conversion of food to 
pike substance. 

1966c Consumption of food by the resident population of pike, Esox lucius, in Lake 
Windermere. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 
23:1523-1535. 

The annual food consumption, production, and yield of pike were determined. 
Prior to heavy exploitation in 1944, the biomass was estimated to be 8182 kg 
with an annual consumption of 22.124 kg. After 10 years of fishing, the 
biomass had been reduced by 47%, and consumption 25%. Results are dis- 
cussed in terms of cropping the annual production of the lake. 

1973 Stock and recruitment in some unexploited Canadian Arctic lakes. Journal du 
Conseil International pour 1'Exploration de la Mer 164:219-227. 

1981 The thermodynamic origin of ecosystems. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and 
Aquatic Sciences 38:571-590. 
JOHNSON. L. D. 

1958 Pond culture of muskellunge in Wisconsin. Wisconsin Conservation Depart- 
ment Technical Bulletin 17:1-54. 

Figure 1 shows dates and temperatures at which pike spawn, eggs hatch, and 
fry swim. 

1959 Story of a thousand stomachs. Wisconsin Conservation Bulletin 24(3):7-9. 
Analysed stomachs of pike caught by Wisconsin anglers 1956-58 to deter- 
mine quantity, size, and type of food. Advice on bait, method, and tune of 
day best suited for fishing. 

157 



1961a Warm water fishery research. Muskellunge studies. Stomach analysis of 
pond and lake muskellunge and northern pike. Wisconsin Conservation 
Department, Dingell-Johnson Report F-61-R-l/Wk.Pl. 1/Job B:8-13. 

1961b Warm water fishery research. Muskellunge studies. Muskellunge age and 
growth studies. Wisconsin Conservation Department, Dingell-Johnson 
Report F-61-R-l/Wk.Pl. 1/JobC. 

1962a Warm water fishery research. Muskellunge studies. Behavior. Wisconsin 
Conservation Department, Dingell-Johnson Report F-61-R-2/Wk.Pl. l:Job 
A: 1-4. 

1962b Warm water fishery research. Muskellunge studies. Stomach analysis of 
muskellunge and northern pike. Wisconsin Conservation Department. 
Dingell-Johnson Report F-61-R-2/Wk.Pl. 1/Job B:4-7. 

1962c Warm water fishery research. Muskellunge studies. Biological inventory of 
muskellunge habitat. Wisconsin Conservation Department, Dingell-Johnson 
Report F-61-R-2/Wk.Pl. 1/Job D. 

1965 Statewide fishery research. Muskellunge studies. Feeding habits of muskel- 
lunge. Wisconsin Conservation Department, Dingell-Johnson Report F-83- 
R-01/Wk.P1.02,JobB. 6 pp. 

1969 Food of angler-caught northern pike in Murphy Flowage. Wisconsin Depart- 
ment of Natural Resources Technical Bulletin 42: 1-26. 

Stomach content analysis showed that pike fed on bluegills, perch, minnows, 
and crappies. Although bluegills were the predominant prey species, pike 
took perch more frequently than bluegills in proportion to their abundance. 
Pike tended to feed continuously during daylight hours on small forage fishes. 
Information on the success of various baits is provided. 

1971 Statewide fishery research. Development of improved muskellunge stocking 
procedures. Wisconsin Conservation Department, Report F-83-R-7/Wk.Pl. 
29/Job 5:1-14. 

1978 Evaluation of esocid stocking program in Wisconsin. American Fisheries 
Society Special Publication 1 1:298-301. 

Pike survived in the range of to 60% over short term intervals. Despite high 
variations, the stocked fingerlings added to the lake populations. Pike x 
muskellunge survived at values up to 85%. 

1981 Comparison of muskellunge (Eso.x masquinongy) populations in a stocked 
lake and unstocked lake in Wisconsin, with notes on the occurrence of north- 
ern pike (Eso.x lucius). Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources 
Research Report 1 10:1-17. 

Briefly discusses the apparent effects of the establishment of a large pike 
population in lakes inhabited by muskellunge. 

n.d. Stomach analysis of pond and lake muskellunge and northern pike. Warm 
water Research. Wisconsin Conservation Department, Dingell-Johnson Pro- 
ject F-61-R-1, Job lb: 1-5. 
JOHNSON, L. D. and H. LAUGHLIN 

1955 The musky story. Wisconsin Conservation Bulletin 20(5):5-l 1. 
JOHNSON, M. G., J. H. LEACH, C. K. MINNS and C. H. OLVER 

1977 Limnological characteristics of Ontario lakes in relation to associations of 
walleye (Stizostcdion vitreum vitreum), northern pike (Eso.x lucius), lake trout 
(Salvelinus namaycush) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui). Jour- 
nal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 34:1592-1601. 

158 



Lake depth and area were important in distinguishing lake types by discrim- 
inant analysis. Low frequency of walleye in small lakes may be partial l\ 
caused by an unsuccessful coexistence with pike. 

JOHNSON. M. K. 

1960 More northerns for Iowa waters. Iowa Conservationist 19(6):41-45. 
JOHNSON. M. W.. W.J.SCIDMORE.J.H. KUEHN and C. R. BURROWS 

1957 Status o( the northern pike fishery in Minnesota. Minnesota Department of 
Conservation, Investigational Report 178:1-10. 

For 5 years creel census was conducted on representative lakes to determine 
sport fishing harvest. Of the 52 lakes, 32 had pike and were fished by sum- 
mer angling and dark house spearing, as well as winter angling in some. 
Gives information on harvest, catch per unit effort, weight, and sex ratios. 
JOHNSON, R. E. 

1945 Ever hooked a hybrid. Minnesota Conservationist (Volunteer) 8(49): 18-22. 
1949 Maintenance of natural population balance. Proceedings of the International 
Association of Game Commissioners 38:35-42. 
JOHNSON. R. P. 

1971 Limnology and fishery biology of Black Lake, northern Saskatchewan. 
Saskatchewan Department of Natural Resources, Fish and Wildlife Branch. 
Fisheries Report 9: 1-47. 

Information on distribution in the lake, habitat, angler success, growth, age, 
and stomach contents. 

JOHNSON, T. and K. MUELLER 

1978 Migration of juvenile pike Esox lucius from a coastal stream to the northern 
part of the Bothnian Sea. Aquilo Ser. Zoologica 18:57-61. 

JOLLIE. M. 

1975 Development of the head skeleton and pectoral girdle in Esox. Journal of 
Morphology 147:61-88. 

The variations of the latero-sensory canal system, its associated bones, and 
other skeletal elements of pike and E. americanus were studied, using aspects 
of regression or specialization. The relationship between dermal and chon- 
dral bone was examined. 

JONES. A. N. 

1972 Notes on the origin of the freshwater fish of west Wales. Nature in Wales 
13(1):2-10. 

JONES. D. R.. J. W. KICENIUK and O. S. BAMFORD 

1974 Evaluation of the swimming performance of several fish species from the 
Mackenzie River. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 
31:1641-1647. 

JONES. F. R. H. 

1963 The reaction of fish to moving backgrounds. Journal of Experimental Biol- 
ogy 40:437-446. 

An apparatus is described to study the response of fish to moving back- 
grounds. Pike followed a moving background equivalent to a water current of 
0.03 cm/sec. Pike were the best and most consistent performers among the 
fresh-water species. 

JONES. J. A. 

1973 The ecology of the mud minnow. Umbra //>;//, in Fish Lake (Anoka County. 
Minnesota). Ph.D. thesis, Iowa State University. 115 pp. 

159 



JONES. R. H. 

1982 Old-world tactics + Ontario fish = Trophies. Ontario Out of Doors, August 
1982, p. 26. 

Review of Buller's book on pike angling. Gives some information on 
Buller's theory of the pike's feeding strategy and some "old world" fishing 
tips. A shortened list of record pike from around the world is included. 
JORDAN, D. S. 

1877a Review of Rafinesque's Memoirs on North American fishes. Bulletin of the 
U.S. National Museum 9:3-53. 

1877b Notes on Cottidae, Etheostomatidae, Percidae, Centrarchidae, Aphododeri- 
dae, Umbridae, Esocidae, Dorysomatidae, Cyprinidae, Catostomidae, and 
Hyodontidae with revisions of the genera and descriptions of new or little 
known species. Bulletin of the U.S. National Museum 10:5-120. 

1880 Notes on certain typical specimens of American fishes in the British Museum 
and in the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle at Paris. Proceedings of the U.S. 
National Museum 2:218-226. 

1882 Report on the fishes of Ohio. /// Zoology and Botany, Part 1, Zoology. Ohio 
Geological Survey 4:1-1 020. 
Information on synonomy, description, diagnosis, habits and habitat. 

1885 Nematognathi, Seyphopheri, Teleocephali, Gymnoti, Haplomi. /// Kingsley, 
J. S., ed., The standard natural history, vol. 3. Boston. 

1888 The distribution of fresh-water fishes. Transactions of the American Fisheries 
Society 17:4-24. 

"The Behring Strait has evidently proved no serious obstacle to diffusion; and 
it is not unlikely that much of the close resemblance of the fresh-water faunae 
of northern Europe, Asia and North America is due to this fact." 

1890 Report of explorations made during 1888 in Virginia North Carolina and 
Tennessee and in western Indiana, etc. Bulletin of the U.S. Fishery Commis- 
sion 1888,8:97-173. 

1905a A guide to the study of fishes. Vol. 2. London, Archibald Constable. 

1905b A guide to the study of fishes. Vol. 2. New York, Henry Holt. 427 pp. 

1907 Fishes. New York, Henry Holt. 789 pp. 

1918 Name of the pickerel. Copeia, No. 16. 

Jordan expressed doubt that the Esox estor of American waters was identical 
with the European Esox lucius. 

1925 Fishes. Rev. ed. New York, D. Appleton. 773 pp. 

1929 A manual of the vertebrate animals of the northern United States. 13th ed. 
Chicago, Jansen, McClurg. 446 pp. 

JORDAN, D. S. and B. W. EVERMANN 

1896 The fishes of North and Middle America Bulletin of the U.S. Museum, 47, 

Part 1 . 
1902 American food and game fishes. New York, Doubleday, Page. 572 pp. 
1917 The genera of fishes. Leland Stanford Jr. University Publications, University 
Series, Stanford University. 161 pp. 
JORDAN, D. S., B. W. EVERMANN and H. W. CLARK 

1930 Check list of the fishes and fishlike vertebrates of North and Middle America 
north of the northern boundary of Ven/uela and Colombia. Report of the 
U.S. Commissioners of Fisheries for 1928, Appendix 10, Document 1055. 
670 pp. 

160 



JORDAN. D. S. and C. H. GILBERT 

1882 A synopsis of the fishes of North America. U.S. National Museum Bulletin 
16. 1018pp. 
JORDAN. M. and Z. SREBRO 

1956 Rozwoj jaj niektorych gatunkow ryb zaplodnionych plemnikami zatrutymi 
iperytem azotowym. [Development oi fish eggs fertilized by spermatozoa 
poisoned with nitrogen mustard.) Folia Biologiea 4( 1 ):35-44. 
Disturbances in the development of fish eggs, including pike, fertilized with a 
sperm treated with nitrogen mustard, depending on the concentration of this 
compound. 
JUDAY, C. and C. L. SCHLOEMER 

1936 Growth of game fishes in Wisconsin. 4th report. Notes from Limnology 

Laboratory. Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey. 26 pp. 
1938 Growth of game fish in Wisconsin waters. 5th report. Notes from Limnology 
Laboratory. Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey. 26 pp. 
JUNE. E. C. 

1970 Atresia and year-class abundance of northern pike, Eso.x lucius, in two Mis- 
souri River impoundments. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of 
Canada 27:587-591. 

Widespread atresia in pike ovaries was associated with low year class abun- 
dance in 1966-68 in lakes Oahe and Sharpe. Fluctuations in water tempera- 
ture and levels that apparently interrupted spawning could be related to the 
condition. 

1971 The reproductive biology of northern pike, Esox lucius, in Lake Oahe, an 
upper Missouri River storage reservoir. American Fisheries Society Special 
Publication 8:53-71. 

The ova and ovaries of 1,433 females collected from 1964 to 1973 were 
examined and descriptions of different maturity stages are provided. Annual 
variations in size of mature ova and fecundity are discussed. Information on 
spawning, average age and length at sexual maturity, and sex ratio are pro- 
vided. 

1976 Changes in young-of-the-year fish stocks during and after filling of Lake 
Oahe, an upper Missouri River storage reservoir, 1966-74. U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service Technical Paper 87:1-25. 

1977 Reproductive patterns in 17 species of warmwater fishes in a Missouri River 
reservoir. Environmental Biology of Fishes 2:285-296. 

Timing of ovarian maturation and spawning of pike in Lake Oahe was 
estimated from changes in mean ovary indices (ratios of ovary weight to fish 
length). 

JLRKOWSKI. M. K. 

1976 Sklad kwasow tluszc/owych w lipidach ikry s/c/upaka (Esox litems L.) / 
Zatoki Puckiej i jezior okolic Lipusza. [The fatty acids composition in egg 
lipids of pike, Esox Indus L. from the Puck Bay and lakes near Lipusz.] Acta 
Ichthyologica et Piscatoria, Academy of Agriculture. Szczecin 6(2):9-15. 
Analysis of lipids made on the basis of thin-layer chromatography, and 
analysis of fatty acids and their methyl esters made with gas chromatography . 

JUSZC/YK. D. 

1975 Studies on the morphology of gonadal blood vessels in certain hon\ fishes. 
Zoologica Poloniae 24:393-454. 

161 



KACZYNSKI.C. 

1976 Polowy szczupaka w Zalewie Zegrzynskim. [Catches of pike in Zegrzynski 
dam reservoir.] Gospodarka Rybna 28(2):8-10. 
Commercial and recreational catches of pike in 1965-74. 

KAJ.J. 

1958 Siec tarlisk ochronnych w dorzeczu Warty. [A network of protected spawn- 
ing grounds in the Warta River basin.] Ochrona Przyrody 25:96-1 10. 
A project of introducing full protection of spawning grounds in 35 areas of 
the Warts River basin. It was assumed that the project will improve ichthyo- 
logical relations in the basin. Eight spawning grounds were selected for pike, 
based on their mass use by the species. 

KAJ. J. and B. WLOSZCZYNSKI 

1957 Dojrzewanie plciowe i plodnosc ikrzyc szczupaka z dorzecza z dorzecza 
Warty jako podstawy do normowania wymiarow ochronnych. [The sexual 
maturity and prolificity of female pikes from the Warta Basin as a basis for 
regulating protective standard dimensions.] Poznanskie Towarzystwo Przyja- 
ciol Nauk Wydzial Matematyczno-Przyrodniczy, Prace Komisja Nauk Rol- 
niczych i Leshych 3(5): 179-208. 

Pike stocks in western Poland are diminishing in spite of an extensive 
artificial rearing program. The authors recommend that the size limit be 
increased from 30 cm total length to 40 cm, at which size the optimal relative 
prolificity occurs. 

KAJAVA, R. 

n.d. The growth and mortality of northern pike in Tvarminne. M.S. thesis. 
University of Helsinki. 113 pp. [in Finnish] 

KALABINSKI, E. 

1909 Przewodnik do okreslania ryb krajowych. [Manual of the classification of 
local fishes.] Wydawnictwa E. Wende i S-ka, 29 pp. 

KALGANOV. V. M. 

1949 On alternation of teeth in pike. Priroda 8:70. 

KALLIO. D. M., P. R. GARANT and C. MINKIN 

197 1 Evidence of coated membranes in the ruffled border of the osteoclast. Journal 
of Ultrastructure Research 37:169-177. 

KAMPS, L. R., R. CARR and H. MILLER 

1972 Total mercury-monomethylmercury content of several species of fish. Bul- 
letin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 8:273-279. 

Shows the total mercury versus monomethylmercury content in the edible 
portion of five species of fish. Mercury content ranged from 0.04 to 2.60 
ppm. The proportion of methylmercury to total mercury ranged from 67 to 
125%. Mercury in the edible portion of pike is essentially all monomethyl- 
mercury. 
KAMYSHNAYA, M. S. and E. A. TSEPHIN 

1973 A contribution to the ecology of pike Esox lucius L. in the lower Umba River. 
Journal of Ichthyology 13:929-933. 

A study of the ecology of pike inhabiting a river along which young salmon 
migrate to the sea. 
KANGUR. A. , 

1968 On the seasonal character and specific peculiarities of the ATP-ASE activity 



162 



ot the muscular tissue of fishes. Eesti nvs Teaduste Akadeemia Toimetised 
Bioloogia 17:44-54. 
KANNEGIETER.J. 

1938 Kunstliche Erwarmung des Speisewassers in Hechtbrutanstalten. Fischerei 
Zeitung 41:350-352. 

KAPCZYNSKA, A. and T. PENCZAK 

1969 Wzrosl szczupaka Esox lucius L., w rzekach Wyzyny Lodzkiej i terenow 
przyleglych. [Growth of pike, Esox lucius L., in rivers of Lodz upland and 
adjacent areas.] Przeglad Zoologiczny 13:66-72. 
Data on pike growth based on direct scale readings. 
KARAMIAN. A. 1. 

1949 Evolution of the functional relationships of the cerebellum and of the cerebral 
hemispheres. 1 . On the functional relations of the cerebellum and of the ante- 
rior part of the brain in bony fishes. Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal 35:167-181. 
KARDASHEV. A. V. and A. R. SHAMUN 

1984 Biological valve of cannery as dependent on port-mortem state and frozen 
and cold storage of raw fish. /// Bykov, V. P., ed.. Fishery technology. 
VNIRO. Moscow, pp. 57-59. 

Report of a considerable decrease in canned fish biological value which 
resulted from frozen and particularly from long-term cold storage of raw 
material. The highest biological value was recorded in cannery products 
prepared of raw fish at the rigor mortis state. 
KARLSSON. S. and K. LIDEN 

1977 Nablyudaemye koehffitsienty nakopleniya tseziya-137 i kaliya v nekotorykh 
vidakh ryb i rastenij litorali oligotrofnogo ozera. [Observed coefficients of 
Cs.SUP — 137 and K accumulation in some fishes and aquatic plants from the 
ologitrophic lake littoral.] Ehkologiya 6:27-31. 
Coefficient was 3055 in pike. 
KARPOVICH. I. Y. 

1968 Development of fisheries in the Khanty-Mansi National Okrug. Problemy 
Severa 13:199-207. 
KARVELIS, E. G. 

1964 The true pikes. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fishery Leaflet 569:1-1 1. 

Briefly describes pike and its habitat, distribution, spawning, food, growth, 
and its value as a sport and commercial fish. 
KARZINKIN.G.S. 

1935 Toward knowledge of the fishery productivity of waters. Report 4. Duration 
of passage of food and its assimilation by young pike {Esox lucius L.) Trudy 
Limnologicheskogo St. V. Kosine, 20, M. 

1939 Contribution to the fish productivity of fresh waters. 7. Growth of the one- 
summer old pikes as influenced by some of the natural food. Proceedings 
Kossino Limnological Station of the Hydrometerological Service USSR 
22:219-240. 

Growth and feeding of young pike was studied in aquaria. Dry weight and 
protein content were determined and consumption assimilation was estimated. 
When fed upon Daphnia pulc.x and Cyclops, pike growth was retarded and 
weight decreased. Cyclops and small D. pule.x are an acceptable food for 
only the first 20-30 days after hatch. Pike cannot exist on this food. 



163 



1952 Foundations of the biological productivity of waters. Moscow, Pishcheprom- 
izdat. 
KASANSKY, B. N.. R. I. BALASHOV and L. A. BELOGOLOVAYA 

1972 Renewal of aboriginal fish populations after some extremal treatments of the 
lakes in the northwest of the USSR. International Association of Theoretical 
and Applied Limnology Proceedings 18:1207-121 1. 
KASANSKY. W.J. 

1929 Die kreuzung von Esox lucius L. mit den Arten der Cyprinidae und Percidae. 
Zoologischer Anzeiger 90: 1 68- 1 75. 
KASHIN. S. M., L. K. MALININ and G. N. ORLOVSKY 

1976 The speed of predation and prey during the rushing movement. Biologiya 
Vnutrennykh vod Informatsionii Byulleten 30:29-32. 

KASHIN, S. M., L. K. MALININ, G. N. ORLOVSKY and A. G. PODDUBNY 

1977 Behaviour of some fishes during hunting. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 
56:1328-1339. 

Kinograms during hunting were studied. The peculiarities of approachment, 
rush and catching the prey are described. 

KAUKORANTA, E. and E. A. LIND 

1975 The pike, Esox lucius L., in the estuary of the Oulujoko River. I. Ecology. 
Ichtyol. Fenn. Borealis 1975( 1-2): 1-40. 

The study area was a 3-km section between the sea and the Merikoski power 
station. Two hundred pike caught in gill nets were measured, weighed, 
tagged, sexed, and released, with 55% recaptured by 1975. Information on 
exploitation rate, growth, time of milt and roe flow, temperature during 
spawning, length, weight, locomotor activity, methyl mercury concentrations, 
and homing behaviour is provided. 

KAUSHIK, S. J., K. DABROWSKI and P. LUQUET 

1985 Experimental studies on some trophic relationships in juvenile pike, Esox 
lucius L. Journal of Fish Biology 25:171-180. 

A postprandial increase in ammonia nitrogen excretion and oxygen consump- 
tion rates was observed in juvenile pike fed a natural diet or an artificial dry 
diet. 50% of ingesta was evacuated within 5 to 6 hours in pike of 25 mg body 
weight and 9 to 10 hours in those weighing 150 mg. Daily nitrogen excretion 
rates were related to body weight. Respiratory quotient and energy retention 
efficiency were affected by the nature of the diet ingested by pike. Parame- 
ters of the energy balance were related to energy intake. 

KAVANAGH 

1978 Report of pike committee to Bord Failte Eireann. Ireland Tourism. 
KEARN,G. C. 

1966 The adhesive mechanism of the monogenean parasite Tctraonchus monen- 
teron from the gills of the pike (Esox lucius). Parasitology 56:505-5 10. 
KEAST, A. 

1970 Food specializations and bioenergetic interrelations in the fish faunas of some 
small Ontario waterways. In Steele, J. H., ed.. Marine food chains. Edin- 
burgh, Oliver and Boyd, pp. 377-41 1 . 

1978 Trophic and spatial interrelationships in the fish species of an Ontario tem- 
perate lake. Environmental Biology of Fishes 3:7-31. 

Brief note on: distribution, description of mouth area, pharyngeal pads, rela- 
tive abundance in habitat types, and food volume. 

164 



1979 Patterns of predation in generalist feeders. /// Clepper, H., ed., Predator-prey 
systems in fisheries management. Washington. Sport Fishing Institute, pp. 
243-255. 

Kl \SI. A. and 1). WEBB 

1966 Month and body form relative to feeding ecology in the tish fauna of a small 
lake. Lake Opinicon, Ontario. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of 
Canada 23:1845-1874. 

Describes mouth and body form o\' pike, and concludes that pike are greatly 
specialized for a piscivorous way of life. 
KEDLECJ. 

1952 Seleeted bibliography on food habits of the pike. University of Michigan, 
unpublished MS, 5 pp. 
An annotated bibliography. 
KELEHER. J.J. 

1961 Comparison of largest Great Slave Lake fish with North American records. 
Journal of the Fisheries Researeh Board of Canada 18:417-421. 
The largest Great Slave Lake pike was 30.0 lb caught on August 17, 1958. 
North American pike appear not to exeeed 50 lb. 
1963 The movement of tagged Great Slave Lake fish. Journal of the Fisheries 
Researeh Board of Canada 20:319-326. 
KELENYI.G. 

1972 Phylogenesis of the azurophil leukoeyte granules in vertebrates. Fxperientia 
28:1094-1096. 
KELSEY. P. M. 

1968 Piekerel, pike or muskie? Conservationist 22:41. 

Describes characterises for the angler to differentiate among the species. 
KELSO. J. R.. H. R. MACCRIMMON and D. J. ECOBICHON 

1970 Seasonal inseetieide residue changes in tissues of fish from the Grand River, 
Ontario. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 99:423-426. 
KEMPF. C. and B. SITTLER 

1977 Mercury and organo chlorine pollution in the Rhine River Basin; its effects 
upon bird and fish populations. Terre Vie 31 :66 1-668. 
KEMPINGER.J. J. 

1966a Statewide fishery research. Five Lakes studies. Evaluation oi maintenance 
stocking of game fish species. Wisconsin Conservation Department, 
Dingell-Johnson Report F-83-R-l/Wk.Pl. 5/Job D. 
1966b Statewide fishery research. Five Lakes studies. Evaluation of a 22 inch size 
limit on northern pike. Wisconsin Conservation Department. Dingell- 
Johnson Report F-83-R-l/Wk.Pl. 5/Job F. 
1967a Statewide fishery research. Northern highland research project. Evaluation 
of game fish stocking. Wisconsin Conservation Department, Dingell-Johnson 
Report F-83-R-2/Wk.Pl. 4/Job B:5-12. 
1967b Statewide fishery research. Northern highland research project. Evaluation 
of a 22-inch minimum size limit on northern pike in Escanaba Lake. Wiscon- 
sin Conservation Department, Dingell-Johnson Report F-83-R-2/WLPI. 4/Job 
D. 
1972 Statewide fishery research. Evaluation of a 22-inch minimum size limit on 
northern pike in Escanaba Lake. Wisconsin Conservation Department F-83- 
R-7/Job2:l-6. 

165 



Some statistics on the pike population during the 6 years of no size limits 
(prior to 1964), in spring 1971, and during the 8 years of restrictive size limits 
(1964-71). 
KEMPINGER. J. J. and R. F. CARLINE 

1977 Dynamics of the walleye {Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) population in Esca- 
naba Lake, Wisconsin, 1955-1972. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board 
of Canada 34:1800-1811. 

1978a Dynamics of the northern pike populations and changes that occurred with a 
minimum size limit in Escanaba Lake, Wisconsin. American Fisheries 
Society Special Publication 1 1:382-389. 

A 56-cm minimum length limit was applied in 1964 and removed 9 years 
later. This paper gives information on changes in yield, catch per unit effort, 
growth rate, and mortality rate. 
1978b Changes in population density, growth, and harvest of northern pike in Esca- 
naba Lake. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Technical Bulletin 
104:1-17. 

Changes were related to the implementation of a 22-inch size limit which was 
imposed in the last 9 years of a 14-year study. Population densities and mor- 
tality rates increased. Growth rates, condition factors, and fishing pressure 
declined. No change was noted in the number of 22-inch pike harvested. 

KEMPINGER, J. J. and W. S. CHURCHILL 

1970 Statewide fishery research. Estimate of abundance and exploitation of the 
fish population of Escanaba Lake, Wisconsin. Wisconsin Conservation 
Department, Dingell-Johnson Report F-83-R-5/Wk.Pl. 21/Job 7/Fin:l-50. 

KEMPINGER, J. J., W. S. CHURCHILL, G. R. PRIEGEL and L. M. CHRISTENSON 

1975 Estimate of abundance, harvest, and exploitation of the fish population of 
Escanaba Lake, Wisconsin, 1946-69. Wisconsin Department of Natural 
Resources Technical Bulletin 84:1-30. 

Results were obtained from a compulsory creel census program on the 293- 
acre lake. Each year anglers fished an average of 65 hours/acre, catching 20 
lb/acre at a rate of 0.84 fish per hours. The highest exploitation rate was for 
pike (.46). 

KENDALL, A. W., Jr. and J. B. MARLIAVE, eds. 

1985 Descriptions of early life history stages of selected fishes: from the 3rd Inter- 
national Symposium on the early life history of fishes and 8th annual larval 
fish conference. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sci- 
ences 1359:1-82. 

KENDALL, R. L., ed. 

1978 Selected cool water fishes of North America. Proceedings of a symposium, 
St. Paul, 1978. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 1 I. 437 pp. 

KENDALL. W. C. 

1 895 Notes on the fresh-water fishes of Washington County, Maine. Bulletin of the 
U.S. Fish Commission 14:43-54. 

1909 The fishes of Labrador. Proceedings of the Portland Society of Natural His- 
tory 13:207-243. 

1918 The Rangeley lakes, Maine, with special reference to the habits of the fishes, 
fish culture, a,nd angling. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries, vol. 35, Docu- 
ment 861 , pp. 487-594. 



166 



1919 The pikes: their geographical distribution, habits, culture, and commercial 
importance. Report of the U.S. Fishery Commission, 1917(app. 5): 1-45. 

1920 An annotated list of a collection of fishes made by F. Harper in the Athabasca 

region in 1920. Contributions to Canadian Biology, new ser. I (23):4 19-439. 
KENDLE. E. R. and L. A. MORRIS 

1965 Device for holding objects in the stomachs of fish. Transactions of the Amer- 
ican Fisheries Society 94:193-194. 

1972 A gastric battery for fish. Progressive Fish-Culturist 34:216. 

The feasibility of a small battery using the gastric juices in a fish's stomach as 
the electrolyte was investigated as a power source for miniaturized fish- 
tracking ultrasonic transmitters. After such a battery had been in the stomach 
of a pike for 226 days, it was not visibly eroded and still produced as much 
power as when installed in the fish. 

KENNEDY. M. 

1965 Spawning of pike in four Irish lakes in 1965. Unpublished MS. 
1969 Irish pike investigations. Spawning and early life history. Irish Fishery 
Investigations, Series A (Freshwater), 5:4-33. 

A study of spawning conditions, description of pike eggs, the incubation 
period, and development of the larvae until absorption of the yolk sac. 

KENNEDY. M. and P. FITZMAURICE 

1969 Factors affecting the growth of coarse fish. Proceedings of the 4th British 
Coarse Fish Converence, pp. 42-49. 

KENNEDY. W. A. 

1946 Food, age, sex and maturity of jackfish in Kakisa and Tathlina lakes. 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada, unpublished MS. 

1947 Some information on the minimum adult stock of fish needed to provide ade- 
quate natural spawning. Canadian Fish Culturist 2:14-15. 

Merely mentions that pike in Tathlina Lake and the adjoining muskeg waters 

were not affected by the winterkill of 1942-43. 
1954 Growth, maturity and mortality in the relatively unexploited lake trout, Cris- 

tivomer narhaycush, of Great Slave Lake. Journal of the Fisheries Research 

Board of Canada 1 1 :827-852. 

Pike is listed as one of the species fished commercially 
KENNEDY, W. A. and W. M. SPRULES 

1967 Goldeye in Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada Bulletin 161:1-45. 

Pike is listed as a predator of goldeye. 
KEPLER. P. 

1973 Population studies of northern pike and whitefish in the Minto Flats complex 
with emphasis on the Chatanika River. Alaska Department of Fish and 
Game, Sport Fishery Division 14:59-81. 

KERNEHAM.R. J. 

1976 A bibliography of early life stages of fishes. Ichthyological Associates, Bul- 
letin 14:1-190. 
KERR. T. 

1942 A comparative study of some teleost pituitaries. Proceedings o\ the Zoologi- 
cal Society of London (A)112:37-56. 
KETOLA. H (.. 

1978 Nutritional requirements and feeding of selected cool water fishes: A review. 
Progressive Fish-Culturist 40: 1 27- 1 32. 

167 



KETZ, H. A., G. ASSMANN and H. WITT 

1960 The sodium, potassium and glucose contents of serum and erythrocytes in 
birds and fish. Acta Biologica et Medica Germanica 4:598-605. 
KIERMEIR. A. 

1939 On the blood sugar of freshwater fish. Zeitschrift fur Vergleichende Phy- 
siologie 27:460-491. 
KILARSKI, W. 

1966 Budowa siateczki sarkoplazmatycznej w miesniach szkieletowych ryb. 3. 
Szczupak {Esox lucius L.). [Organization of the sarcoplasmik reticulum in 
skeletal muscles of fishes. III. Pike {Esox lucius L.).] Bulletin de 
TAcademie Polonaise des Sciences 14:575-580. 
KIME, D. E. 

1978 The hepatic catabolism of Cortisol in teleost fish. Adrenal origin of hoxotes- 
tosterone precursors. General and Comparative Endocrinology 35:322. 
KIME, D. E. and E. A. HEWS 

1978 In vitro biosynthesis of 1 1 beta-hydroxy and 1 1 oxotestosterone by testes of 
the pike {Esox lucius) and the perch {Perca fluviatilis). General and Com- 
parative Endocrinology 36:604-608. 
KING. F. A. 

1959 Call him pike, "jack" or luce. Pennsylvania Angler 28(7):4-7. 
KIPLING, C. 

1965 Pike in Windermere. Mitteilungen Internationale Vereinigung fuer Theore- 
tische und Angewandte Limnologie 13:197-198. 

Describes exhibit showing results of work in progress on Lake Windermere 
pike. 
1972 The commercial fisheries of Windermere. Transactions of the Cumberland 
and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society 72:156-204. 
A historic study of the fisheries in Windermere to the present. 

1975 The effects of variation in growth on the gill net selection of a population of 
pike. European Inland Fisheries Advisory Committee Technical Paper 
23(suppl. l.vol. l):80-89. 

A simple model to provide information on the effects of gill net selection on a 
population of pike is described. The model is designed to give successive 
annual estimates of the number of pike that were caught, died, and survived 
each year. 

1976 Year class strengths of perch and pike in Windermere. Report of the Fresh- 
water Biological Association 44:68-75. 

Perch <150 mm are the main food of pike. Pike year class strengths are 
closely correlated with temperature conditions for the first few months of life. 

1983a Changes in the growth of pike {Esox lucius) in Windermere. Journal of 
Animal Ecology 52:647-657. 

Pike were sampled in Windermere every year from 1944 to 1982. Lengths- 
for-age of 11,775 fish were determined from the opercular bones. Three 
periods of different growth were identified and are described. 

1983b Changes in the population of pike {Esox lucius) in Windermere from 1944 to 
1981. Journal of Animal Ecology 52:989-999. 

From October 1944 to March 1982, 13,195 pike were caught in Lake Winder- 
mere in gill nets set in winter. Estimates of numbers of adult pike are given 
for each basin. Temperature, food supply, and cannibalism were identified as 

168 



important factors in causing changes in numbers, biomass, and growth. 
KIPLING. C. and W. E. FROST 

1969 Variations in the fecundity of pike Eso.x litems L. in Windermere. Journal of 
Fish Biology 1:221-237. 

Hgg counts were made during four consecutive winters, and the mean number 
o\ eggs per gram o\' total fish weight was estimated. The mean egg number 
showed a stead\ increase after the second winter, possibly due to a previous 
decrease in population density. Variation between individuals in any years 
was considerable. No association between temperature, growth, and food 
suppl) and the number of eggs per gram oi total fish weight was seen. 

1970 A study of the mortality, population numbers, year class strengths, production 
and food consumption of pike Eso.x lucius L., in Windermere from 1944 to 
1962. Journal of Animal Ecology 39:1 15-157. 

The age and growth of 7,751 pike caught in gill nets, traps, and seines were 

determined. Pike were tagged every year from 1949-65 and up to HYA of 

tagged fish were recaptured. Age was determined using the opercular bone. 

Year class strengths were correlated to temperatures during the first year of 

life. Sex ratio and biomass were calculated. 
1972 Certain effects of an annual removal of pike {Eso.x lucius) from Windermere. 

International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology Proceedings 

18:1122-1127. 

Since netting started in 1944 the number of pike has not changed appreciably, 

but the population is younger. The paper describes the effects of the removal 

of pike on other species. 
KIPLING. C. and E. D. LE CREN 

1975 Experiences in Windermere with estimating population numbers by tag recap- 
ture methods. European Inland Fisheries Advisory Committee Technical 

Paper 23(suppl. 1, vol. 2):61 1-619. 
1984 Mark-recapture experiments on fish in Windermere, 1943-1982. Journal of 

Fish Biology 24:395-414. 

A total of 4,696 pike were tagged and were recaptured up to 12 years later. 

The experiments provided useful information on movement and growth. 
KIRSIPUU, A. 

1964a On protein fractions and their sexual differences in blood serum of some 

food-fishes of the Estonian S.S.R. Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia 

Toimetised Bioloogie 13:45-54. 
1964b On seasonal changes in blood serum protein fractions of fishes. Eesti NSV 

Teaduste Akadeemia Toimetised Bioloogia 13:278-284. 
1975 Blood serum lipoproteins and glycoproteins in the pike Eso.x lucius: results of 

a paper electrophoretic investigation. Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia 

Toimetised Bioloogia 24:68-7 1 . 
K1RTLAND. J. P. 

1844 Descriptions of the fishes of Lake Erie, the Ohio River and their tributaries. 

Boston Journal of Natural History 4:231-234. 
1854 Revision of the species belonging to the genus Eso.x, inhabiting Lake Erie and 

the River Ohio. Annals of Science 2(3):78-79. 
KISTELSKI, B. 

1933 S/c/upak w stawach karpiowatych. [Pike in carp ponds.] Przeglad Rybacki 

6(5): 164-166. 

169 



Practical suggestions on the culture of pike in carp ponds as an additional 
stock. 

KLAASSEN. H. E. and S. D. CRAWFORD 

1973 Scanning electron microscopy of fish scales. Presented at 35th Midwest 
Wildlife Conference, St. Louis, 1973. 

KLAVERKAMP, J. F., D. A. HODGINS and A. LUTZ 

1983 Selenite toxicity and mercury-selenium interactions in juvenile fish. Archives 
of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 12:405-413. 
Acute lethal toxicities of selenium and the effects of selenium on mercury 
accumulation were determined in freshwater fish species. Selenite concentra- 
tions required to produce 50% mortality were approximately 1 1 mg SE/1 in 
pike. 

KLEBERT. E. 

1904 Jakie stawy zarybiec szczupakiem? [What ponds should be stocked with 
pike?] Okolnik Rybacki 68:1 1-12. 
Suggestions on stocking of small farm ponds with pike. 

KLEERKOPER, H. 

1969 Olfaction in fishes. Bloomington, Indiana University Press. 
KLEINERT, S. J. 

1967a Statewide fishery research. Factors influencing success of northern pike 
reproduction in natural and artificial areas. Wisconsin Conservation Depart- 
ment, Dingell-Johnson Report F-83-R-2/Wk.Pl. 6/Job C. 

1967b Statewide fishery research. Evaluation of northern pike stocking. Wisconsin 
Conservation Department, Dingell-Johnson Report F-83-R-2/Wk.Pl. 6/Job B. 

1970 Production of northern pike in a managed marsh, Lake Ripley, Wisconsin. 
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Research Report 49:1-19. 

The number of pike produced in Perrys Marsh was too small to significantly 
improve the pike fishery of Lake Ripley. It was concluded that Perrys Marsh 
was poorly suited as a managed production area for pike due in part to low 
zooplankton food levels in the marsh. 
KLEINERT, S. J., P. E. DEBURSE and T. L. WIRTH 

1968 Occurrence and significance of DDT and dieldrin residues in Wisconsin fish. 
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Technical Bulletin 41:1-43. 
KLEINERT. S. J. and D. F. MRAZ 

1965a Statewide fishery research. Delafield studies. Northern pike studies. Sur- 
vival of stocked northern pike fingerlings. Wisconsin Conservation Depart- 
ment, Dingell-Johnson Report F-83-R-l/Wk.PI. 10/Job A. 

1965b Statewide fishery research. Delafield studies. Northern pike studies. North- 
ern pike incubation study. Wisconsin Conservation Department, Dingell- 
Johnson Report F-83-R-l/Wk.Pl. 9/Job A. 

1965c Statewide fishery research. Delafield studies. Northern pike studies. Sur- 
vival and growth of northern pike in ponds. Wisconsin Conservation Depart- 
ment, Dingell-Johnson Report F-83-R-l/Wk.Pl. 9/Job B. 

1965d Statewide fishery research. Delafield studies. Northern pike studies. Evalua- 
tion of an artificial rearing area for northern pike. Wisconsin Conservation 
Department, Dingell-Johnson Report F-83-R-l/Wk.Pl. 9/Job C. 

1965e Statewide fishery research. Delafield studies. Northern pike studies. Natural 
spawning area study. Wisconsin Conservation Department, Dingell-Johnson 
Report F-83-R-l/Wk.Pl. 8/Job A/FIN. 

170 



1966 Life history of the grass pickerel, (Esox americanus vermiculatus) in 
southeastern Wisconsin. Wisconsin Conservation Department Technical Bul- 
letin 37: 1-39. 
KLESSEN.O. 

1%1 Hechtbesatz und Hechtwirtschaft. Deutsche Fischerei-Zeitung 8:356-358. 
KLUPP, R. 

1978 Die production von Hechtsetzlingen in Karpfenteichen. (The production o\' 
pike hngerlings in earp ponds.] Fiseherei Teiehwirt 20: 144-148. 
The possibiligy of using pike hngerlings as the second speeies in earp farming 
ponds is discussed. Various aspeets of pike behaviour, including cannibal- 
ism, must be eonsidered. Indications of stoeking and stoek density are given. 
KLUYTMANS.J. H. F. M. 

1971 Onderzoek naar de vetzuursamenstelling en het vermogen tot biosynthese van 
vetzuren bij de snoek (Esox Indus L.). Thesis, University of Utreeht. 
KLUYTMANS. J. H. F. M. and D. I. ZANDEE 

1973a Lipid metabolism in the northern pike (Esox lucius L.) I. The fatty aeid com- 
position of the northern pike (Esox Indus L.). Comparative Biochemistry and 
Physiology 44:451-458. 

The fatty acid composition of the total lipids from the pike was studied by 
standard gas-chromatographic methods, in combination with hydrogenation, i. 
r. spectroscopy and periodate-permanganate oxidation of semi-preparative 
collected peaks. Many different positional isomers appeared to be present in 
the unsaturated fatty acids. The presence of many of the quantitative impor- 
tant acids was in accordance with a biosynthesis starting from linoleic or 
alpha-linolenic acid. 

1973b Lipid metabolism in the northern pike (Esox lucius L.). II. The composition 
of the total lipids and of the fatty acids isolated from lipid classes and some 
tissues of the northern pike. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 
44:459-466. 

The percentage composition of lipid classes of total lipids from the pike is 
given. The total lipids consisted mainly of polar lipids (51%), cholesterol 
(13%), and triglycerides (27%). The fatty acid composition of these lipid 
classes was studied. The fatty acid composition of the testis lipids differed 
considerably from those of lipids isolated from other organs in containing a 
very high concentration of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. 

1974 Lipid metabolism in the northern pike (Eso.\ Indus L.). 3. In vivo incorpora- 
tion of 1-14 C-acetate in the lipids. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiol- 
ogy 48:641-649. 

The specific radioactivity of the total lipids isolated from different organs o\ 
the pike after injection of Na-a-14-C-acetate showed the highest values in the 
liver and the gills. In the liver, radioactivity was found mainly in the fatty 
acids, while in the gills the greater part was present in the unsaponihable 
lipids. The percentage incorporation of radioactivity in lipid classes did not 
change significantly from 2 to 24 hours after injection, but decreased in phos- 
pholipids and increased in triglycerides during shorter incubation times. 
KLYSZFJKO. B. 

1973 Zmiany osmotyc/ne surowicy krwi s/c/upaka Esox lucius L. w przebiegu 
procesu adaptacyjnego do zwiekszonej koncentracji zasolenia wody. 
(Osmotic changes in the blood serum of the pike Esox lucius L. during the 

171 



process of adaptation to the increased salinity of water.) Acta Ichthyologies 
etPiscatoria 3(1):125-137. 

Studies on 850 pike from natural environments of varying salinity. 
KMIOTECK, S. and J. M. HELM 

1961 Observations on the effects of electric shock on eggs and sperm in spawning 
northern pike. Wisconsin Conservation Department, Investigational Memo 
6:1. 
KNAUTHE, K. 

1902 Varietaten des Hechtes. Zoologische Garten 43:405. 
KNOWELDEN. M. 

19X4 A passion for pike, the legendary monster. Scanorama, July-August, 1984, 
pp. 90-95. 
KOBEC, G. F., V. S. ZAVJALOVA and M. L. KOMAROVA 

1969 Der Einflus des Fischschleimes auf die turbulente Reibung. Bionika 3:80-84. 
[in Russian) 

KOBES, R. 

1982 Big jerks - big pike. In-Fisherman 45:72-83. 

Describes equipment and technique for fishing pike with "jerkbait". 
KOCH, H. 

1970 Hechtaufzug auf der Insel Reichenau. Allgemeine Fischerei-Zeitung 
95(15):505. 

KOCH, W., O. BANK and G. JENS 

1976 Fischzucht, Lehrbuch fur Zuchter und Teichwirte. 4th ed. Hamburg, Paul 
Parey. 264 pp. 
KOGTEVA, E. P. 

1961 Fish parasites from Pskov Chud water reserve. /// Petruschevskii, ed., 
Parasites and diseases of fish. Jerusalem, Israel Program for Scientific Trans- 
lations. 338 pp. 
KOIVUSAARI.J. 

1976 Chlorinated hydrocarbons and total mercury in the prey of the white-tailed 
eagle Haliaeetus albicilia in the Quarken Straits of the Gulf of Bothnia, Fin- 
land. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 15:235-241. 

KOKES. J. 

1977 Prispevek ke studiu potravy stiky obecne. (A contribution to the study of the 
food eaten by the pike.) Vertebratologicke zpravy, pp. 26-28. 

KOLGANOV, D. I. 

1968 How the pike changes its teeth. Rybovodstvo i rybolovstvo, no. 4. 
KOLI, L. and M. SOIKKELI 

1974 Fish prey of breeding Caspian terns in Finland. Annales Zoologici Fennici 
11:304-308. 
KOMAROVA, M. L. 

1969 Uber die chcmische Zusammensetzung des Schleines des Hechtes und der 
Quappe. Bionika 3:84-90. | in Russian | 

KONFAL, E. 

1971 \ alvida bauhini and the large intestine in Esox lucius. Biologia 26:427-430. 
KONOBEEVA, V. K., A. G. KONOBEEV and A. G. PODDUBNY1 

1980 The mechanism of massing on young perch Perca fluviatilis in the open part 
of lake type reservoirs using Rybinsk Reservoir Russian-SFSR USSR as an 
example. Voprosy Ikhtiologii 20:258-271. 

172 



KONONOV, V. A. 

1957 Conditions and efficiency of reproduction of fishes in t ho Kakhovka reservoir 
in its firsl year. Transactions of the 6th Conference on the Biology of Inland 
Waters. 1957. pp. 428-435. 

The numbers of young of valuable predators are low. Therefore, their impor- 
tance as biological regulators of numbers of trash fishes should be markedly 
strengthened. 

KONOVALOV, P. M. and T. V. LUGAVAYA 

1 96S The results of experiments in the artificial rearing o\ pike at the Krememen- 
chug spawning and fish rearing establishment. Rybnoe Khozyaistvo Respub- 
likanskii Mezhvedomstvennyi Tematicheskii Nauchnyk Sbornik 6(6):50-61. 

KONRAD 

1962 Volksmundliche Fischnamen. Allgemeine Fischerei-Zeitung 87:517-518. 

KORHONEN, M. 

1961 Haukikalat. in Pitkanen, H., ed., Suuri kalakirja. Helsinki, pp. 136-148. 

KOROVINA, V. M.. A. I. LYUBITSKAYA and E. A. DOROFEEVA 

1965 The effect of visible light and darkness on rate oi' formation of skeletal car- 
tilage elements in teleost fishes. Voprosy Ikhtiologii 5:503-510. 
Pike was one of the species used in an experiment to incubate eggs under 
varying illumination. The degree of illumination had a significant effect on 
development oi' the skeletal cartilage; however, an approximation of natural 
light yielded optimal conditions. 

KOROVINA. V. M. and N. E. VASILEVA 

1976 Anatomic and histological data on phylogenetic links of salmonoid fishes. 
Arkhiv Anatomii Gistologii i Embriologii 70:66-73. 

KORULCZYK. T. and L. KOZLOWSKA 

1970 Kiedy lowic szczupaka. [When to catch pike.] Gospodarka Rybna 
22(11):19-21. 

National pike catches in the period 1958-1968. Distribution of catches in an 
annual cycle. Intensification of pike catches with traps and set gear in 
autumn. 

KORWIN-KOSSAKOWSKI, M. 

1976 Plodnosc i wzrost szczupaka {Esax lucius Linnaeus 1758) z jeziora Warniak. 
[The fecundity and the growth of pike Eso.x lucius from the Warniak Lake. 
Poland.] Roczniki Nauk Rolniczyck, Series 1L Rybactwo 94(2):43-61. 
Estimation of absolute and relative fecundity and growth of pike. Relation 
ship between absolute fecundity, relative fecundity, and age. body weight and 
length in the first year oi life, also cg^ size, based on linear and multiple 
regression analysis. 

KORZHLEY.P. A. 

1958 Ekologo-fiziologicheskie osobennosti nekotorykh vidov ryb. Trud\ Soyesh- 
chanii Ikhtiologicheskoi Komissii Akademii Nauk SSSR 8:364-371. 

KOKZHl EV. P. A. and T. N. GLAZOVA 

1968 Comparative physiological characteristics of the blood and hematopoietic 
organs of fish and aquatic mammals. Fiziologiya (Know Ekologii vodnykh 
Zhivothnykh Seriya Biologii Morya Vyp 15:131-146. 
KORZYNEK, W. 

1956 () tar 1c szczupaka glebinowego. |On pike spawning.) Gospodarka Rybna 
8(3):23-24. 

173 



Catches of adult pike by the use of fyke nets placed at a depth of 3.5 to 8 m 
from April 30 to June 3. 

1960 O ochronie szczupaka. | Pike protection.] Wiadomosci Wedkarskie 1:9-10. 
Practical suggestions on better protection of pike by the use of proper angling 
methods. 

1962 Szczupak olbrzym. [A giant pike. J Gospodarka Rybna 14(3):32. 
Description of record-size (24-34 kg) pike caught by fishermen. 
KOSHELEV. B. W. 

1961 Changes in the sexual cycles of fishes with a single annual spawning, associ- 
ated with changes in environmental conditions. Voprosy Ikhtiologii 
1:716-724. 

KOSHEVA. A. F. 

1957 The formation of the parasitofauna of fish in the Kutuluk Basin. /// 
Petrushevskii, G. K., ed.. Parasites and diseases offish. Jerusalem, Israel Pro- 
gram for Scientific Translations, pp. 120-126. 
KOSHINSKY. G. D. 

1969 The Lac la Ronge and Hunter Bay creel census, 1969. Saskatchewan Depart- 
ment of Natural Resources, MS Report, 24 pp. 
1972 An evaluation of two tags with northern pike {Eso.x lucius). Journal of the 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada 29:469-476. 

In a 4-year study of pike, barb-anchored spaghetti dart tags were retained 
longer than monofi lament-attached preopercular disc tags. Tagging mortality, 
condition, growth, dispersal, and angling vulerability were compared in fish 
bearing each tag type. 
1979 Northern pike at Lac La Ronge. Part 1. Biology of northern pike. Part 2. 
Dynamics and exploitation of the northern pike population. Saskatchewan 
Department of Tourism and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Laboratory 
Technical Report 79-80:1-303. 

Data on fisheries, reproduction, length-weight relationships, migration habits, 
environmental factors, habitat, food and feeding, age, growth, tagging results, 
annual mortality of fish and eggs, age of maturity, population size, parasitism, 
predator-prey relationships, and fishing regulations. Recommendations were 
given for stiffer fishing regulations and additional research. 
KOSSWIG.C. 

1969 New contributions to zoogeography of fresh water fish of Asia Minor, based 
on collections made between 1964-1967. Israel Journal of Zoology 
18(2/3):249-254. 
KOSTER, W. J. 

1957 Guide to the fishes of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press. 1 16 
pp. 
KOSTOMAROV, B. 

1961 Die I ischzucht. Berlin, VLB Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlag. 375 pp. 
KOSTOMAROV A, A. A. 

1959 Biologicheskoe znachenie etapa smeshannogo pitaniya dlya razvitiya lichinok 
shchuki. | Biological importance of the phase of mixed nourishment for the 
development of the larvae of the pike (Eso.x lucius).] Rybnoe Khozyaistvo 
8:25-27. 

A study of dietary needs of pike larvae from time of hatch until 2 days after 
they become mobile. 

174 



1961 Zhachenie etapa smeshannogo pitaniya dlya vyzhivaemosti lichinok shchuki. 
(The significance of the stage of mixed feeding for the survival of Eso.\ lucius 
L. larvae. | Trudy Soveshchanii Ikhtiologicheskoi Komissii Akademi Nauk 
SSSR 13:344-347. 

Availability of food from the time the) transferred to live food appeared 
necessary to the normal morphological, anatomical, and physiological 
development o\' the larvae. Those which fed only on the yolk sac tailed to 
develop physically, lost the ability to react to water currents, and starved after 
three days following resorption. 
KOTLY AREVSKAYA. N. V. 

1966 The effect o( the hatching enzyme on the envelope capsule of the pike egg. 
Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR 169:485-488. 

The strength of the egii membrane was studied. Comparably high residual 
strength of the pike egg envelope (minimum 25-60 g) after it has been weak- 
ened by the enzyme indicates that the movement of the embryo plays an 
important role in hateh of pike. The chemical action of the hatching enzyme 
was studied. The egg envelope does not contain acid mucopolysaccharides, 
which agrees with the observations obtained with other types of fish, and the 
changes observed cannot be ascribed to hyaluronidase activity. 

1969 The hatching process in the pike (Esox lucius L.). Problems o\ Ichthyology 
9:85-94. 

The development of the embryo before, and its morpho-physiological state 
during, hatching was investigated. The functional states of the hatching and 
adhesive glands were examined, attentuation of the egg membranes by hatch- 
ing gland secretion, and embryo movement were important elements in the 
hatching process. 
KOURIL.J. 

1975 Dospivani, pohlavni cyklus a plodnost stiky obecne {Eso.\ lucius L.) chovane 
v rybnicich. [Maturation, sexual cycles and fertility of pike reared in fish- 
ponds.] Buletin Vyzkumy Ustav Rybarsky a Hydrobiologicky Vodnany, 69 
pp. 
KOURIL. J. and J. HAMACKOVA 

1975 Plodnost stiky obecne (Esox lucius L.) z rybnicniho chovu. [Fecundity of 
pond-reared pike (Esox lucius L.).| Zivocisna vyroba 20:841-850. 

1977 Rocni pohlavni cyklus stiky obecne chovane v rybnicich. [The annual sexual 
cycle of pond farmed pike Esox lucius L.| Buletin Vyzkumy Ustav Rybarsky 
a Hydrobiologicky Vodnany 13:8-16. 

Describes and illustrates the annual morphological and histological changes 
in gonads of both sexes of farmed pike, third age group. 

1978 Doporucena technologie: Odchov pludku stiky obecne (Esox lucius L.). 
[Recommended technology: rearing of pike fry.] Buletin Vyzkumy Ustav 
Rybarsky a Hydrobiologicky Vodnany. 1 1 pp. 

KOI RIL. J.. J. HAMACKOVA and Z. SVOBODOVA 

1976 Exterierova a kondicni ukazatele stiky obecne (Esox lucius L.) / rybnicniho 
chovu v predvyterovem obdobi. [Conformation and condition indices of 
pond-farmed pike (Esox lucius L.) in the pre-spawning period. | Buletin Vyz 
kumy Ustav Rybarsky a Hydrobiologicky Vodnany I2(3):3— 8. 



175 



ROYAL. N. V. 

1969 Experimental use of neutral red dye to tag young fish. Hydrobiological Jour- 
nal 5(6):95-99. 
KOVAL, V. P. 

1969 Trematodes of the genus Phyllodistomum braun 1899 from the fishes of Ukr. 
SSR. Vesnik Kiivs'kogo Universiteta, Seriya Biologii 1 1:167-174. 

KOZHOV. M. 

1963 Lake Baikal and its life. The Hague, Junk. 344 pp. 
KOZICKA.J. 

1953 Pasozyty ryb w jeziorze Tajty. [Fish parasites in Lake Tajty.] Roczniki Nauk 
Rolniczych, Ser. D, 67: 171-186. 

1971 Cestode larvae of the family Dilepididae parasitizing fresh water fish in 
Poland. Acta Parasitologica Polonica 19:81-93. 

KOZMIN, A. K. 

1952 On the biology of the pike in the Kama River and catches of it in the stretch 
between the Vishera and the Chosovaya. Izvestiya Yestestvenno-nauchn, 
Instituta pri Molotovsk Universitete 13(4-5). 
1980 The biology of the pike, Eso.x lucius, from Lake Lacha. Journal of Ichthyol- 
ogy 20:44-48. 

Data on the size-age and sexual composition of the population, the nature of 
spawning, rate of growth and sexual maturation, the condition and feeding of 
the pike in Lake Lacha are given. With the aim of increasing the abundance 
of this species, it is proposed to halve pike catches during the spring period, to 
regulate recreational fishing and to restrict the commercial catch to 20-25 
tons a year. 
KRAUSE, R. 

1923 Mikroshopische Anatomie des Wirbeltiere. IV. Teleostier Plagiostomen, 
Ziplostomen und Leptokardier. Berlin, Walter de Gruyter, pp. 609-681 . 
KRAWKOW. N. P. 

1913 Uber die Wirkung von Giften auf die Gefasse isolierter Fischkiemen. 
Pfluegers Archiv fuer die Gesamte Physiologie des Menschen und der Tiere 
151:583-603. 
KREUTZBERG, G. W. and G. W. GROSS 

1977 General morphology and axonal ultrastructure of the olfactory nerve of the 
pike Eso.x lucius. Cell Tissue Research 181:443-457. 
KREUZER, R. O. and J. G. SIVAK 

1984 Spherical aberration of the fish lens: interspecies variation and age. Journal 
of Comparative Physiology, A. Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology 
154:415-422. 
KRILGSMANN.F. 

1970 Junghschaufzucht mit Zooplankton. Arbeiten des Deutschen Fischerei- 
Verbandes 14:27-31. 

KRISTOFFERSSON, R. and S. BROBERG 

1972 Effect of temperature acclimation on some blood constituents of the pike 
{Eso.x Indus L.). Annates Zoologici Fennici 8:427-433. 

The haemoglobin, haematocrit, serum total proteins, protein fractions, and 
free amino acjds were investigated in brackish-water pike acclimated to water 
temperatures of 16 C and 6 C for 4 weeks without food. The mean weight 
losses in the two groups were 10.3 and 53°/c of the respective initial weights. 

176 



Four weeks of tasting at a water temperature of 16 C as well as a sudden drop 
in temperature to 6 C decreased both Her and the Hb values. Total proteins 
remained unchanged in all experimental groups. Changes in serum electro- 
pherograms are described. 
KRISTOI I l-RNSON. R.. S. BROBERG and A. OIKAR1 

1972 Effect of temperature change on some blood constituents and osmotic balance 
in the pike {Eso.x lucius L.) in brackish water. Annales Zoologici Fennici 
9:212-218. 

Pike were acclimated to water temperatures of 6 C and 16 C lor 16 days 
without food. The temperatures were then reversed for 12 hours. A clear 
change was seen in plasma potassium and inorganic phosphate levels at both 
temperatures and in plasma and muscle tissue water contents of pike 
transferred from 6 C to 16 C. 

1973 Physiological effects of a sublethal concentration of phenol in the pike (Eso.x 
lucius L.) in pure brackish water. Annales Zoologici Fennici 10:392-397. 
The effect of phenol on pike living in brackish water of relatively stable salin- 
ity. 5—6%, was studied in continuous-How aquarium experiments. The 
highest concentration for survival for at least one week was 5 ppm of phenol 
at a water temperature of 10 C. After one week of exposure, the test fish 
were still in good condition, as judged from their external appearance. No 
differences could be demonstrated between the control and phenol -affected 
groups in blood haemoglobin, haematocrit, total plasma protein, and various 
ions. The total amount of plasma free amino acids was slightly increased in 
the phenol -affected group. No clearly destructive histopathologic^! changes 
in the gill lamellae or liver structures of the phenol-affected group could be 
detected. 

KRISTOFFERSSON. R.. S. BROBERG, A. OIKARI and M. PEKKARINEN 

1974 Effect of a sublethal concentration of phenol on some blood plasma enzyme 
activities in the pike {Eso.x lucius L.) in brackish water. Annales Zoologici 
Fennici 11:220-223. 

In pike kept for 8 days in brackish water (about 6% S) containing about 5 
ppm phenol at 10 C, the activities of the plasma enzymes lactate dehydro- 
genase, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase, and glutamate-pyruvate tran- 
saminase were found to be significantly elevated. The activity of cho- 
linesterase remained unchanged. 
KRITSCHER. E. 

1975 The fish of the Neusiedler Lake and their parasites. Part 2. Parasitic 
Copepoda and Branchiura. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 
79:589-596. 

KROHN, D.C 

1968a Evaluation of northern pike stocking. Wisconsin Department o\ Natural 

Resources. Dingell-Johnson Report F-83-R-3. Job 6-B. 
1968b Factors influencing success of northern pike reproduction in natural and 

artificial spawning areas. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 

Dingell-Johnson Project F-83-R-3. Job 6C. 
1969 Summary of northern pike stocking investigations in Wisconsin. Wisconsin 

Department of Natural Resources Research Report 44:1-35. 

Various stocking efforts in 19 lakes in Wisconsin. Minnesota, and Iowa were 

evaluated, and recommendations for future slocking provided. 

177 



KRUGLOVA, E. E. 

1971a Biochemical characterization of the synaptosomes of the brain in a series of 
vertebrates. Journal of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology 
6:381-383. 
1971b Biochemical characteristics of brain synaptosomes in vertebrates. Neurosci- 
ence 16:105-108. 
KRULL. J. N. 

1968 Some observations concerning fish found in the Montezuma National 
Wildlife Refuge. New York Fish and Game Journal 15:201-202. 
KRUPNER. V. and C. PEKAR 

1965 Rozmnozovani stiky obecno Lipenske Udolninadrzi. Buletin Vyzkumy Ustav 
Rybarsky a Hydrobiologicky Vodnany 5:103-149. 
KRUTZBERG, G. W. and G. W. GROSS 

1977 General morphology and axonal ultrastructure of the olfactory nerve of the 
pike, Esox lucius. Cell Tissue Research 181:443. 
KUEHN.J. H. 

1949 Statewide average total length in inches at each year. Minnesota Fisheries 
Research Laboratory, Supplement to Investigational Report 51. 
KUHNE, E. R. 

1939 A guide to the fishes of Tennessee and the mid-south. Tennessee Department 
of Conservation, Division of Game Fish. 1 24 pp. 

Pike have been established in several smaller lakes of middle Tennessee by 
artificial introduction. 
KULAKOVSKAYA, O. P. 

1976 Parasitic fauna of Umbra umbra crameri. Vestnik Zoologie 4:82-84. 
KULEMIN, A. A., I. I. MAKKOVEYEVE and M. I. SOLOPOVA 

1971 Age composition, growth rate and condition of the pike (Esox lucius (L.)) of 
Lake Pleshcheyevo. Journal of Ichthyology 11:31-36. 

Increase in the weight of pike in this body of water is most intensive after 5 
years of age, and it should therefore be regarded as irrational to catch younger 
specimens. The low numbers of the pike in Lake Pleshcheyevo make it 
essential to increase its protection. 
KULIKOV, N. V. 

1970 Radio sensitivity of the eggs of Esox lucius during fertilization and early divi- 
sion. Radiobiologiya 10:768-770. 

KULIKOV, N. V. and V. G. KULIKOVA 

1977 Accumulation of strontium-90 and cesium- 137 in some freshwater fish under 
natural conditions. Ekologiya 5:45-49. 

KULIKOV, N. V., V. G. KULIKOVA and S. A. LYUBIMOVA 

1971 Excretion of strontium 90 and cesium 137 with fish eggs during spawning. 
Ekologiya 2(4): 12- 16. 

A quantitative determination of the excretion of Sr90, Csl37, Ca, Mn, and K 
from female pike with their eggs during spawning under natural conditions. 
The coefficients of discrimination of Sr90 relative to Ca and Mg and of Csl37 
relative to K upon uptake of these elements from the aquatic environment into 
the fishes and their excretion from the fishes with eggs are presented. 
KULMATYCKI, W. 

1929 O "chorobie szczupakow". [Pike disease.] Przeglad Zoologiczny 
2(2):6l-66. 

178 



Hypotheses on possible causes of a "pike disease". Outline of management 
methods to he used in order to increase lake productivity and preserve 
decreasing stocks of pike. 

KUPCHINSKAYA, E. S. 

1 C >S5 Pike. Eso.x lucius, o\' Ust-Ilimskoe Reservoir. Journal of Ichthyology 

25:133-141. 

The distribution of pike in Ust'-Ilimskoe Reservoir was studied, along with 

growth, feeding, ration, and condition. 

KUPERMAN. B. I. and V. V. KUZMINA 

1984 Ultrastructure of the intestinal epithelium of pike Esox lucius (Esocidae). 
Journal o\' Ichthyology 3:34-42. 

Kl PERMAN. B. I. and R. E. SHULMAN 

1972 Experimental study of the effect of temperature on some pike parasites. Vest- 
nik Leningradskogo Universiteta Biologiya 27:5-15. 

The ehange of temperature had different effects on Triaenophorus nodulosus, 
T. crassus, and Ergasilus sieboldi was investigated. Temperature affects the 
parasites indirectly, as it changes the physiological state of the host, and this 
in turn affects the parasites. 

KURSIPUU. A. 

1971 Some physiological processes and environmental conditions affecting the 
protein composition of the blood serum in fish. Rapports et Proces-Verbaux 
des Reunions Commission Internationale pour V Exploration Scientifique de la 
Mer 161:154-157. 

KUSHNARENKO. A. I. 

1978 The minimal commercial size and natural mortality of the north Caspian 
roach Rutilus rutilus caspicus. Voprosy Ikhtiologii 18: 1000-1009. 
Data on consumption of roach by pike in USSR. 

KUZMINA. V. V. 

1977 Characteristics of membrane digestion in fresh water bony fishes. Voprosy 
Ikhtiologii 17:111-119. 

Method of gradual alpha-amylase desorption from gut section showed sea- 
sonal changes in relation to activities of enzyme adsorbed by intestinal 
mucosa and unsorbed enzyme. 
• 1981 Nutritive adaptation of digestive enzymes in fresh water Teleostei. Zhurnal 
Obshchei Biologii 42:258-265. 
1984 Temperature effects on the pH activity of phosphates from fish intestine. 
Voprosy Ikhtiologii 24:151-157. 

A study was made of temperature effect on pH activity of phosphatases from 
the intestinal mucous of pike. The maximum phosphatase activity was 
observed in the region of pH 5.0 and 9.0-10.0 both at 20 and C. Tempera- 
ture fall led to a considerable decrease in the enzymatic activity at the physio- 
logical pH and produced a slighter effect at the optimum pH. The pH activity 
of the alkaline phosphatase was found to be related to the ecological features 
of the species. 

KUZMINA. V. V. and I. L. GOLOVANOVA 

1980 The effect of pH and the amylolytic activity of the intestinal mucosa in some 
species of freshwater teleosts. Journal of Ichthyology 20(3): 157- 162. 
The pll optimum of the amylolytic enzymes corresponds to the pi I values o\ 
the gut of the fish. The nature of pH dependence is variable, depending 

179 



mainly on the type of feeding and membership of a given eeologieal group 
and also on the functional state of the organism. 

KUZ'MINA, V. V. and E. N. MORO/OVA 

1977 Effects o\' temperature on alpha amylase activity of freshwater teleosts. Jour- 
nal of Ichthyology 17:778-785. 

The study showed differences in: enzyme activity between ecological 
groups, rate of reaction with temperature rise, relative alpha amylase activity 
at low and active temperatures, and temperature optima in predatory and 
non-predatory fishes. Little specific discussion of these regarding pike. 

KUZ'MINA, V. V. and L. P. ZHILINA 

1974 The ratio of glycogen concentrations in the liver and muscles of some fresh- 
water teleost fishes. Journal of Ichthyology 13:623-627. 

Data on seasonal variations of glycogen content in liver, red muscle, and 
white muscle tissues. 
KUZNETSOV, V. A. 

1972 The growth pattern of the larvae and young of some freshwater fish at dif- 
ferent stages of development. Journal of Ichthyology 12:433-442. 
Five growth periods have been established for larvae and young at different 
stages of growth, four of which apply to pike. The periods are characterized 
by corresponding growth rate indices and are related to specific features of 
nutrition. 

1975 Intrapopulational differentiation of fishes in rivers with regulated flow. Eko- 
logiya 6(4 ):6 1-69. 

1977 Analysis of ecological groups of fishes according to the concept of S. G. 
Kry/hanovskii. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 56:1503-1510. 

1980 Fluctuation in the abundance of commercial fishes influenced by regulated 
river discharge (as exemplified by Kuybyshev Reservoir). Journal of Ichthy- 
ology 20(5 ):32-38. 



180 



LAARMAN. P. \Y. 

1964a Research and management of the sport fisheries of Michigan age and 
growth. Michigan fishes. Michigan Department of Conservation, Dingell 

Johnson Project F-27-R-2/Wk.PI. 8/Job 1:1-11. 
1964b Length of common Michigan sport fishes. Michigan Fisherman I964(5):2 pp. 

1 Al RANCH. J.-M. 

1974 Etude de la reproduction du brochet {Eso.x lucius L.) dans la frayere Pelissier 
lac McGregor, comte de Papineau, 1974. Quebec Ministere du Tourisme, de 
la Chasse et de la Peche, unpublished MS. 67 pp. 

1975 Frayere de grand brochet Pelissier, lac McGregor. Operations, donnees 
recueillies et compilations sommaires. Quebec Ministere du Tourisme, de la 
Chasse et de la Peche, unpublished MS. 66 pp. 

1976 Brochet du nord. Frayere Pelissier, lac McGregor. Operations, donnees 
recueillies et compilations sommaires. Quebec Ministere du Tourism, de la 
Chasse et de la Peche, unpublished MS. 38 pp. 

LvGLER, K. F. 

1939 Ohio fish management progress report. Ohio Conservation Bulletin 

3(1):16-19. 
1956 The pike. Eso.x lucius Linnaeus, in relation to waterfowl on the Seney 
National Wildlife Refuge, Michigan. Journal of Wildlife Management 
20(2): 114-124. 

creation of a favourable habitat for pike and waterfowl from 1936 to 1942 
and the resulting increase in pike population is described. The life history, 
growth, and distribution of pike are discussed. Food and population size of 
the pike were analysed, and duckling mortality calculated. Recommendations 
for reducing duckling mortality by controlling pike populations are given. 
LAGLER. K. F.. J. E. BARDACH and R. R. MILLER 

1962 Ichthyology. New York, John Wiley. 380 pp. 
LAGOM.T. 

1962 The fishes of the lakes Rauta and Liekovesi. Kalataloudellisen tutkimus- 
toimiston monistettuja julkaisuja 20:29-32. 
LAIRD. M 

1961 Parasites from northern Canada - 2. Haematozoa o\' fishes. Canadian Journal 
of Zoology 39:541-548. 

Parasites were present in thin blood films from only 6 of 188 fishes of I 1 
species, collected in the Northwest Territories and northern Quebec. The 
haemofl age Hate Crypobia gumeyorum is recorded from North America for 
the hist time, from pike. 
LAMBERT. A. 

1978 Oncomiracidium of Tetraonchus monenteron Monogenea Tetraonchidae, 
parasite of Eso.x lucius Teleostei. Annales de Parasitologic Humaine et Com- 
paree53:l 17-119. 
I WDHLRST. R.S. 

1978 A creel census on Shawano Lake, 1977-78, with emphasis on northern pike. 
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Fish Management Report 
121:1-19. 

In an attempt to assess the effects o\ liberal regulations on pike, a stratified 
random creel census was conducted from June 6. 1977. to June 5, 1978. 
Information on angling pressure, harvest rate. 

181 



LANDNER. L., K. LONDSTROEM, M. KARLSSON. J. NORDIN and L. SOERENSEN 

1977 Bioaccumulation in fish of chlorinated phenols from kraft pulp mill bleachery 
effluents. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 
18:663-673. 
LANGFORD. T. E. 

1966 Fishery biology as applied by a river board. /// Jones, J. W., and P. H. Tom- 
bleson, eds.. Proceedings of the 2nd British Coarse Fish Conference, Liver- 
pool. 1965, pp. 12-28. 
LANGLOIS. T. H. 

1927 Artificial propagation of pike perch, yellow perch and pikes. Report of the 

U.S. Bureau of Fish for 1927, Appendix 1: 1-27. 
1954 The western end of Lake Erie and its ecology. Ann Arbor, J. W. Edward. 
479 pp. 
LANOISELEE, B. 

1984 Fertilisation organique en aquaculture: Utilisation du lisier de pore pour 
Falevinage de poissons d'etang. [Organic fertilization in aquaculture: utiliza- 
tion of pig liquid manure for pond fish rearing.] Paris, Institut National Agro- 
nomique. 252 pp. 
LANTZ, A. W. and D. G. IREDALE 

1966 Sweet cured freshwater fish slices. Trade News 18(10-1 1 ):8-9. 

The method of sweet curing fish to produce a ham or bacon type product with 
good texture and flavour is described. 
1971 A practical method for drying freshwater fish. Journal of the Fisheries 
Research Board of Canada 28:1061-1062. 

A method and equipment suitable for drying fish, including pike, in remote 
areas are described. Results of different preparation methods are compared. 
LAPITSKII, I. I. 

1958 Formirovanie stad i sostoyanie zapasov osnovnykh promyslovykh ryb Tsim- 
lyanskoso vodokhranilishcha. [Formation of populations and condition of the 
stocks of the main commercial fishes of Tsimlyan Reservoir.] Izvestiya 
Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno-Issledovatel-skogo Instituta Ozernogo i Rechnogo 
Rybnogo Khozyaistva 45:90-1 10. 

Water level fluctuations have interfered with pike recruitment. Stocks are 
not stable. Pike, along with several species, is commercially harvested. 
LAPKIN. V. V.. A. G. PODDUBNYY and A. M. SVIRSKIY 

1983 Thermoadaptive properties of fishes from temperate latitudes. Journal of 
Ichthyology 23(2):45-54. 
LARIONOV, Y. P. 

1969 Ichthyofauna of the Dolgan Lake and its significance in trade. Trudy Yakutsk 
Otdeleniya Sibirskogo Nauchno-IssledovateTskogo Instituta Rybnogo Kho- 
zyaistva 3:205-216. 
LARSEN, A. 

1944 Om Abomer og Gedder og deres Yagleforhold ved Bornholms Kyster. Flora 
og Fauna 50:4-8. 

LARSEN. K. 

1943 Svers aftkastning og gedde og aborne. Lystfisheritidskrift 55(414): 
4513-4516., 

1945 Geddens stilling i det dansk fisheri. Sportsfiskeren 20(6):97-99. 



182 



1951a Om geddens {Esax hums L.) lode 1 vandlot. |()n the \o(k\ of pike (Esa\ hums 

L.) in streams.] Sportsfiskeren 26(2):3— 1 1. 
1951b Nogle fiskeribiologiske betragtninger over gedden i vore ferske. Naturens 

Verden 35:182-192. 

1961 The fish population of a peat pit as determined by rotenone poisoning. 
Meddelelser Komm. Havundersogelser 3:1 17-132. 

1962 Ferskvandstiskene i Thy og Vester-Hanherred. [The lishes of the inland 
waters of Thy and Vester-Hanherred. | Flora v>£ Fauna 68(3): 121-129. 

1966 Studies on the biology o\' Danish stream fishes. 1. The food of pike (Esox 
lucius L.) in trout streams. Meddelelser fra Danmarks Fiskeri-og Havunder- 
sogelser, NY Ser, 4:271-326. 

Stomach contents of 895 pike were examined. Gives information on feeding 
biology o\' pike, frequency of food speeies and empty stomaehs. Crustaceans 
were found most frequently, followed by fish, nymphs and larvae of insects, 
Annelida, frogs and lampreys. 

LARUE. G. R. 

1926 Studies of the trematode family Strigeidae (Holostomidae). Transactions of 
the American Microscopical Society 45:282-288. 

LASSLEBEN 

1960 Pike breeding. Der Fisehwirt 3:79-81. 

Information on temperature conditions, mortality, and criteria of Swedish 
method for middle European pike breeding from fertilization procedure to 
hatching. 

LATTA. W. C. 

1971 The northern pike in Michigan: a commentary on regulations for fishing. 
Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Research Development Report 
241:1-36. 

The effects of various fishing regulations on northern pike in Michigan were 
evaluated with a model of a typical population. The apparently valid observa- 
tion that pike are decreasing in abundance in Michigan is probably a result of 
destruction of their spawning marshes rather than overexploitation through 
lax regulations. 

1972 The northern pike in Michigan: a simulation of regulations for fishing. 
Michigan Academician 5:153-170. 

The effects of winter spearing on spring spawning stock and summer harvest, 
and the combination of regulations which would provide the optimum harvest 
are discussed. Shoreline habitat destruction is considered responsible for the 
population decline, rather than overfishing. 

LAVROVA. Y. A. and Y. V. NATOCHIN 

1974 Cation concentration in the blood of some Baikal fishes and the ion regulating 
function of the kidney. Journal of Ichthyology 13:764-769. 
Shows differences in cation concentration between fishes of different fami- 
lies. Descriptions of cation processing in kidney tubules and reaction of kid- 
neys from magnesium chloride solution injection. 

LAWLER. G. H. 

1950 Trammel netting for pike at Heming Lake. Fisheries Research Board of 
Canada, unpublished MS. 4 pp. 

Trammel nets were especially effective in summer, fished parallel to shore 
along the edges of vegetation in sandy, marshy areas. 

183 



1953 Preliminary report on the activity patterns of four species of fish from Flem- 
ing Lake, Manitoba. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Biological Station 
Manuscript Report 542:1-10. 

Analysis of gill-net catches at various times of the day indicates that pike are 
more active during night and the hour immediately preceding and following 
than during the daytime. 

195° Biology and control of the pike-whitefish parasitic worm. Triaenophorus 
crassus, in Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Progress Reports of 
the Biological Station and Technological Unit. 1:31-37. 

Outlines the life history of the parasite and possible ways of controlling it, 
including the destruction of the adult host. A review of the Fleming Lake 
experiment is given. 

1960a A history of an intensive fishery on Heming Lake, Manitoba. Presented at 
22nd Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference. 4 pp. 

1960b A mutant pike, Eso.x lucius. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of 
Canada 17:647-654. 

A striking variant of the pike, differing from the normal pike in colour and in 
some morphological measurements, comprised 0.2% of the pike population of 
Heming Lake, Manitoba. 

1961a Heming Lake experiment. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Progress 
Reports of the Biological Station and Technological Unit, 2:48-50. 

1961b Silver pike: another fish to watch for. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 
Fishing 2(3):8-10. 

Describes the appearance of the mutant pike and compares the relative abun- 
dance, anatomy, food, and hardiness with a common pike. Areas where silver 
pike are known to occur are listed. Silver pike have been hatchery reared in 
Manitoba. 

1961c Silver pike: a fish to watch for — and to report. Wildlife Crusader 7(4):6. 

General information on the colour variant of the silver pike found in Heming 
Lake, Manitoba, in 1952. Notes on other accounts of this form. 

1963 Using the trammel net in Canadian waters. Canadian Fisherman 50(8):4 pp. 
The trammel net could be useful in management studies of fish such as pike 
that inhabit shallow water because of its mobility and high yield per effort. It 
is not strictly a lethal gear so could be used to trap fish for removal to other 
areas or for tagging. It might be useful in commercial fisheries. 

1964a Further evidence of hardiness of "silver" pike. Journal of the Fisheries 
Research Board of Canada 21:651-652. 

Describes the capture, handling, and surgery of a 38-cm silver pike. It sur- 
vived with help for 30 days after many traumatic experiences under septic 
conditions, including the removal of the small intestine. 

1964b A northern pike, Eso.x lucius, with an accessory fin. Journal of the Fisheries 
Research Board of Canada 2 1 : 1 547. 

The pike was found in 1963 in Heming Lake, Manitoba, with the extra fin on 
the ventral surface of the head. The location, malformation of the bran- 
chiostegal rays, anatomy, and appearance of the fin are described. Two 
figures illustrate the text. 

1965 The food of the pike Eso.x lucius in Heming Lake, Manitoba. Journal of the 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada 22:1357-1377. 
The stomach contents of 29,477 pike captured mainly in gill nets between 



184 



1950 and 1962 were examined. Food consisted mainly of fish and some 
invertebrates. Seasonal variation in food content and annual variation in the 

degree o( feeding were studied. The possible effects of the pike on prey 
speeies are discussed. 

1966a Pugheadedness in perch, Perca Jiavescens, and pike. Eso.x liuius, of Heming 
Lake, Manitoba. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 
23:1807-1808. 

Description of this anomaly and a table listing the frequency of occurrence in 
1964-65 are provided. Genetic and environmental factors are considered to 
be responsible for the upraising n\' the median portion of the cranium, result- 
ing in pugheadedness. 

1966b A second record of an accessory fin on Eso.x lucius. Journal of the Fisheries 
Research Board of Canada 23:1969. 

An accessory fin was observed on a pike, on the ventral surface of the body 
between the pectoral and pelvic fins. 

1969a Aspeets of the biology of Triaenophorus nodulosus in yellow perch Perca 
flavescens in Heming Lake, Manitoba. Journal of the Fisheries Research 
Board of Canada 26:821-831. 

The infection level in perch declined when average size of the pike was 
reduced through intensive fishing. 

1969b Activity periods of some fishes in Heming Lake, Canada. Journal of the 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada 26:3266-3267. 

The catch of pike in shallow water was highest during the hours of darkness. 
After sunrise catch per unit effort declined sharply and then slowly increased 
until a peak was reached soon after sunset. In deeper water the catch rose 
sharply just after sunrise, declined until late afternoon, and then increased 
slightly with approaching darkness. 

1969c Occurrence of Triaenophorus spp. in Lake Malaren fishes. Report Institute 
Freshwater Research Drottningholm 49:120-128. 
In pike, Triaenophorus nodulosus was more abundant than 7. crassus. 

1970 Parasites of coregonid fishes. In Lindsey, C. C. and C. S. Woods, eds.. Biol- 
ogy of coregonid fishes. University of Manitoba Press, pp. 279-309. 

1978 Review and a look ahead. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 
11:436-437. 

Summary speech of a symposium; mentions that pike is a commercially 
important species and that trophy-size pike are still to be found. For these 
reasons, the species needs effective management. 

n.d. Dynamics of fish production in a small, heavily exploited lake. Fisheries 

Research Board of Canada, unpublished MS. 

Results o\' preliminary analysis of data collected during a study of the exploi- 
tation of the fish population of a small lake. 
LAWLER. (i. H. and W. B. SCOTT 

1954 Notes on geographical distribution and the hosts of the cestode genus Triae- 
nophorus in North America. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of 
Canada 1 1:884-893. 

Describes the role of pike in the parasitic life cycle of Triaenophorus species. 
LAWLER, Ci. H. and N. H. I ■'. WATSON 

1958 Limnological studies of Heming Lake. Manitoba, and two adjacent lakes. 
Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 15:203-218. 

185 



Pike were present in all three lakes, and dominant in Heming Lake. 

LAYCOCK, G. 

1966 New nurseries for pike. Field and Stream 70( 1 1 ): 10-12. 14, 16. 

Water level eontrols on once-drained marshes provide better than original 
spawning habitat. The marshes are stocked with breeder pike, two males and 
one female per acre. 

LEACH. G.C. 

1927 Artificial propagation of pike perch, yellow perch and pikes. U.S. Depart- 
ment of Commerce. Bureau of Fisheries Document 1018, Appendix 1, pp. 
1-27. 

Description of pike and information concerning distribution, weight, food, 
spawning habits, and growth rate. 

LEALOS. J. M. and G. G. BEVER 

1982 The Flambeau Flowage fishery. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 
Fish Management Report 1 10:1-17. 

LEBEDEV. V. D. 

1960 Presnovodnaia chetvertichnaia ikhtiofauna Evropeiskoi chasti SSSR. [Quater- 
nary fresh-water fishes of the European part of the USSR.] Izd-vo Mosk. 
Univ. 401 pp. 

1961 Effect of fisheries on the biological characteristics of fishes (based on 
archaeological data). Trudy Soveshchanii Ikhtiologicheskoi Komissii Aka- 
demii Nauk SSSR 13:173-179. 

Analysis of fish fossils from archaeological finds permitted a determination of 

the character of fish fauna before the effects of intensive commercial activity. 

Average size of pike was larger in the early settlements than it is at present. 
LEBEDEVA, N. E. and Y. L. CHERNYAKOV 

1978 The chemical signal of danger in the predator prey system among fishes. 

Zhurnal Evolyutsionnoi Biokhimii i Fiziologii 14:392-397. 
LEBEDEVA. O. A. and M. M. MESHKOV 

1968 Changes in the time of organ anlage and the duration of embryogensis in 

Osmerus eperlanus eperlanus m. spihnchus and Esox lucius under the effect 

of temperature changes. In Emelianov, S. V., ed., The tempo of individual 

development of animals and its changes during evolution. Moscow, Nauka. 

The embryological development of pike was studied at seven temperatures. 

ranging from 2 to 20 C. 
LE CREN. E. D.. T. B. BAGENAL and C. KIPLING 

1975 Experiences with fish sampling methods in Windermere. European Inland 

Fisheries Advisory Committee Technical Paper 23(Suppl. 1 ):58— 65. 
LE CREN. E. D.. C. KIPLING and J. C. MCCORMACK 

1971 Changes in the fish populations in Windermere. Presented at Symposium on 
Salmonids and Coregonids in Oligotrophy Lakes. 

A successful net fishery for pike operated for several centuries until 1922. 
The Freshwater Biological Association has gill netted pike from 1944 to the 
present: large pike have been reduced but young pike are more numerous. 

1972 Windermere: effects of exploitation and eutrophication on the salmonid com- 
munity. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 29:819-832. 

1977 A study o£ the numbers, biomass. and year class strengths of perch Perca 
fluviatilis in Windermere from 1941-1966. Journal of Animal Ecology 
46:281-307. 

186 



LECYK. M. 

1965 Effect of temperature on the rate of embryonic development of Eso.x hums. 
Zoologica Poloniae 15:101-1 10. 

Observations were carried out for 3 years proving that the longest period of 
embryonic development of pike coincides with a mean temperature of about 8 

C (optimal temperature). Above and below this, the number of day-degrees 
that elapse between fertilization and mass hatching decreases, being one-hall 
lower at 18.5 C than at the optimal temperature. Action of an enzyme upon 
the egg membrane is suggested. 

LEEUWEN, J. L. VAN and M. MULLER 

1983 The recording and interpretation of pressures in prey-sucking fish. /// 
Leeuwen, J. L. van. Optimum prey capture techniques in fish. The Nether- 
lands. L. H. Wageninger. pp. 1 I 1-162. 

LEFEBRE. P. 

1977 Les esocides rencontres dans le district des Trois-Rivieres. Ministere du 
Tourisme, de la Chasse et de la Peche, unpublished MS. 7 pp. 

LEGENDRE. V. 

1952 Les brochets du Quebec: les ogres de nos eaux. [The pike of Quebec: the 
ogres of our waters.) Quebec Department of Fish and Game, Office of Biol- 
ogy, unpublished MS. 42 pp. 
1954 Les poissons d'eau douce. Tome 1. Clef des poissons de peche sportive et 
commerciale de la province de Quebec. [The freshwater fishes. Vol. 1. Key 
to game and commercial fishes of the province of Quebec] Montreal, Societe 
Canadienne Ecologie. 180 pp. 
LEHNHERR. H. R. 

1981 Bericht ueber die Schweizerische Bodenseefischerei im Jahre 1980. Fanger- 
traege im Bodensee-Obersee. [Report on the Swiss Lake Constance fisheries 
in 1980. Yields in Bodensee-Obersee.) Fischwirt 31(5):33-34. 
LEHTONEN. H. 

1972 The results offish-tagging in Helsinki sea area. Report Helsinki Water Con- 
servation Laboratory 4(9): 1-1 11. (in Finnish, English summary) 

Pike have intermediate salinity requirements. Salinity is good at 3-10 m./l, 
medium at 2-3 ml/1, and poor at 1-2 ml/1. 
T973 Migrations of the northern pike in our coastal waters. Suomen kalastuslehti 
80:101-105. [in Finnish] 

1978 Fishing of freshwater fishes in Finnish Baltic Sea area in 1976. Suomen kala- 
talous 48:25-40. [in Finnish, English summary) 

1979 Pike in coastal waters. Kalamies 6:1-4. [in Finnish] 

1 98 1 The profitability of northern pike stockings. Kalamies 4: 1 -3. (in Finnish | 
LEHTONEN. H.. P. BOHLING and M. HILDEN 

1983 Fish resources in the northern part of the Archipelago Sea. Acta Zoologica 
30:1-131. 
LEHTONEN. H. and M. HILDEN 

1980 The influence of pollution on fisheries and fish stocks in the Finnish part of 
the Gulf of Finland. Finnish Marine Researeh 247:1 10-123. 

LEHTONEN, H. and M. PETTERSSON 

1973 Alustavia tuloksia jatkokasvatetuilla hauenpoikasilla suoritetuista istutuksista 
Helsingin merialueella. [Preliminary results on the profitability of stockings 



187 



carried out with pike fingerlings in the sea area off Helsinki.] Suomen Kalas- 
tuslehti 7:181-183. 
LEHTONEN. H. and K. SALOJARVI 

1981 Subsistence and recreational fisheries in Finland in 1978. Suomen Kalatalous 
50:30-72. [in Finnish. English summary] 
LEINERTE, M. P., D. R. VADZIS, Z. K. KALN1NYA and Y. Y. SLOKA 

1974 Study of the strontium-90 isotope balance in a Latvian lake. Ekologiya 
5(5):77-79. 
LEKANDER. B. 

1949 The sensory line system and the canal bones in the head of some 
Ostariophysi. Acta Zoologica 30: 1-131. 
LELEK. A. 

1978 Die Fischbesiedelung des noerdlichen Oberrheins und des suedlichen Mittel- 
rheins. [The colonization of the northern upper Rhine and the southern cen- 
tral Rhine.] Natur und Museum. Bericht der Senckenbergischen Natur- 
forschenden Gesellschaft 108:1-9. 

1980 Threatened freshwater fishes of Europe. European Committee for the Con- 
servation of Nature and Natural Resources, Nature and Environment Series 
18:1-269. 

General information on the distribution, ecology, and distinguishing charac- 
teristics of pike. Conservation measures to help prevent continued decline in 
European pike are listed. Includes a map showing worldwide distribution 

LELOUARN.H. 

1983 Production de brochet. Amelioration de la production naturelle ou repeuple- 
ment. /// Billard, R., ed., Le brochet gestion dans le milieu naturel et elevage. 
Paris. Institute National de la Recherche Agronomique, pp. 305-318. 
Discusses whether it is better to improve natural environments or to stock, 
and when. 

LEMAIRE. O. 

1974 Installation de vidange favorisant le recuperation des brochetons. Piscic. fr. 
38:37-40. 

LEMMETYINEN. R. and J. MANKKI 

1975 The three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus in the food chains of the 
northern Baltic. Merentutkimuslaitoksen Julkaisu Havsforskningsinstitutets 
Skrift 239:155-161. 

LENKIEWICZ. D. 

1939 Zmniejszyc produkcje szczupaka. [To decrease pike production.] Przeglad 
Rybacki 12(4): 160-164. 
LEONARD. N. A. 

1952 The pike is no piker. Rod and Gun, August 1952, pp. 1 1-12, 42. 
Tells of angling techniques, method of cleaning and cooking. 
LEONARD. V.J. 

1963 An investigation into the feeding habits of the pike in Loch Kinellan. Report 
Rugby School Natural History Society 96:9-12. 
LEONG, T. S. and J. C. HOLMES 

1981 Communities of metazoan parasites in open water fishes of Cold Lake, 
Alberta. Journal of Fish Biology 18:693-714. 

Communities of metazoan parasites in ten species of fishes, including pike, 
from Cold Lake, Alberta, are described and compared. Relative abundances 

188 



in the overall community of parasites in the lake were estimated using data on 
abundance in each host species, plus estimates of the relative abundance of 
the host speeies. 
LEOPOLD, M. and B. DABROWSKI 

1975 General premises and seleeted elements of a method of estimating fish stocks 
and populations in Polish lakes. European Inland Fisheries Advisory Com- 
mittee Technical Paper 23(Suppl I ):722-727. 
LEOPOLD. M.. T. KORULCZYK, W. NOWAK and L. SWIERZOWSKA 

1975a Effectiveness of gill net catches as a tool for the estimation of fish populations 
in Polish lakes. European Inland Fisheries Advisory Committee Technical 
Paper 23(Suppl. l):90-95. 
1975b Effectiveness o\' catches from various types of trap net for the estimation of 
fish populations in Polish lakes. European Inland Fisheries Advisory Com- 
mittee 23(Suppl. l):519-529. 
LEOPOLD. M.. T. KORULCZYK. L. SWIERZOWSKA and W. NOWAK 

1975a Effectiveness of seine eatehes for the estimation of fish populations in Polish 
lakes. European Inland Fisheries Advisory Committee Technical Paper 
23(Suppl. I):49-57. 
1975b Effectiveness of trammel-net eatehes as a tool for the estimation of fish popu- 
lations in Polish lakes. European Inland Fisheries Advisory Committee 
Technical Paper 23(Suppl. 1): 117-121. 
LEPAN, S. R. 

1985 Spawning and early life history of muskellunge and northern pike in the St. 
Lawrence River. M.S. thesis. State University of New York. 84 pp. 
LEREBOULLET. A. 

1853 Recherches d'embryologie comparee sur le developpement du Brochet, de la 
Perche et de FEcrevisse. Paris, pp. 4-445. 

1854 Embryogenies des vertebres et des animaux articules — Quelques propositions 
sur Fembryologie des poissons, particulierement du brochet et de la perche, et 
sur Fembryogenie de I'ecrevisse. Comptes Rendus de FAcademie de Sci- 
ence. Paris 38:970-980. 

1861 Recherches sur les monstruosites du brochet observees dans Foeuf et sur leur 
mode de production. Annales des Sciences Naturelles (Zoologie) 
4(16):359-368. 
LEREBOULLET. D. A. 

1854 Resume d'un travail d'embryologie comparee sur le developpement du bro- 
chet, de la perche et de Fecrevisse. Annales des Sciences Naturelles Zoolo- 
gie 4( 1 ):237-289. 

1862a Recherches d'embryologie comparee sur le developpement du brochet. de la 
perche et de Fecrevisse. Memoires Savans Etrang., Paris 17:447-805. 

1862b Experiences relatives a la production artificielle des monstruosities dans 
Foeuf du brochet. Comptes Rendus de F Academic de Science. Paris 
54:761-762. 
LEROUX. D. 

1984 An assessment of the fish stocks in Rocky Lake. 1981. Manitoba Department 
of Natural Resources, Manuscript Report 84-20:45 pp. 

Pike have decreased in abundance and are demonstrating characteristic 
responses to exploitation. 



189 



LESLIE. J. K. and J. F. GORRIE 

1983 Early development and growth of the Ontario muskellunge, Esox 

masquinongy, of Stony Lake, Ontario. Unpublished manuscript. 36 pp. 
1985 Distinguishing features for separating protolarvae of three species of esocids. 
/// Kendall, A. W., Jr., and J. B. Marliave, eds. Descriptions of early life his- 
tory stages of selected fishes. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and 
Aquatic Sciences 1359, pp. 1-19. 

Provides developmental characteristics and illustrations to aid in the taxo- 
nomic separation of the protolarval phase of Esox amehcanus vermiculatus, 
E. masquinongy, and E. Indus. 
LESUEUR.C. A. 

1818 Descriptions of several new species of North American fishes. Journal of the 

Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia, 1:413-417. 
1821 Observations on several genera and species of fishes belonging to the natural 
family of Esoces. Journal of the Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia, 
2:124-138. 
LETENDRE, G. C. C. P. SCHNEIDER and N. F. EHLINGER 

1972 Net damage and subsequent mortality from furunculosis in smallmouth bass. 
New York Fish and Game Journal 1 9( 1 ):7 1 -82. 
LETICHEVSKY, M. A. 

1946 Fish fertility in the southern part of Aral Sea. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 
25:351-356. 
LEVI.G. 

1939 Etudes sur le developpement des dents chez les Teleosteens. II. Developpe- 
ment des dents pourvues de dentine, trabeculaire (Esox, Sphyraena): 
Archives d'Anatomie Microscopique 32:201-221. 
LEVIN, A. A. 

1970 A comprehensive appraisal of the effects of cooling water discharge on 
aquatic ecosystems. Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus. 
LEVINE, J. S. and E. F. MACNICHOL 

1982 Color vision in fishes. Scientific American 246(2): 140-149. 
LEWINGTON, J. 

1973a Not even a well-trained salmon. The Financial Post. August 25, 1973. 

Report of a study to determine swimming speed against currents, specifically 
through culverts necessitated by highway and pipeline construction. Pike 
rank about 27.3 inches per second, and will revive quickly after apparent 
exhaustion. 
1973b Now they're quizzing the fish. The Financial Post, August 25, 1973. 
Environmental studies on proposed Mackenzie Valley gas pipeline. 
LEWIS, S. A. 

1975 Great northern pike introductions. Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Con- 
servation, Project F-22-R/Job4:l-32. 

This study of pike in Oklahoma lakes was conducted from 1967 to 1973. 
Survival of introductions, age and growth, fecundity, sexual maturity, and 
reproduction observations. 
LEYCK, M. 

1965 Effect of temperature on the rate of embryonic development of Esox lucius. 
Zoologica Poloniae 15:101-1 10. 



190 









LEYDIG 

1879 Ueber die Hautdecke und Hautsennesorgane der Fische. Halle. 

LIEDER, U. 

1953 Chromosomenstudien an Knochenfischen. I. Die Chromosomen des Hechtes 
(Esox Indus L.) in den embryonalen Mitosen. Zeitschrift fuer Fischerei 

2:417-419. 

1956 Ergebnisse und Probleme der Chromosomenforschung bei unseren 
Nutzfischen. Albreeht-Thaer-Arehiv 1:274-297. 

1959 Die Chromosomenverhaltnisse von Esox lucius L., Perca fluviatilis L. und 
Lucioperca (ucioperca L. Arkiv forZoologie 12(9): 123— 126. 

LIEPOLT. R. and E. PESCHECK 

1958 Oriented breeding studies with spawning stock of pike from Neusiedlcr Lake. 
Wass und Abwasser, Beitrage zur Gewasserforsehung, pp. 298-301. [in Ger- 
man | 

LILLELUND. K. 

1957 Versuehe zur Bestimmung de Verdauungsgesehwindigkeit fur der Brut von 
Hecht (Esox lucius L.), kleiner Marane (Coregonus alhula L.) and grosser 
Marane (Coregonus holsatus (Thienemann)). Kurze Mitteilungen aus dem 
Institut fuer Fischerei Biologie Hamburg 7:29-39. 

1958 Versuehe zur Anfutterung von Hechtbrut in einer auf dem Landeingebauten 
Vorstreckanlage. [Studies on feeding pike fry at a "stretching" station in the 
country.] Fischwirt 8:281-284. 

1967 Versuehe zur Erbrutung der Eier vom Hecht, Esox lucius L., in Abhangigkeit 
von Temperatur und Licht. [Experiments on the ineubation of the eggs of the 
pike (Esox lucius L.) in relationship to temperature and light]. Archiv fur 
Fischereiwissenschaft 17:95-113. [in German, English summary] 
Eggs of pike collected from mature fish from several lakes were reared at 
constant temperatures ranging from 3.7 to 24 C. Duration of development 
was studied in relation to temperature. Number of day-degrees was exam- 
ined. Hatching rate within the range of 9-15 was not influenced by tempera- 
ture. Fluctuating temperature decreased the rate of hatch. The influence of 
light was also examined. Larvae from eggs exposed to temperatures above 
18 C at a very early embryonic stage demonstrated a decrease in vitality. 
-LINCOLN. R. P. 

1953 The pike family. Harrisburg, Stackpole. 274 pp. 
LIND, E. A. 

1960 Ascending and succeeding of pike in small ditches. Luonnon tutkija 
64:155-156. [in Finnish] 

1974 Seasonal variation in weight and activity of the freshwater fishes Perca fluvia- 
tilis and Esox lucius L. Nordic Council Arct. Med. Res. Rep. 10:65-66. 
LIND. E. A. and E. KAUKORANTA 

1975a Oulujoen suiston hauki, Esox lucius L. I. Ekologia. Universitaet Oulu. 40 
pp. 

1975b The pike, Esox lucius L., in the estuary of the Oulujoki River. II. Population. 
Ichthyologica Fennici Borealis 1975(3-4):41-66. 

Information on population density, sex ratio, fish and gonad production, 
number of eggs spawned, survival rate for eggs and mature fish, exploitation 
and natural mortality rates, food consumption, and the annual catch from 
brackish and freshwater areas is presented. 

191 



LINDBERG. G. U. 

1936 Materials for the fish fauna of the maritime province of the Soviet far-east 
Scientific results of the far-eastern hydro-faunistic expedition in 1927. Tru 
diu, Academii Nauk 3: 

1974 Fishes of the world. New York, John Wiley. 545 pp. 
LINDEBORG.R.G. 

1941 Records of fishes from the Quetico Provincial Park of Ontario, with com- 
ments on the growth of yellow pike-perch. Copeia 3:159-161. 

Pike are very common throughout the region, especially in the shallow, 

weedy bays. 
LINDNER. A. 

1976 Al Lindner's pike challenge. In'Fisherman, Segment 1, Study Report 4, Unit 

I. pp. 1-3. 

Author was given a hypothetical angling situation and provided his analysis 

of how to locate best angling and his suggestions for bait to be used. 
LINDNER. B. 

1978 Top baits and lures for northerns. Fins and Feathers Fishing Annual, 1978, 

pp. 12-16, 18-19. 
LINDNER, R. and J. ZERNOV 

1975 Al Lindner's challenge. InTisherman, Segment 1, Study Report 3, Unit 3, 
pp. 20-21. 

LINDROTH, A. 

1942 Sauerstoffverbrauch der Fische. II. Verschiedene Entwicklungs-und 
Altersstadian vom Lachs und Hecht. Zeitschrift fur Vergleichende Physiolo- 
gic 29:583-594. 

1944 Gaddklackningsproblem. Svensk Fiskerei Tidskrift 53:181-184. 

1946 Zur Biologie der Befruchtung und Entwicklung beim Hecht. Report Institute 
Freshwater Research Drottningholm 24:1-73. 

1947 Time of activity of freshwater fish spermatozoa in relation to temperature. 
Zoologica Bidrag fran Uppsala 25:165-168. 

LINDSEY, A. J. 

1970 Goofy muskie and pike. Fur-Fish-Game, June 1970, pp. 24-26. 
LINDSEY, C. C.. K. PATALAS, R. A. BODALY and C. P. ARCHIBALD 

1981 Glaciation and the physical, chemical and biological limnology of Yukon 
lakes. Canadian Technical Report Fisheries and Aquatic Science 966:1-37. 
LINDSTEDT, P. 

1914 Untersuchungen uber Respiration und Stoffwechsel von Kaltblutern. [Studies 
on the respiration and metabolism of cold-blooded animals.] Zeitschrift fuer 
Fischerei und deren Hilfswissenschaften 14:193-245. 
LINHART, O. 

1984a Evaluation of pike and wels sperm. Buletin Vyzkumy Ustav Rybarsky a 
Hydrobiologicky Vodnany 20(2):22-33. 

The sperm of pike was milky in consistency and colour and its density was 
thin to very thin. The largest pike sperm volume of 0.53 ml per fish was 
obtained from lower-weight males (721 g). The time of stepwise mass move- 
ment was 28-33 s and the total sperm movement time was 66-80 s. The 
average sperrn concentrations were higher in heavier individuals. The abso- 
lute number of spermatozoa per male was at its highest level in the lighter 
males; the same applies to the relative number. 

192 






1984b Spermatocrit - method for timely determination o\' fish sperm concentration. 
Buletin Vyzkumy Ustav Rybarsky a Hydrobiologicky Vodnany 20(3):15— 21. 
A direct linear dependence was recorded between the relative spermatocril 
value and the number of spermatozoa in pike (r = 0.98). Depending on the 
length of time elapsing from sperm collection, there is a distortion of sperma- 
tocrit values; it is therefore recommended to determine spermatocrit values 
immediately at the site of sperm collection. 
LINKO. R. R.. J. KAITARANTA, P. RANTAMAKI and L. ERONEN 

1974 Occurrence o\~ DDT and PCB compounds in Baltie herring and pike from the 
Turku Archipelago. Environmental Pollution 7:193-207. 
Pike muscle contained on average only 0.04 ppm DDT compounds and 0.05 
ppm PCBs on a fresh weight basis. Chlorinated hydrocarbons were found to 
accumulate in the liver and ovary of the pike and, to a lesser degree, in the 
testis and kidney. 
LINKO. R. R. and K. TERHO 

1977 Occurrence of methyl mercury in pike and Baltie herring from the Turku 
Archipelago. Environmental Pollution 14:227-235. 

Methyl mercury was measured in pike from seven different areas in the Turku 
Archipelago. Although there was considerable variability, pike muscle con- 
tained an average of 0.25 mg/Hg/kg on a fresh tissue basis. In different tis- 
sues the level of methyl mercury decreased in the following order: muscle 
tissue greater than liver, liver greater than or equal to kidney, kidney much 
greater than gonads. 
LINSS. W. 

1969a Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen am Oseophagus des Hechtes 
{Esox lucius L.). II. Die Feinstruktur der Becherzellen. Anatomischer 
Anzeiger 125:73-87. 

1969b Licht- und elektronenmikroskopische Befunde an den Tubuli der Niere des 
Hechtes. Anatomischer Anzeiger 124:88-104. 

1969c Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen am Oesophagus des Hechtes 
(Esox lucius L.). III. Die Feinstruktur der indifferenten Zellen des Epithels. 
Anatomischer Anzeiger 125:1 13-127. 

1969d liber die Feinstruktur der Einkornezellen im Osophagusepithel von Esox 
lucius L. Anatomiseher Anzeiger 125:537-540. 
LINSS. W. andG. GEYER 

1968 Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen am Oesophagus des Hechtes 
(Esox lucius). I. Die Feinstruktur der Einkonzellen. [Electron microscopic 
investigations of the esophagus of the pike Esox lucius. I. The ultrastrueture 
of the single granular cell. | Anatomischer Anzeiger 1 23:423-438. 
LINZEL. W., H. PFEIFFER and I. ZIPPEL 

1939 Investigation on trimethylamine. IV. Report on the occurrence of trimethy- 
lamine oxide in the muscle of freshwater fish. Biochemische Zeitschrift 
301:29-36. 
LIPSIT. J. H. 

1976a Diet of northern pike, Esox lucius L.. in inner Long Point Bay. Research pro 
posal. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, unpublished MS. 5 pp. 

1976b The biology of the northern pike, Esox lucius. Linnaeus. A critical literature 
review. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, unpublished MS. 26 pp. 
A literature review and brief symopsis of the biology o\ pike. 



193 



1977 Diet, age and growth, and management of northern pike, Esox lucius L., in 
inner Long Point Bay, Lake Erie. University of Western Ontario, unpub- 
lished MS. 26 pp. 

The stomach contents of 74 pre-spawning pike were examined and their diet 
analysed. Recommendations for an increase in the commercial harvest of 
pike and elimination of size restrictions were made. 
LIVINGSTONE, D. A. 

1951 The freshwater fishes of Nova Scotia. Proceedings of the Nova Scotia Insti- 
tute of Science 23( 1 ): 1-90. 
LJUNGBERG, O. 

1963 Report of fish diseases and inspection of fish products in Sweden. Bulletin de 
L Office International des Epizooties 59:1 1 1-120. 

1976 Epizootiological and experimental studies of skin tumors in northern pike 
(Esox lucius L.) in the Baltic Sea. Progress in Experimental Tumor Research 
20:156-165. 

In certain coastal brackish waters of the Baltic Sea, there is a high frequency 
of skin tumours (sarcoma). The Baltic pike sarcoma did not occur before 
1950. It is reported that some of these parts of the Baltic are heavily polluted. 
Transmission of the sarcoma to young pike was achieved by inoculation. The 
chromosomes of the tumour were studied. 

1977 Tumorer hos gadda pa den svenska oslersjokusten. [Tumors in pike on the 
Swedish Baltic coast. 1 Scandanavian symposium on water pollution/fish 
diseases, Copenhagen, 1977. Nordisk Veterinaermedicin 29(12 Suppl. 
1): 15-16. (in Swedish] 

LJUNGBERG, O. and J. LANGE 

1968 Skin tumors of northern pike (Esox lucius L.). I. Sarcoma in a Baltic pike 
population. Bulletin de 1'Office International des Epizooties 69:1007-1022. 

LOCASCIO, N. J. 

1969 A study of multiple molecular forms of enzymes in species of Salmonidae 
and Esocidae. Ph.D. thesis, Pennsylvania State University. 

Zone electrophoresis and histochemical staining were used to study a variety 
of enzyme systems, including G-6-PD and 6-PGD, esterases, and achromatic 
oxidase in a variety of species, including pike. The genetic basis and molecu- 
lar structure of the last three enzymes were deduced. 

LOCASCIO. N. J. T. and J. E. WRIGHT, Jr. 

1973 A study of achromatic regions in species of Salmonidae and Esocidae. Com- 
parative Biochemistry and Physiology 45B( 1 ): 1 3- 1 6. 

LOCKHART, W. L., J. F. UTHE, A. R. KENNEY and P. M. MEHRLE 

1972 Methylmercury in northern pike (Esox lucius): distribution, elimination, and 
some biochemical characteristics of contaminated fish. Journal of the 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada 29:1519-1523. 

Contaminated pike were captured from Clay Lake, Ontario, and released in 
Heming Lake, Manitoba, an area relatively free of mercury. Distribution and 
concentration of mercury in various body tissues of recaptured fish were stu- 
died. Biochemical profiles of blood serum constituents of fish from each lake 
(including transplanted ones) were compared. 

1973 Studies on methyl mercury in northern pike (Esox lucius L.). /// Hemphill, D. 
D., ed. Trace substances in environmental health. A Symposium, University 
of Missouri, 1972, pp. I 15-1 IS. 

194 



In November 1970, pike heavily contaminated with methyl mercury were 
captured from Clay Lake, (Ontario, and released in Heming Lake, Manitoba, a 
site relatively free of mercury. Muscle biopsy samples revealed thai over 

10 c /c of the original mercury was still present in October 1971. although con- 
centrations were reduced by weight gains. Distributions of total and methyl 
mercury among various body tissues were essentially unchanged. Blood sera 
differences were examined. 

LOEFFLER, C. A. 

1971 Water exchange in the pike egg. Journal of Experimental Biology 
55:797-81 1. 

The amount and rate of exchangeable water was determined in all analogues 
and normally developing egg embryos. Essentially the entire water content of 
both was exchanged with an i so topic medium, but the pattern and rate o\ 
exchange differed between the two. 

LOEFFLER. H. 

1977 Biological evaluation of fishing data in the Grosse Lauter, a trout brook in the 
Swabian Alb. West Germany. Beitraege zur Naturkundlichen Forschung in 
Suedwestdeutschland 36:81-90. 

LOFTS. B. and A. J. MARSHALL 

1957 Cyclical changes in the distribution of the testis lipids of a teleost fish, Esox 
Indus. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science 98:79-88. 
Cyclic changes in the distribution of testis lipids were examined and found 
comparable with those occurring in birds. Cholesterol was examined in rela- 
tion to spermatogenesis, and the development of "lobule boundary cells" was 
examined in relation to season and temperature. The only period of true inac- 
tivity is at the height of spermatogenesis during midwinter and early spring. 

LOM. J. 

1970 Some aspects of the host parasite relation in Myxosporidians of the genus 

Henneguya. Journal of Parasitology 56(Sec. II, Pt. 2):442. 
1973 Experimental infections of freshwater fishes with blood flagellates. Journal of 
Protozoology 20:537. 

LOPINOT, A. 

What fish is this? Illinois Department of Conservation, 24 pp. 

" 1958 How fast do Illinois fish grow? Outdoors in Illinois 5(4):8-10. 

LOPINOT, A. C. 

n.d. Illinois fish conservation teachers 1 manual. Illinois Division of Conservation 

Education. 69 pp. 

Explains that pike are distinguished from muskellunge by the scalation of the 
cheek. 

LOW. A. P. 

1895a List of principal food fishes of the Labrador peninsula, with short notes on 
their distribution. Geological Survey of Canada, Annual Report, new ser., 
vol. 8, app. 3, pp. 5-3 1 . 
1895b Report on explorations in the Labrador Peninsula along the East Main, Kok- 
soak, Hamilton, Manicuagan, and portions of other rivers in 1892, 1893. 
1894, and 1895. Geological Survey of Canada, Annual Report, new ser.. vol. 
8. app. 3, pp. 329-332. 



195 



LUBITSKAYA. A. I. and E. A. DOROFEEVA 

1961 Vliyanie vidimogo svetaul-tratioletovykh luchei i temperatury na matameriu 
tela ryb. Soomshch 2. Vliyania ul'trafioletovykh luchei na vyzhivanie i 
metameriu tela Eso.x lucius L. i Acerina cernua L. [Effect of visible light, 
ultraviolet rays and temperatures of metamerism of fish bodies. Report 2. 
Effect of ultraviolet rays on survival and metamerism of the body in Eso.x 
ludus and Acerina cernua L.| Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 40: 1046-1057. 
LUCAS. J. 

1953 Want a big pike or muskel lunge? Sports Afield, November, pp. 86-89. 
1960 Big pike and muskellunge. Sports Arield, November, pp. 104-106. 
1963 Let's stop misnaming fish! Sports Afield, December, pp. 70-72. 

Discusses the various common names used for pike in different regions of 
North America. 
LUCCHETTA.J.C. 

1983 Utilisation de sites naturels pour le groississement d'alevins de brochet pro- 
duits an ecloseries. [The use of natural sites for the growth of hatchery- 
produced pike fry.] /// Billard, R., ed.. Le brochet gestion dans le milieu 
naturel. Paris, Institute National de la Recherche Agronomique, pp. 199-208. 
Describes an experiment showing how natural sites such as inundated 
prairies, copse, and woods can be used for the economical production of pike 
fry. 
LUCE, W. M. 

1933 A survey of the fishery of the Kaskaskia River. Illinois Natural History Sur- 
vey Bulletin, vol. 20, art. 2. 
LUGOVAYA,T. V. 

1967 Nutrition of pike in the Upper Dnepr. Rybnoe Khozyaistvo 3:84-93. 

1971a The ration of pike in the Kremenchug Reservoir. Hydrobiological Journal 

7:112-115. 
1971b Feeding habits of pike in the Kremenchug Reservoir. Rybnoe Khozyaistvo 
12:104-110. 

The annual ration of pike from this reservoir and food utilization coefficients 
for different life stages were studied and modelled. 
1973 Fishery significance of the pike in the Kremenchug Reservoir. Rybnoe Kho- 
zyaistvo 16:77-80. 
LUKOWICZ, M. VON 

1972 Die Heranzucht von Hechtbesatzmaterial in Teichen. Allgcmeine Fischerei- 

Zeitung 97:320-321. 
1983 Production et elevage du brochet en Republique federale allemande. /// Bil- 
lard, R., ed., Le brochet gestion dans le milieu naturel et elevage. Paris, Insti- 
tute National de la Recherche Agronomique, pp. 225-234. 
Pike are produced for restocking only at the swimming fry, 4-9 cm, and 
20-30 cm stages. Older fish for angling are imported. 
LUNDSTROM, D. L. 

n.d. The life history of the northern pike, Eso.x ludus (Linnaeus). 

Discussion of following topics: description, distribution, reproduction, habi- 
tat, food, habits, enemies, and relative importance. 
LUPO DI PRISCO, C. G. MATERAZZI and G. CHIEFFI 

1970 In vitro steroidogenesis in the testicular tissue of the fresh water teleost Eso.x 
ludus. General and Comparative Endocrinology 14:595-598. 

196 



LIQUET. P. and J. F. LUQUET 

1983 Appreciation tin niveau cT ingestion el de la vitesse du transit alimentaire chez 
Falevin de brochel nourri avec un aliment compose. /// Billard, R., ed., Le 
brochel gestion dans le milieu naturel et elevage. Paris, Institute National de 
la Recherche Agronomique, pp. 233-243. 

Food intake and the rate of food transit were studied, based on the kinetics of 
the accumulation oi' an inert marker (chrome oxide) incorporated into the 
food at a rate of \ c /< . 

LISK. S. 

1981 Development of the fish population in the Musov Reservoir in the first year 
after tilling. Folia Zoologica 30:249-261. 

After the first year of the reservoir's existence, pike was one oi six important 
species produced. 

LUSTIG. V. and J. A. KELLEN 

1971 Species, organ and subcellular specificity of alkaline phosphatases as deter- 
mined by amino acid inhibition studies. Comparative Biochemistry and Phy- 
siology 39B:3()5-3 10. 

LUX. F. E. 

I960 Notes on first-year growth of several species o\' Minnesota fish. Progressive 
Fish-Culturist 22:81-82. 

Information about growth of pike seined on 15 dates during May to October, 
1954. 

LUX. F. E. and L. L.SMITH, Jr. 

1960 Some factors influencing seasonal changes in angler catch in a Minnesota 
lake. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 89:67-79. 
Pike was one of the species used to determine the relationship between angler 
success and food availability and selectivity. Angling success was inversely 
related to food availability and food intake, but changes in physical and 
chemical factors did not appear to be related to rate of angler take. 

LYAKHNOVICH, V. P.. T. I. NEKHAYEVA and T. M. SHEVTSOVA 

1973 Effectiveness of the utilization of food resources by food fish in bodies of 
water in the Belorussian forest region (Polesye). Journal of Ichthyology 
13:112-120. 

Food requirements were determined from the rate of weight increase, meta- 
bolic rate, and composition of the contents of fish intestines. 

LYNCH. T. M. 

1957 Northern pike (Eso.x luciu.s). Colorado Progress Report, Exotic Fish Study, 
Project 1 A: 1-8. 

Briefly describes the introduction of pike into two Colorado reservoirs in 
1956 for harvest by anglers. Bonny Reservoir was stocked with 52 adult fish 
and 700,000 fry. Fry reached an average size of 11.9 inches b\ fall, and 
stocked adults had reproduced in the next spring. Of 50,000 fry planted in 
North Sterling Reservoir, none were seen in 1957. 

LYSLOVA. E. M.. T. P. SEREBRENIKOVA and N. A. VERZHBINSKAYA 

1975 Isozymes of aspartate amino transferase EC-2.6.1.1 and glycogen phospho- 
rylase EC-2.4.1.1 in muscle of lower vertebrates. /// Markert. C. L., ed.. Iso- 
zymes. II. Physiological function. Third International Conference. New 
Haven. 1974. pp. 547-566. 



197 



LYUBITSKAYA, A. I. 

1961 Effect of visible light, ultraviolet rays and temperature on body metamerism 
of fish. I. Effect of different parts of the visible spectrum, darkness and tem- 
perature on survival and body metamerism of fish. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 
40:397-407. 

Visible light had an effect on the rate of growth in the fish and on the process 
of tissue differentiation. The absence of all visible and thermal parts of the 
spectrum caused an increase or decrease in the number of metameres or the 
formation of deformities. In pike, darkness suppressed the activity of the 
hatching gland. 



198 



MACAN.T. T. 

Some observations on the growth of pike. Esox luvius in Windermere. Inter- 
national Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology Proceedings 14. 
1970 Biological studies of the English lakes. New York, American Elsevier. 260 
pp. 
MACDONALD. P. D. M. and PITCHER. T. J. 

1979 Age groups from size frequency data; a versatile and efficient method of 
analyzing distribution mixtures. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of 
Canada 36:987-1001. 

Study involved interaetive eomputer program and aging of subsample by bio- 
logieal methods. Showed that several published methods gave no better 
advantages. 
MACFIE. J. A. 

n.d. The pike, eitizen of the northern world. Ontario Department of Lands and 
Forests News Release 19(26):4-5. 

General information for anglers on various aspeets of the biology and distri- 
bution in Ontario. 
MACHNIAK. K. 

1975 The effects of hydroelectric development on the biology of northern fishes 
(reproduction and population dynamics). II. Northern pike Esox lucius (Lin- 
naeus). A literature review and bibliography. Environment Canada, Fisheries 
and Marine Service Technical Report 528:1-82. 
MACHO 

1922 Von der Gefrashigkeit des Hechtes. Osterr. Fischerei-Zeitung 
MACHON. A., M. J. NORTH, N. C. PRICE and D. E. WELLS 

1984 Dietary accumulation of the mothproofing agent Evlan WA New and its tis- 
sue distribution in the northern pike Esox lucius. Environmental Pollution, 
Series A, Ecological and Biological 33:295. 
MACINS. V. 

1972 The fisheries of Lake of the Woods. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, 
44 pp. 

Brief information on harvest, reproduction, food, migration, growth, and 
habitat. 
MACK. G. L., S. M. CORCORAN, S. D. GIBBS, W. H. GUTENMANN. J. A. RECKAHN and 
D.J. LISK 

1964 The DDT content of some fishes and surface waters of New York State. New 
York Fish and Game Journal 1 1 : 1 48- 1 53. 

DDT content of pike captured November 1963 in edible flesh - 0.2 ppm, 
testes - 3.7 ppm. visceral fat - 4.2 ppm. 
MACKAY. H. H. 

1 93 1 The maskinonge and its conservation. Ontario Department of Game and Fish, 
Fish Culture Bulletin 1:1-11. 

Description, including a diagram, of how to distinguish between muskellunge 
and pike. 
1959 Northern pike. Sylva 15(6):3-1 1. 
1963 Fishes of Ontario. Toronto, Bryant Press. 300 pp. 
MACKAY. W. C. 

1967 Plasma glucose levels in the northern pike, Esox lucius and the white sucker, 



199 



Catostomus commersonii, and renal glucose reabsorption in the white sucker. 
M.S. thesis. University of Alberta. 70 pp. 

MACKAY. W. C. and D. D. BEATTY 

1968 Plasma glucose levels of the white sucker Catostomus commersonii and the 
northern pike Esox lucius. Canadian Journal of Zoology 46:797-803. 
Plasma glucose of females was more variable than that of males sampled at 
the same time. At certain times of the year, males had a significantly lower 
concentration than females. Plasma glucose levels were higher and more 
variable in fish caught by gill net or held in the laboratory than those of fish 
sampled from trap nets. 

MACKAY, W. C. and J. F. CRAIG 

1983 A comparison of four systems for studying the activity of pike, Esox lucius L. 
and perch, Perca fluviatilis L. and P. flavescens (Mitchill). /// Pincock, D. 
G., ed., Proceedings 4th International Conference on Wildlife Biotelemetry, 
Halifax, 1983, pp. 22-30. 

MACKENTHUN, K. M. 

1948 Age-length and length-weight relationship of southern area lake fishes. 
Wisconsin Conservation Department, Fishery Biology Investigational Report 
586(rev.):l-7. 

MACKENTHUN, K. M. and E. F. HERMAN 

1948 A heavy mortality of fishes resulting from the decomposition of algae in the 
Yahara River, Wisconsin. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 
75:175-180. 

Pike were observed among the many thousands of dead fish. Death was attri- 
buted primarily to the depletion of oxygen by the decomposing algal mass, 
and secondly to toxic substances liberated into the water. 

MACKENZIE, R. A. 

1930 Observations on the movement of the pike (Esox lucius). Canadian Field- 
Naturalist 14(6): 130- 133. 

MACKINTOSH, A. 

1806 The Driffield Angler. Uondon, Gainsborough. 

MACLEAN, J. and J. J. MAGNUSON 

1977 Species interaction in percid communities. Journal of the Fisheries Research 
Board of Canada 34: 1 94 1 - 1 95 1 . 

MACLEOD, R. D. 

1956 Key to the names of British fishes, mammals, amphibians and reptiles. Lon- 
don, Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons. 
MACOUN,.!. 

1888 List of fishes known to occur in the Mackenzie Basin, submitted by Prof. 
Macoun. Canada Parliament, Senate Select Committee, 1888:264-265. 
MADIGAN. P. 

1978 The pugnacious northern pike. Angler and Hunter in Ontario 3(2):33— 34. 
General fishing information on lure types, angling stretegy, habits, and habi- 
tats. 

MAFTEI, D. V. 

1963 Contributions a Fetude des variations morphologiques et de la biologie de la 
croissance dir brochet (Esox lucius L.) du Delta du Danube. Analele Univer- 
sitatii Bucuresti Seria Stintele Naturii Biologie 38:139-154. 



200 



\1AG\I\. E. 

1964 Premier inventaire ichthyologique elu Lac et de la Riviere Waswanipi. 
Naturaliste Canadien 91(11 ):273-308. 
Pike were present in this 1963 inventory. 

MAGN1N, E., E. Ml RAW SKA and V. LEGENDRE 

1973 Croissance de onze especes de poissons de la region de Waswanipi (centre- 
ouest du Quebec). Quebec Ministere du Tourisme, de la Chasse et de la 
Peche, Service de la Faune du Quebec Travaux en Cours, Rapport 8:13-42. 

MAGNUSON, J. J. and D. J. KARLEN 

1970 Visual observation of fish beneath the ice in a winterkill lake. Journal of the 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada 27:1059-1068. 

Vertical distribution and behaviour of five adult pike were compared with the 
levels of dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and water 
temperature. A combination of little locomotory aetivity and a position 
immediately beneath the ice apparently favoured the survival of pike. 

MAGNUSON, J. J. and B. PETROSKY 

1973 Behavioral responses of northern pike, yellow perch, and bluegill to oxygen 
concentrations under simulated winterkill conditions. Copeia 1973: 124-133. 
Critically low winter oxygens and natural conditions were simulated in the 
laboratory. The behaviour of pike, perch, and bluegill was examined. For 
pike maximum ventilation rates occurred at 0.5 mg/1 dissolved oxygen. 
Locomotor activity was greatest at 0.25 mg/1. Pike moved to the bottom of 
the ice sheet at 0.5 mg/1. Of the species studied, pike were the best adapted 
for survival in winterkill lakes. 

MAIER. H. N. 

1914 Der Hecht, seine wirtschaftliche Bedeutung und Zucht. Blattchen Aquarien 
und Terrarien Kunde. 

MAITLAND, P. S. 

1969 The reproduction and fecundity of the powan, Coregonus clupeoides 
Lacepede, in Loeh Lomond, Scotland. Proceedings of the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh 70:233-264. 
Pike prey extensively upon adult powan in certain parts of Loch Lomond. 

MAKHOTIN. Y. M. 

• 1977 The spawning efficiency of fishes in Kuybyshev Reservoir and factors deter- 
mining it. Journal of Ichthyology 17:24-35. 

The pike spawns only in shallow areas. Consequently, even with a very slight 
reduction in water level, their eggs dry up almost completely. Abundant 
year-classes are very rare and the numbers of this species have been strongly 
reduced. Spawning begins at a temperature of 4 C. 

MAKKOVJEVA. I. I. 

1957 Pitanije molodi scuki Rybinskogo vodochranilisca. Voprosy Iehthyologii 7 

MAKOWECKI, R. 

1973a The trophy pike, Esox lucius of Seibert Lake. M.S. thesis. University of 
Alberta. 239 pp. 

The pike population was small and average size of individuals large. Factors 
most responsible for pike growth were low pike production, type and associa- 
tions of vegetation, and an abundant whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis forage 
base. The management of a trophy pike fishery is discussed. 



201 



1973b The trophy pike of Seibert Lake (condensed version). Alberta Lands and 
Forests Fisheries Research Report 10:1-46. 

The purpose of the study was to determine the various factors (including the 
human factor) that affect the trophy fishery resource and to suggest manage- 
ment practices that will best maintain or enhance this resource. 
MAKOWSKI. M. L. 

1966 Jesienne szczupaki wod biezacych. [Autumn pike in flowing waters.] Wia- 
domosci Wedkarskie 10:13. 
Angling catches of pike in rivers. 
MAKSIMOVA, EM. 

1969 Effect of intracellular polarization of horizontal cells on ganglion cell activity 
in the fish retina. Neuroscience Translations 1 1:1 14-120. 
MAKSIMOVA. E. M. and V. V. MAKSIMOV 

1972 Changes in direct current input resistance in horizontal cells of fish retina dur- 
ing excitation. Neurophysiology 3:160-165. 
MAKSUNOV, V. A. 

1956 The morphology and biology of the pike in the Farkhadsk Reservoir. Izv. old 

est. Nauk A. N. Tadzhukislon SSSR, no 15. . 
1972 Age composition and growth of reservoir fish in Northern Tadzhikistan. 
Journal of Ichthyology 12:652-666. 

The introduction of Mysidae into these reservoirs in 1963-1965 led to an 
increase in the productivity of the benthos and to marked improvement in the 
nutrition of the fish. Pike of younger age groups predominate in catches. 
None of the pike investigated were more than 6+ years old. 
MALCOLM, J. 

1975 Development of the head skeleton and pectoral girdle in Esox. Journal of 
Morphology 147:61-88. 
MALININ, L. K. 

1969 Uchastki obitaniya i instinkt vozvroskcheniya ryb. [Home range and homing 
instinct of fish. J Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 48:381-391. (Fisheries Research 
Board of Canada Translation Series 2050). 

Place and site of the home range depend mainly on forage resources. Most 
fishes with restricted movements are characterized by the homing instinct 
during both reproductive and non-reproductive periods. A fish population 
consists of mobile and sedentary components; i.e., the territorial conservatism 
can be regarded as a relative phenomenon. 

1970 Use of ultrasonic transmitters for tagging bream and pike. Report I. Reaction 
of fish to net webbing. Biologiya Vnutrennykh vod Informatsionii Byulleten 
7:64-69. (Fisheries Research Board of Canada Translation 1818:1-8). 

1971a Application of the ultrasound transmitter for marking of Abramis brama and 
Esox lucius. II. Fish behaviour at the mouth of rivers. Biologiya Vnutren- 
nykh vod Informatsionii Byulleten 8:75-78. 

Pike movement (displacement) was limited. The maximum activity was 
recorded in the morning from 6 to 8 a.m. and in the evening from 5 to 7 p.m. 
During the remainder of the day and night the fish were relatively inactive. 
Under natural conditions, maximum mobility occurred over a light range of 
100-0.01 luxv At the time of the decrease in activity after the evening max- 
imum and in the period of the morning increase, the illumination at a depth of 
0.5 m was approximately 0.01 lux. 

202 



197 1 b Home range and actual paths of fish in the river pool of the Rybinsk reservoir. 
Biologiya Vnutrennykh vod Informatsionii Byulleten 22:158-166. (Fisheries 
Researeh Board of Canada Translation Series 2282). 

The movement of pike in relation to water depth and location is reported. 
Lengthy tracking showed that pike sense changes in wind direction. Their 
"hunting" area was no greater than 500 m in diameter. Pike had three max- 
imums in motor aetivity: evening, daytime, and morning maximum. The 
daytime peak was considerably smaller than the morning and evening peaks, 
and occurred about midday. At night, the aetivity of pike was minimal, par- 
ticularly during heavy cloudiness. On moonlight nights, a slight increase in 
aetivity was sometimes noted. 
MALLEY. M. W. and S. M. BROWN 

1983 Some factors influencing the number, size and distribution of pike in Lough 
Erne. Proceedings of the 3rd British Freshwater Fisheries Conference, pp. 
126-137. 

Compares the number of pike over 250 mm in commercially fished areas with 
those in non-commercial or sanctuary areas. Numbers and sizes of pike asso- 
ciated with different types of vegetation were also studied. 

MALMBERG.G. 

1970 Gyrodactylm species on Finnish, Norwegian, and Swedish edible fish. Nytt 
Magasin for Zoologi 18:102-103. 

MALONEY, J. and D. SCHUPP 

1977 Use of winter rescue northern pike in maintenance stocking. Minnesota 
Department of Natural Resources, Section of Fisheries Investigational Report 
345:1-29. 

The stocking of 0-age pike taken in winter rescue operations in central Min- 
nesota resulted in high returns of stocked fish to anglers, but the relative con- 
tribution to the sport fishery was high only in Horse Shoe Lake where the 
abundance of resident pike was low. Guidelines for stocking winter rescue 
young-of-year and yearling pike are presented. 

MALYUKINA, G. A., G. V. DEVITSYNA and E. A. MARUSOV 

1974 Communication on the basis of chemoreception in fishes. Zhurnal Obshchei 
Biologii 35:70-79. 

MALYUKINA, G. A., N. G. DMITRIEVA, E. A. MARUSOV and G. V. YURKEVICH 

1977 Olfaction and its role in fish behaviour. In Poznanin, L. P., ed., Ichthyology. 
New York, Amerind, pp. 38-87. 

MA MANZUDU, B. 

1984 The food of the perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) and of the pike {Esox Indus L.) in 
the Ourthe Canal at Chanzhe-Poulseur (Belgium). Cahiers Ethol. Appl. 
4:261-270. 

A numerical method is applied to analyse the stomach contents of 23 pike. 
The pike is essentially piscivorous as soon as it reaches 15 cm long. 
MANN, H. 

1958 Fleckenseuche bei Hechten. Der Fischwirt 8. 
MANN.K. 

1982 Pike in a mixed fishery. Salmon and Trout Magazine 223:56-58. 
MANN, R. H. K. 

1971a On the coarse fish of the Dorset Stour. Proceedings of the 5th British Coarse 
Fish Conference, Liverpool, 1971, pp. 129-134. 

203 



The maximum age and ultimate length were reported. Growth rate was simi- 
lar to other British populations. 

1971b The populations, growth and produetion of fish in four small streams in south- 
ern England. Journal of Animal Eeology 40: 155-190. 

1975a Produetion of pike in the River Frome, Dorest. /// Proeeedings of the 7th 
British Coarse Fish Conference, pp. 109-1 13. 

1975b Quantitative fish sampling in two hard water rivers in southern England. 
European Inland Fisheries Advisory Committee Teehnical Paper 23(suppl. 1, 
vol. 1): 194-200. 

1976 Observations on the age, growth, reproduction, and food of the pike Esox 
Indus (L.) in two rivers in southern England. Journal of Fish Biology 
8:179-197. 

Information on age and growth as determined from opercula, spawning, con- 
dition, age at maturity, and food. 

1980 The numbers and production of pike {Esox Indus) in two Dorset rivers. Jour- 
nal of Animal Ecology 49:899-915. 

The following data were determined for River Frome and River Stour: 
numbers by mark-recapture methods, population densities, growth, and mean 
annual production. Discusses simulation studies on effects of various levels 
of fishing mortality. 

1982 The annual food consumption and prey preferences of pike {Eso.x Indus) in 
the River Frome, Dorset. Journal of Animal Ecology 5 1 :8 1-95. 
The annual maintenance coefficient and efficiency of food utilization were 
estimated from feeding experiments in flowing water channels using four 
adults, size range 624-1010 g. Variations in diet are explained and possible 
diets for both young and larger pike listed. It is suggested that removal of 
large pike from game fisheries may not always result in increased numbers of 
salmonids. 

1985 A pike management strategy for a trout fishery. Journal of Fish Biology 
27(Suppl. A):227-234. 

The efficiency of pike removal from a chalkstream trout fishery, by an 
angling society using electrofishing, was estimated over five successive 
autumns using mark-recapture methods. 
MANN, R. H. K. and W. R. C. BEAUMONT 

1980 The collection, identification, and reconstruction of lengths of fish prey from 
their remains in pike stomachs. Fisheries Management 1 1:169-172. 
A simplified Seaburg sampler was used to obtain stomach contents from 
anaesthetized pike. Well-digested remains of fish prey were identified from 
pharyngeal bones or the skeletal structure of the caudal region. The original 
lengths of the prey were estimated from linear relationships between fish 
length and size of the caudal fin, or size of the pharyngeal bone. 
MANN. R. H. K. and T. PENCZAK 

1984 The efficiency of a new electrofishing technique in determining fish numbers 
in a large river in central Poland. Journal of Fish Biology 24: 173-185. 
MANOHAR, S. V. 

1970 Postmortem glycolytic and other biochemical changes in white muscle of 
white sucker* {Catostomus catostomus) and northern pike '{Esox Indus) at C. 
Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 27:1997-2002. 
Higher glycogen content in the posterior portion of pike muscle as compared 

204 



with that in the anterior portion may parti) explain the apparent high 
glycogen content in the muscle of this fish alter several days o\' storage. 
MANOHAR. S. V. and H. BOESE 

1971 Postmortem changes in the glycogen phosphorylase activity of the muscle of 
white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and northern pike (Eso.x lucius). 
Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 28:1325-1326. 
Phosphorylase "a" activity decreased during 7 days storage at C, while the 
total amount o( phosphorylase "a" + phosphorylase "b" remained constant 
during the same period. The reduced "a" activity may explain slow degrada- 
tion of glycogen during storage of pike. 
MANSUETI. R. 

1954 A partial bibliography of fish eggs, larvae and juveniles with particular refer 
ence to migratory and estuarine species of the Atlantic coast and supple- 
mented by a check list and references to the early development of fish and 
fish-like chordates of Maryland waters. Maryland Department of Research 
Education, unpublished MS, 55 pp. 
MANTEIFEL. B. P.. I. I. GIRSA. T. S. LESHCHEVA and D. S. PAVLOV 

1965 Sutochnye ritmy pitaniya i dvigatel noi aktivnosti nekotorykh presnovodnykh 
kishchnykh ryb. (Diel rhythms of feeding and of the motor activity of fresh- 
water predacious fishes.] //; Pitanie khishchnykh ryb i ikh vzaimootnosheniya 
s kormovymi organizmami. [The feeding of predacious fishes and their rela- 
tionships with food organisms.] Moscow, Nauka, pp. 3-81. 
An examination of diel feeding rhythms of predacious fishes of Rybinsk 
Reservoir, including pike, as well as their food. Considers the influence of 
temperature and amount of food on the digestive rate, dynamics of underwa- 
ter illumination over 24 hours and at various depths, feeding intensity, and 
behaviour of both predator and prey. 
MANTEIFEL, B. P., ed. 

1965 Pitanie khishchnykh ryb i ikh vzaimootnosheniya s kormovymi organizmami. 
[Feeding in predatory fishes and their relations to the food organisms.] Mos- 
cow, Nauka. 196 p. 
MARCEL, J.. G. DE MONTALEMBERT and R. BILLARD 

1980 Influence de la temperature de stabulation appliquee apres traitement 
d'hypophysation' sur le rendement de I'ovulation et la fecondabilite des 
ovules chez le brochet (Eso.x lucius). [Influence of rearing temperature after 
"hypophysation" on ovulation performance and egg fertility in the pike (Eso.x 
lucius).] Revue Canadienne de Biologie 39:225-232. 

At the 10 and 13 C temperature regimes, yield of ovulation and fertility were 
not affected. Yield was significantly decreased at 15 C and fertility was 
decreased in one experiment at 15 C but not in another. Thermal require- 
ments during oocyte maturation and ovulation appear stricter than other 
periods of the sexual cycle. 

19X3 Donnees experimentales sur la gestion et I'insemination artificielle des 
gametes du brochet (Eso.x lucius). In Billard, R., ed., Le brochet gestion dans 
le milieu naturel et elevage. Paris. Institute National de la Recherche Agro- 
nomique, pp. 133-151. 

Reports the development and use of an insemination diluent for pike, having a 
pH of 9 and an osmotic pressure of 250-300 mOsmol. 



!05 



MAREAN.J. B. 

1976 The influences of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of wet- 
lands on their use by northern pike. M.S. thesis, State University of New 
York. 174 pp. 

Evaluates and compares importance as spawning areas several marshes in 
Jefferson County, New York. Measures environmental variables likely to 
affect this use and correlates these data with spawning data. 

MARGOLIS. L. 

1951 "Red sore" disease of pike in Mont Tremblant Park district. Canadian Fish 
Culturist 10:30-32. 

First record in Canada, outside Ontario, of this septacemic disease, caused by 
Pseudomonas hydrophila, with description, location on fishes, and distribu- 
tion in Quebec. 

1952 Aerobic bacteria in the intestines and slime of the pike {Esox lucius) in Lake 
Munroe, Quebec. Revue Canadienne de Biologie 1 1 ( 1 ):20— 48. 

MARION, R. 

1976 How to find lunker pike in big wilderness lakes. Fins and Feathers, 
November 1976. 
MARITA.N.M. 

1959 The distribution of Diphyllobothhum and Opisthoreis infections in Moldavian 
S.S.R. Meditsinskaya Parazitologiya 28:590-591. 

MARKIEWICZ, F. 

1960 Development of blood vessels in branchial arches of the pike (Esox lucius L.). 
Acta Biologica Cracoviensia, Series Zoologia, 3:163-172. 

1967 Przypadek schorzenia pecherza plawnego u szczupaka. [A case of swim 

bladder disease in pike.] Gospodarka Rybna 18(5):9. 

A swim-bladder disease was noted in pike bred in carp ponds. 
MARKING, L. L. 

1967 Investigations in fish control. 12. Toxicity of MS-222 to selected fishes. U.S. 

Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Resource Publication 18:1-10. 
1969a Toxicity of methylpentynol to selected fishes. U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries 

and Wildlife, Investigations in Fish Control 30:1-7. 
1969b Toxicity of quinaldine to selected fishes. U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and 

Wildlife, Investigations in Fish Control 23:1-10. 
1970 Juglone (5-hydroxy-l, 4-naphthoquinone) as a fish toxicant. Transactions of 

the American Fisheries Society 99:510-514. 

Gives the 96-hour LC50 values obtained from static bioassays at 12 C for 

several species, including pike. 
MARKOV, V. I. 

1962 O znachenii aktivnykh termal-nkh ploshchadok v zhizni pozvonochnykh (no 

primere Kamchatki). [The importance of thermally active areas in the life of 

vertebrates (based on Kamchatka).] Voprosy ekologii 6:97-98. 
MARLBOROUGH, D. 

1969 Further London fish records to 1968. London Nature 48:76-85. 
MARSHALL. S. 

1950 Wyprawa glowy szczupaka. |How to prepare pike head.] Wiadomosci Wed- 

karskie 8-9:13-15. 

I low to prepare a pike head as an angling souvenir. 



206 



MARSHALL. T. L. and R. P. JOHNSON 

1971 History and results of fish introductions in Saskatchewan 1900-1969. 
Saskatchewan Department of Natural Resources. Fisheries Report 8:1-32. 
Pike is one of the 30 species that has been introduced into fresh and saline 
waters since 1900. Stocking of eggs and sac fry has been minimally success- 
ful, fingerlings and adults more successful. 
MARSHALL. W. S. and N. C. GILBERT 

1905 Notes on the food and parasites of some freshwater fishes from the lakes at 
Madison, Wisconsin. U.S. Commission for Fish and Fisheries, Appendix to 
Report for 1904, pp. 513-522. 
MARSTON, R. B. 

1889 "Cross line" and "otter" fishing and monster pike in Ireland. American 
Angler 25(1 6):240. 

Letter discussing the problems of spearing fish, and the old legends of giant 
pike. 
MARS-VALLETT. A. E. 

1968 Lebrochet. Betes et Nature 57:13-15. 
MARTEM'YANOV, V. I. and R. A. ZAPRUDNOVA 

1982 Dynamics of electrolyte concentration in the blood plasma, erythrocytes and 
muscular tissue of freshwater fish under stress. Biologicheskie Nauki 
10:44-49. 

Blood plasma, erythrocyte, and muscle Na, K, and Ca were examined in rela- 
tion to capture, transport, and maintenance conditions. Fluctuations in elec- 
trolytes were greatest shortly after capture. 

MARTIN, N. V. and D. C. SCOTT 

1959 Use of tricaine methanesulfonate (M.S. 222) in the transport of live fish. Pro- 
gressive Fish-Culturist 21:183-1 84. 

MARTYNIAK, A.. J. TERLECKI and J. A. SZCZERBOWSKI 

1976 Odzywianie sie szczupaka, klenia i mietusa w rzekach zlewiska Lyny. [Food 
of pike, chub and burbot in the Lyna River system.] Roczniki Nauk Rol- 
niczych, Ser. H, 97(2):63-78. 

Assessment of food composition and pressure of the species under study upon 
the ichthyofauna. 

MARTYSHEV, F. G. 

1983 Pond fisheries. Rotterdam, A. A. Balkema. 
MARX. M. 

1978 Study on the zooplankton of Lake Marica. Travaux du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle 'Gregore Antipa' 19:169-170. 
MARZAL. M. 

1958 Fl lucio, incognita de la pesca. Caza y Pesca 18:231-233. 

This article is perhaps the first published in a sport magazine in Spain that 
describes in detail the general biology of pike. 
1967 Algunos comentarios sobre el lucio y su Pesca. Caza y Pesca 299:873-88 1 . 

Summarizes some aspects of pike biology and methods of angling: also 
describes its value as a game and food fish and future potential. 
MASON. J. W. and G. D. WEGNER 

1970 Wild river fish populations (Pine, Popple and Pike rivers). Wisconsin Depart 
ment of Natural Resources Research Report 58 



207 



MASSARO. E. J. and C. L. MARKERT 

1968 Isozyme patterns of salmonid fishes, evidence for multiple cistrons for lactate 
dehydrogenase polypeptides. Journal of Experimental Zoology 168:223-238. 

MASSE, G. 

1979 Identification des vrais et des faux annuli sur les ecailles du grand brochet, 
Esox lucius L., et sa croissance dans le fleuve Saint-Laurent, pres de Mont- 
real, Quebec. M.S. thesis, University du Quebec a Montreal. Rapport Tech- 
nique 06-32, 1-186. 
MAST, H. 

1919 Eizahlen bei Hecht, Barsch und Bachseibling. Allgemeine Fischerei Zeitung 
44(20): 194-195. 
MATHER, F. 

1 88 1 Fishes which can live in both salt and fresh water. Transactions of the Ameri- 
can Fish Culture Association, 10th Annual Meeting, pp. 65-75. 
Reports of pike being found in brackish and even salt waters of Maryland, 
and in the Caspian Sea. 
1898 Fresh water angling — no. VI: pickerel, pike and mascalonge. Forest and 
Stream 50(2 1):4 10-4 12. 
MATHERS. R. A. and P. H. JOHANSEN 

1985 The effects of feeding ecology on mercury accumulation in walleye (Stizos- 
tedion vitreum) and pike (Esox lucius) in Lake Simcoe. Canadian Journal of 
Zoology 63:2006-2012. 

A study of the accumulation of mercury, as related to age of the pike, species 
composition of the prey consumed, size of the prey. 
MATHERS. R. A. S. 

1984 The effects of feeding ecology on mercury accumulation in walleye (Stizos- 
tedion vitreum) and pike (Esox lucius) in Lake Simcoe, Ontario. M.S. thesis, 
Queen's University. 
MATSKASI, I. 

1969 Helminthological investigations of fish in Lake Halaton. II. (Mono- 
genoidea). Annales Instituti Biologici (Tihany) Hungaricae Academiae 
Scientiarum 35:135-139. 

MATVEEVA, R. P. 

1955 The nutrition of the young pike in the spawning cultivation establishment in 
1953. Voprosy Iktiologii 5:61-70. 

Stomachs of young pike from a spawning-culture establishment in the Volga 
Delta were examined. Young pike go through four alimentary stages. Feed- 
ing progresses from copepods and Cladocera to assorted young fish, and is 
almost exclusively carnivorous at lengths >34 mm. Index of intestinal filling 
correlated with the dimensions of the pike and its prey and on daily variation 
in nutrition are also used. Young pike do not feed at night. 

MATVEIEV, B. 

1929 Die Entwicklung der vorderen Wirbel und des Weber'schen Apparates bei 
Cyprinidae. Zoologische Jahrbucher 5 1 :463. 

MAUCK, W. L. 

1970 Vulnerability of various fishes to northern pike predation. M.A. thesis, 
University of Missouri. 1 86 pp. 



208 



MAUCK. W. L. and D. W. COBLE 

1971 Vulnerability of some fishes to northern pike {Eso.x lucius) predation. Journal 
of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 28:957-969. 

Compares the vulnerability to predation of several species of fish. Variables 
included water turbidity and availability of cover. 
MAVRINSKAYA. L. F. 

1956 Motor nerve endings of the skeletal muscles of the lower vertebrates. Dok- 
lady Akademii Nauk SSSR 106:347-349. 
MAWDESLEY-THOMAS, L. E. and J. S. LEAHY 

1967 Organ ichlorine pestieide residues in pike. Progressive Fish-Culturist 
29(1 ):64. 

Used gas liquid chromatography to analyse organ ichlorine pestieide residues 

in muscle and fat of pike. Higher concentrations were invariably found in 

larger fish. 
MAY. S. P. 

1858 The handbook of Toronto, containing its climate, geology, natural history, 

edueational institutions, courts of law, municipal arrangements, etc., ete. 

Toronto, Lovell and Gibson, pp. 62-63. 
MAYERHOFER. F. 

1909 Farbwechselversuche am Hechte (Eso.x lucius L.). Arehiv fuer Entwick- 

lungsmechanik der Organismen 28:546-560. 
MCALLISTER. D. E. 

1959 Fish remains from a 600-year-old St. Lawrence River Iroquois site. National 

Museum of Canada, Contributions to Zoology, Bulletin 172:33-38. 

Various fish skull remains were determined to be a species of Eso.x, either 

Eso.x masquinongy or Eso.x lucius. 
1962a Fish remains from Ontario sites 700 to 2500 years old. National Museum of 

Canada, Natural History Paper 17:1-6. 

A 56-mm maxillary found in the Goessens site belongs to either Eso.x lucius 

or Eso.x masquinongy. 
1962b Fishes of the 1960 "Salvelinus" program from western arctic Canada. 

National Museum of Canada, Bulletin 185:22-23. 
1963 Fish remains from a 600-year-old Yukon arehaeologieal site. Canadian 

Field-Naturalist 77:232. 

An ineomplete right dentary, 50 mm long, bearing one tooth is identifiable as 

pike. 

1968 The evolution of branchiostegals and associated opercular, gular and hyoid 
bones and the classification of Teleostome fishes, living and fossil. National 
Museum of Canada, Bulletin 22 1 : 1 -239. 

1975 Fish collections from the Otish Mountain Region, central Quebec. Syllogeus 
8:1-12. 
MCALLISTER. D. E. and B. W. COAD 

1974 Fishes of Canada's National Capital Region. Canada Department of the 
Environment, Fisheries and Marine Service Miscellaneous Special Publica- 
tion 24: 1-200. 
MCALLISTER, D. E. and E. J. CROSSMAN 

1973 A guide to the freshwater sport tishes of Canada. National Museums of 
Canada, National Museum of Natural Science. Natural History Series 1:1-89. 



209 



Information to help the angler identify fish. Figure and brief text describe 
habits, distribution, and maximum size. 
MCALLISTER. D. E. and D. ST-ONGE 

1981 Postglacial fossil fishes from Coppermine River, Northwest Territories. 
Canadian Field-Naturalist 95:203-205. 
MCCABE. B. C. 

1943 An analysis of the distribution of fishes in the streams of western Mas- 
sachusetts. Copeia 1943:85-89. 
Pike have been introduced into one drainage system. 

1958 Esox niger LeSueur; tabular treatment of the life history and ecology of the 
chain pickerel. Massachusetts, Springfield College, 45 pp. 
MCCARRAHER, B. 

1956 What about northern pike? Outdoor Nebraska, Spring 1956. 

1958a A hole in the ice. Outdoor Nebraska, February 7-8. 

1958b Operation northern pike. Outdoor Nebraska, April 18-19. 

Describes techniques used for stripping and incubating eggs, rearing and 
stocking the fry. 

1960 Northern pike population studies. Nebraska Game, Forestation and Parks 
Commission, Dingell-Johnson Project F-4-R, Job 6:1-15. 
Study concentrated on 10 lakes and impoundments in the Sandhill region, 
with productive pike spawning and rearing areas. Comparative growth rates, 
age, angler harvest, sex ratio, and waterfowl predation are discussed. The 
presence of pike indicates that the species is adaptable to moderately euryha- 
line waters. 
MCCARRAHER, D. B. 

1955 The status and value of the northern pike {Esox lucius) in North America 
sport fishery. Presented at 17th Midwest Wildlife Conference, Purdue 
University, 1955. 5 pp. 

1957a The status of the northern pike in Nebraska's Sandhill Lake Region. Transac- 
tions 2nd Annual Conference, Central Mountain and Plains Section, Wildlife 
Society, 8 pp. 

Describes the Sandhill Lakes and gives physical, chemical, and biological 
characteristics of a pike lake. Life history, breeding habits, distribution, 
numbers, age, growth, management and harvest are discussed. 

1957b The fishery of an alkaline sandhill lake, Nebraska. Presented 19th Annual 
Midwest Wildlife Conference, Milwaukee, 1957. 6 pp. 

Describes the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the lake. 
Information on life history, behaviour, food, growth, and management of pike 
in the lake is given, and an estimation of the lake's standing crop is made. 

1957c The natural propagation of northern pike in small drainable ponds. Progres- 
sive Fish-Culturist 19:185-187. 

The use of ripe pike spawners in hatchery ponds, at a rate of five females per 
acre, shows promise as an economical and efficient method of production. 
Fry should be cropped when 2 inches in length. 

1959a Northern pike. Outdoor Nebraska, July 26-27. 

Describes unpredictable nature of artificial propagation and stocking, stress- 
ing that the production of a good population depends on favourable natural 
conditions. Creation of adjoining marsh areas on lakes lacking such spawn- 
ing sites has often improved fishing and perhaps should supplement stocking. 

210 



1959b The northern pike-bluegill combination in north-central Nebraska farm ponds. 
Progressive Fish-Culturist 21:188-1 89. 

Two new farm ponds 5.5 and 7.1 surface acres stocked with pike fingerlings 
and adult bluegills at 5.1 and 36.1. Natural pike reproduction has occurred in 
both ponds. Bluegills are the predominant forage for all year classes of pike. 

1959c Phyllopod shrimp populations of the Big Alkali Lake drainage, Nebraska, and 
their relationship to young pike (Esox Indus). American Midland Naturalist 
61:509-510. 

Adult pike use the entire drainage basin for spawning, while shrimp popula- 
tions occurred in 60% of the pools in the basin. Fingerlings fed on shrimp if 
available and had a greater average si/.e than those in pools with no shrimp. 

1960 Pike hybrids (Esox Indus x E. vermiculatus) in a sandhill lake, Nebraska. 
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 89:82-83. 
A description of four fish captured in 1958-59, believed to be the first 
recorded description of this cross. 

1961a Sandhill lakes survey. Nebraska Game, Forestation and Parks Commission, 
Job Completion Report F-4-R, 1954-61:1-83. 

1961b Extension of the range of northern pike, Esox Indus. Transactions of the 
American Fisheries Society 90:227-228. 

In 1955, 26 states and provinces had resident pike populations. This paper 
documents extensions of the range during the following 5 years. 

1962 Northern pike, Esox Indus, in alkaline lakes of Nebraska. Transactions of the 
American Fisheries Society 91:326-329. 

Pike were introduced successfully where mean annual total alkalinity did not 
exceed 1,000 ppm. Information on dissolved oxygen content, growth rate 
variation, reproduction, and survival, spawning habitat, forage fish. 

1963 Production of northern pike in natural rearing ponds in Nebraska. Progres- 
sive Fish-Culturist 25:165. 

Brief discussion on harvest variability, rearing period, and economic feasibil- 
ity. Ponds were considered to be an auxiliary production tool, and a summary 
of pond production between 1955-62 for the Valentine Hatchery is included. 

1971 Survival of some freshwater fishes in the alkaline eutrophic waters of 
Nebraska. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 28:1811-1814. 
Fourteen species of freshwater fish were held in cages in 13 lakes and ponds 
where carbonate alkalinity ranged from slightly alkaline to strongly alkaline. 
Pike was among the most tolerant species. 

1977 Nebraska's sandhills lakes. Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, Project 
F-54-R:l-67. 
MCCARRAHER. D. B. and R. E. THOMAS 

1972 Ecological significance of vegetation to northern pike, Esox Indus, spawning. 
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 101:560-563. 

An evaluation of pike spawning success in six Nebraska sandhill lakes in 
relation to preferred type of aquatic vegetation. Water quality, spring water 
levels and temperature, and the species of submergent aquatic vegetation 
present within individual lakes all influence pike spawning success in the san- 
dhill region. 
\K ( AULEY.R.W. and J. M CASSELMAN 

1981 The final preferendum as an index of the temperature for optimum growth in 
fish. /// Tiews. K.. ed., Proceedings of the world symposium on aquacultiire 

21 I 



in heated effluents and recirculation systems, Stavenger, 1980. Berlin, 
Heenemann Verlagsgesellschaft, vol. 2, pp. 81-93. 

An extensive literature review indicating that the final preferendum is usually 
several degrees above the optimum temperature for growth. The final pre- 
ferendum for sub-adult pike is 23-24 C, while the optimum temperature for 
growth is 20 C. 
MCCAY.C. M. 

1931 Phosphorus distribution, sugar, and haemoglobin in the blood of fish, eels, 
and turtles. Journal of Biological Chemistry 90:497-505. 
MCCLANE, A. J. 

1954 The American angler. Field and Stream Outdoor Series. New York, Henry 

Holt. 207 pp. 
1961 The pike family. Field and Stream, June 1961, pp. 40-43, 47. 89-92. 
1 976 Pike on the fly. Field and Stream 8 1 ( 1 ): 1 80- 1 82, 1 84, 1 86. 
MCCLENDON, E. W. 

1976 Conflicts and compatibilities associated with regulating the Missouri River 
main stem reservoir system to enhance the fishery resource. /// Orsborn, J. F., 
and C. H. Allman, eds., Instream flow needs. American Fisheries Society, 
vol. 2, pp. 148-157. 

During the past decade special operations were scheduled for one or more 
reservoirs each year to enhance spawning of fish species, including pike. 
MCCORMACK.J. 

1965 Populations of fish in the English lake district. International Association of 
Theoretical and Applied Limnology Proceedings 13:198 
MCCORMACKJ.C. 

1970 Observations on the food of perch Perea fluviatilis in Windermere. Journal of 
Animal Ecology 39:255-267. 

Brief comment on the effect of intensive pike fishery on perch and char. 
MCCORMICK, L. M. 

1892 Descriptive list of the fishes of Lorain County, Ohio. Oberlin College, 
Laboratory Bulletin 2:1-33. 
MCCRIMMON, H. R. 

1956 Fishing in Lake Simcoe. Ontario Department of Lands and Forests, 137 pp. 
MCCRIMMON, H. R. and E. SKOBE 

1970 The fisheries of Lake Simcoe. Ontario Department of Lands and Forests, 140 
pp. 
MCDONALD, D. B. 

1969 Post-tagging mortality of pike, perch, walleye and rainbow trout following 
dart tag application. Alberta Fish and Wildlife Division, Management Report 
7:1-11. 
MCFADDEN, J. T. 

1964 Trout, walleye, musky and pike. Michigan Conservation Bulletin 
33(3): 14-16. 
MCFARLANE, G. A and W. G. FRANZIN 

1980 An examination of Cd, Cu, and Hg concentrations in livers of northern pike, 
Eso.\ lucius, and white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, from five lakes near 
a base metaj smelter at Flin Flon, Manitoba. Canadian Journal of Fisheries 
and Aquatic Sciences 37:1573-1578. 
Concentrations of cadmium, copper, and mercury increased with age in pike 

212 



livers, but the relationships of metal concentration to fish age were not con- 
sistent with the degree of water contamination. Calcium concentration of 
lake waters appeared to affect liver metal concentrations. 
MCGOVERN, S. P. 

1983a Development of a fisheries management plan for Lac Seul, northwestern 
Ontario. M.S. thesis. University of Manitoba. 159 pp. 

Among the suggestions are: reduce harvest limits on pike for non-resident 
anglers on Lac Seul only, divert non-resident pike angling to water bodies 
near Lac Seul capable of sustaining additional pressure. 

1983b An annotated bibliography on: the effects o\ water level fluctuations on wal- 
leye, northern pike, and lake whitefish. University of Manitoba. Natural 
Resources Institute, unpublished MS, 22 pp. 
MCKENZIE. R. A. 

1930 Observations on the movements of the pike {Eso.x lucius). Canadian Field- 
Naturalist 44: 1 30- 1 33. 

Tagging of 61 pike in Lake Nipigon during July and August of 1926 was con- 
sidered successful in 88 r /r of the fish. Of the recaptured fish, X(Y/ ( were found 
near the original capture site so the fish appeared to have a particular retreat. 
MCKIM. J. M.. J. W. ARTHUR and T. W. THORSLUND 

1975 Toxicity of a linear alkylate sulfonate detergent to larvae of four species of 
freshwater fish. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 
14:1-7. 

A report of a study to determine the 96-hr LC50 for linear alkylate sulfonate 
on the 30-day standing crop of larvae of four species, including pike. 
MCKIM. J. M.. J. G. EATON and G. W. HOLCOMBE 

1978 Metal toxicity to embryos and larvae of eight freshwater fishes. 2. Copper. 
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 19:608. 
Fish larvae and early juveniles were more sensitive to copper than were 
embryos. Embryo survival was affected only at the higher concentrations 
tested. Pike larvae seemed to be considerably more resistant than other 
species. 
MCKNIGHT. T. C. and S. L. SERNS 

1974 Food habits of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in an inland Wisconsin 
lake. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 103:126-130. 
MCLEOD. H. 

1964 Lake St. Lawrence fish and wildlife report. April 1964. Ontario Department 
of Lands and Forests, unpublished MS. 56 pp. 
\K NAMARA. F. 

1937 Breeding and food habits of the pikes {Eso.x lucius and Eso.x vermiculatus). 
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 66:372-373. 
Breeding times, localities, and behaviour before and during spawning were 
observed in a marsh adjacent to Lake Chemung during April from 1933-36. 
Stomach contents were also examined. 
MCPHAIL. J. D. and C. C. LINDSEY 

1970 Freshwater tishes of northwestern Canada and Alaska. Fisheries Research 
Board of Canada Bulletin 173:1-381. 
MDONNELL, R. 

1864 On the system of the "lateral line" in tishes. Transactions of the Royal Irish 
Academy 24:161. 

213 



Briefly discusses scale shape, nerve fibres in lateral line follicles, and the 
cephalic portion of the pike system. 

MEAD. C. W. 

1915 Pike-fishing incidents. Copeia 22:35-36. 

Stories of pike fishing in the Adirondack Mountains. 

MEADE. J. and D. R. GRAFF 

1978 Reviewing the esocid hybrids. American Fisheries Society Special Publica- 
tion 11:210-216. 

Crosses of the larger pikes produced only one with fertile progeny, the Amur 
pike x pike. Crosses of pike with muskellunge and Amur pike produced 
hybrids that appear to have great potential as a sport fish — relatively easy to 
rear, use artificial foods, grow fast, prized by anglers. 

MEADE. J. W., W. F. KRISE and T. ORT 

1983 Effect of temperature on production of tiger muskellunge in intensive culture. 
Aquaculture 32:157-164. 

Juvenile hybrids were reared at constant temperatures in the range 14-28 C. 
Information is given on growth, production, and feed conversion efficiency. 

MECKLENBURG, C. VON 

1974 The development of saccus vasculosus in two teleosts. Acta Zoologica 
55:137-148. 

Examines the development and differentiation of the ventro-caudal part of the 
diencephalon, the saccus infundbuli. 

MEDFORD. B. A. 

1976 Annual cycle in condition and nutrient composition of northern pike (Esox 
luciusL.). M.S. thesis, University of Alberta. 61pp. 

Pike were sampled at regular intervals from Lac Ste. Anne, Alberta, between 
May 1973 and July 1974. Condition and protein and lipid content (on a per- 
centage basis) of liver, gonad, and muscle were measured. Somatic body 
weight (condition) and total protein and total lipid content of liver and gonad 
were calculated for a pike 50 cm FL to elucidate seasonal changes in these 
parameters. Since the pike examined did not have any large fat storage 
depots, it appears that the changes in somatic body weight observed were due 
to the catabolism of whole muscle tissue. 

MEDFORD, B. A. and W. C. MACKAY 

1978 Protein and lipid content of gonads, liver and muscle of northern pike (Esox 
lucius) in relation to gonad growth. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board 
of Canada 35(2):2 13-2 19. 

Pike were sampled at regular intervals from Lac Ste. Anne, Alberta, between 
May 1973 and July 1974. The weight, protein, and lipid content of gonads, 
liver, and somatic tissue were determined. From changes seen throughout the 
year, the deposition of nutrients into gonads and the areas of possible nutrient 
storage were assessed. 

MEDVEDKIN, V. N., Y. V. MITIN and E. A. PERMYAKOV 

1984 Semisynthesis of pike parvalbumin. III. Fragment 74-108. In 16th Meeting 
of the Federation of European Biochemical Societies, Moscow, 1984. 
Abstracts published by Federation of European Biochemical Societies, 
Amsterdam., p. 328. 

Parvalbumins have an invariant pair of amino acid residues Arg and Glu 
between domains. They are localized inside the molecule and form an ion 

214 



bond. Isolation of the EF-domain by trypsinolysis disrupts this structure. A 
semisynthetic fragment 74-108 of pike parvalbumin III was prepared to clar- 
ify the role o\' the Arg residue in forming the secondary structure of the EF- 
domain. Native protein was modified with BOC-azide and cleaved with tryp- 
sin. 
MEEK. A. 

1916 The migrations of fish. London. 
MEEK, S. E. 

1899 Notes on a collection of fishes and amphibians from Muskoka and Gull lakes. 
Field Columbian Museum Publication 41, Zoology Series, 1( 17):307-31 I . 
MEEK. S. E. and H. W. CLARK 

1902 Notes on a collection of cold-blooded vertebrates from Ontario. Field 
Columbian Museum Publication 67, Zoology Series 3(7): 13 1-140. 
MEEK. S. E. and R. G. NEWLAND 

1886 A review of the species of the genus Eso.x. Proceedings of the Academy of 
Natural Science, Philadelphia, 3(1885):367-375. 

Key, synonymy, origin of each description, and notes on habitat for each 
species. 
MEIEN. V. A. 

1926 Growth of the pike, Eso.x lucius L. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 6(2):33-4 1 . 
A synopsis of growth of pike in the USSR, both historic and current. 

MEIER. W. 

1981 Viral hemorrhagic septicemia in non-salmonid fishes. Bulletin of the Euro- 
pean Association of Fish Pathologists 1:15-17. 

MEIER. W. and P. E. V. JORGENSEN 

1979a Isolation of VHS virus from pike fry (Eso.x lucius) with hemorrhagic symp- 
toms. In Fish diseases, 3rd Session on Cooperative Programme of Research 
on Aquaculture, Munich, 1979. 

Pike fry were infected with VHS virus. Infected pike suffered losses of close 
to 100%, while only 6% of the pike control group died. Virus was readily iso- 
lated from fish belonging to the artificially infected group, but not from non- 
infected controls. It was not known whether pike at later stages of develop- 
ment are susceptible to the disease, or if they become carriers of the virus. 
• 1979b Egtved virus: characteristics of a virus strain isolated from pike fry (Eso.x 
lucius L.) Nordisk Veterinaermedicin 31:484-485. 

A viral disease outbreak occurred in a hatchery in Hallwilersee, Switzerland. 
The symptoms are described. Viral pathogenicity is compared to that of a 
freshly isolated Egtved strain: both caused identical symptoms in pike fry, 
with losses close to 100%. Details of the serological differentiation between 
Egtved virus and rhabdovirus disease are given. 

MELANCON, C. 

1958 Les poissons de nos eaux, 3rd ed. Quebec Societe de Zoologie, 254 pp. 

MELLEN. I. 

1927 The natural and artificial foods of fishes. Transactions of the American 
Fisheries Society 57: 1 20- 137. 

MELLORS. P. J. and R.W.OWEN 

1980 Some observations on the biology of a gasterostome digenetic fluke Rhipi 
docotyle campanula offish in the Riva-aire, Yorkshire. Parasitology 81(2). 



15 



MEL'NIKOV. V. N. and E. T. PREL 

1981 Some peculiarities of the effect of an electric field on fish. Journal of Ichthy- 
ology 21 : 144-151. 
MENDIS. A. S. 

1956 A limnological comparison of four lakes in central Saskatchewan. 
Saskatchewan Department of Natural Resources, Fish report 2:1-23. 
Pike were collected in all four lakes. Gives information on catch per unit 
effort, abundance, and food. 
MERR1LEES. M. J. 

1972 Relationship between the lateral line sensory system and the cardioid scale 
pits in the family Esocidae (Salmoniformes). Ph.D. thesis, University of 
Toronto. 195 pp. 

General study of the number and histological structure of pits in all esocid 
fishes, emphasizing the smaller species but including the situation in pike. 
MERRILEES, M. J. and E. J. CROSSMAN 

1973 Surface pits in the family Esocidae. I. Structure and types of surface pits. 
Journal of Morphology 141:307-320. 

Histology of lateral line pits and neural structures in smaller esocid species. 
The condition in pike is mentioned. 

1974 Species and geographic variability of surface pits in the Esocidae. Copeia 
1974:893-909. 

The lateral line system o\' the pike consists of shallow pits with neuromasts. 
Unlike smaller esocid species, there are no pits without sensory structures. 
Geographic variation in number of sensory pits in the pike is presented. 
MESZAROS. F. 

1969 Helminthological investigations of fish in Lake Balaton. II. Parasitic nema- 
todes from fish in the lake. Annales Instituti Biologici (Tihany) Hungaricae 
Academiae Scientiarum 35:141-144. 
MEYER, F. P. and J. A. ROBINSON 

1973 Branchiomycosis: a new fungal disease of North American fishes. Progres- 
sive Fish-Culturist 35:74-77. 
MEYER. M. C. 

1954 The larger animal parasites of the freshwater fishes of Maine. Maine Depart- 
ment of Inland Fisheries, Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Division 1:1-92. 
MEYER. P.. ed. 

1901 L'histoire de Guillaume Marechal. 3 vol. Paris. 

A pike was bestowed as a prize to a knight who had gained the admiration of 
all by his valour and skill in a tournament in the spring of 1 177. 
MEZHN1N.F. I. 

1980 The evolution of the suprarenal body in the phylogeny of Cyclostomata and 
Pisces. Journal oi Ichthyology 20(4):80-93. 

MEZQUII A, J., R. BAR TRONS, G. PONS and J. CARRERAS 

1981 Phylogeny and ontogeny of the phosphoglycerate mutases. 2. Characteriza- 
tion of phosphoglycerate mutase isozymes from vertebrates by their thermal 
lability and sensitivity to the sulfhydryl group reagents. Comparative 
Biochemistry and Physiology 70:247-256. 

MICHAELIS, A. % 

1911 The artificial culture and hatching of pike. Transactions of the American 
Fisheries Society 40:429-432. 

216 



MICHAJLOW. W. 

1933 Les Stades larvaires de Triaenophorus nodulosus (Pallas). I. Le coracidium. 
Annales de Parasitologic Humaine et Comparee 1 1 :339— 358. 

MICHAJLOW, W. and I. W1TA 

1976 Effect of VAPAM - a pesticide of the carbamate group - on Ergasilus sieboldi 
Nordmann (Copepoda) a parasite of the pike and on Paradistigma triangula- 
tum Wita (Euglenoidina) a parasite of this copepod. Bulletin de r Academic 
Polonaise des Sciences. Serie des Sciences Biologiques 24: 1 13-1 16. 
The reaction of the pike parasite E. sieboldi, and of its hyperparasite P. tri- 
angulatum, to the following VAPAM concentrations was tested: 1000. 100. 
10. 1. 0.1. and 0.01 ppm. It was found that the hyperparasite population has 
less chance of survival than E. siboldi. It is, therefore, probable that low con- 
tamination of water with VAPAM may result in an enhanced ergasilosis as 
observed in many water bodies in Poland. 

MIDTTUN. B. 

1980 Ultrastructure of atrial and ventricular myocardium in the pike Esox lucius L. 
and mackerel Scomber scomburus L. (Pisces). Cell and Tissue Research 
21 1:41-50. 

The differences and similarities between the heart tissues of the two species 
are described considering the muscle cell description, sarcolemma, sar- 
comere, sarcoplasmic reticulum, sarcolemmal cisternae, intercalated discs. 
nexuses, heart granules, and junctional processes. 

1981 Ultrastructure of atrial and ventricular endocardium and cardiac capillary 
endothelium of the pike. Tissue Cell 13:747-756. 

The endocardium of the pike consists of an attenuated squamose endothelium, 
a sparse population of subendothelial cells, and varying amounts of collagen. 
Fibroblasts are not found in the endocardium, and the collagen is probably 
produced by the endothelium. Capillary and endocardial endothelium differ 
structurally in several aspects. The structure data thus indicate that capillary 
endothelia mainly have a transport function, while the endocardial 
endothelium is also largely concerned in protein synthesis. 
1983 Ventricular myocardium of the pike Esox lucius L. (Teleostei) ultrastructure 
of the junctional region. Zoologischer Anzeiger 2 10(5/6):27 1—28 1 . 

MIETTINEN. V.. E. BLANKENSTEIN. K. RISSANEN. M. TILLANDER and J. K. MIET- 

TINEN 

1970 Preliminary study on the distribution and effects of two chemical forms of 
methyl mercury in pike and rainbow trout. /// FAO Technical Conference on 
Marine Pollution and its Effects on Living Resources and Fishing, Rome, 
1970. 12 pp. 

The highest mercury concentrations of all fish species are reported in pike. 
Experiments were conducted to determine whether methylmercury is more 
toxic in the free ionic form than when bound to SH-groups of protein, as it is 
in the food chain: to determine the approximate dose of methylmercury that is 
lethal to pike and to find the pathological changes and the gross distribution 
of labelled methylmercury in the fish. With fast dosing the LD50/30D value 
is approximately 50 mg Hg/kg. From what remained absorbed alter the first 
day. an approximate biological half-life of 110 + or - 20 days was observed. 



17 



MIETTINEN. V., Y. OHMOMO, M. VALTONEN, E. BLANKENSTEIN, K. RISSANEN. M. 
TILLANDER and J. K. MIETTINEN 

1969 Preliminary notes on the distribution and effects of two chemical forms of 

methyl mercury on pike. /// 5th Radioactivity in Scandinavia Symposium, 

University of Helsinki. 
MIGDALSKI. E. C. 

1962 Angler's guide to the freshwater sport fishes of North America. New York, 
Ronald Press. 43 1 pp. 

MILHALIK.J. 

1963 Novy zpusob odchov stiky v plevoucich kolebkach. Ceskoslovenska 
Rybarstvi 1:4-5. 

MILLER, C. T., Z. ZAWIDZKA, E. NAGY and S. M. CHARBONNEAU 

1979 Indicators of genetic toxicity in leukocytes and granulocytic precursors after 
chronic methyl mercury ingestion by cats. Bulletin of Environmental Con- 
tamination and Toxicology 21:296-303. 

MILLER, J. and K. BUSS 

1962 Distinguishing the pikes of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Angler May 1962, 

pp. 6-7. 
n.d. The age and growth of northern pike in Pennsylvania. /// Miller, J., and K. 
Buss, eds., The age and growth of the fishes in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania 
Fish Commission, Conservation Education Division. 2 pp. 
Provides anglers with information on variability in growth rate and age in 
Pennsylvania populations. Gives figures for mean length x weight, age x 
length, and lists good fishing areas. 

MILLER, J. G. 

1954 A survey of the sport fishing at the north end of Cayuga Lake. M.S. thesis, 
Cornell University. 

Pike in the north end appeared to be faster growing than those from other 
areas of the lake, probably because of more abundant food supply and a 
longer growing season, due to earlier warming of the shallow water. 

MILLER, R. B. 

1943 Studies on cestodes of the genus Thaenophorus from fish of Lesser Slave 
Lake, Alberta. I. Introduction and the life of Thaenophorus crassus Forel 
and T. nodulosus Pallas in the definitive host Esox lucius. Canadian Journal 
of Research 21:160-170. 

Outlines the life cycle of each parasite and the role played by pike as the host. 
Information on attachment, reproduction, infection period, and host age 
specificity is given. 

1944 Suggestions for experiments in the control of the pike-whitefish tapeworm, 
Thaenophorus crassus. Alberta Department of Lands and Mines, Report of 
the Fisheries Branch. 

1946 Northwest fisheries survey. Chapter 4. Great Bear Lake. Fisheries Research 
Board of Canada Bulletin 72:31-44. 

1948 A note on the movement of the pike, Esox lucius. Copeia 1948:62. 

1949 Preliminary biological surveys of Alberta watersheds, 1947-1949. Alberta 
Department of Lands and Forests. 139 pp. 

1950a The Square Lake experiment: an attempt to control Thaenophorus crassus 
by poisoning pike. Canadian Fish Culturist 7:3-18. 
Concludes that the use of rotenone is impracticable because of the cost, and 

218 



because pike will rapidly repopulate the depleted areas. 
1950b A critique of the need and use o( poisons in fisheries research and manage- 
ment. Canadian Fish Culturist 8:30-33. 

Because of the high cost of repeated poisonings with rote none, suggests set 
ting nets along shore and using rotenone to drive fish into them. 
1952 A review of the Triaenophorus problem in Canadian lakes, fisheries 
Research Board of Canada Bulletin 95:1-42. 
MILLER. R. B. and W. A. KENNEDY 

1948 Pike (Esox lucius) from four northern Canadian lakes. Journal of the 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada 8:190-199. 

Scale samples and length and weight measurements were used to calculate 
rate of growth. Northern fish live 5 years longer but never attain as large a 
size. The relationship between length and weight is independent of rate of 
growth. Males and females grow at the same rate but females appear to live 
longer than males. 
MILLER, R. B. and M. J. PAETZ 

1959 The effects of power, irrigation, and stock water developments on the 
fisheries of the South Saskatchewan River. Canadian Fish Culturist 
25:13-26. 

The large reservoirs have developed valuable commercial and sport fisheries 
for pike. The small reservoirs which acquired a coarse fish fauna at the time 
of their construction have provided good pike angling. 
MILLER. R. B. and R. C. THOMAS 

1956 Alberta's pothole trout fisheries. Transactions of the American Fisheries 
Society 86:261-268. 

Trout grow poorly in lakes with a small pike population, and do not survive at 
all where there is a well-established pike population. 
MILLER. R. B. and H. B. WATKINS 

1946 An experiment in the control of the cestode, Triaenophorus crassus Forel. 
Canadian Journal of Research D 24(6). 

Describes an unsuccessful attempt to kill the coracidia of this parasite of pike 
by increased pH. 
MILLER, T. B. 
•1971 Rock Island County surface water resources. Illinois Department of Conser- 
vation, Division of Fisheries. 59 pp. 
MILLS. D. H. 

1964 The ecology of the young stages of the Atlantic salmon in the River Bran, 
Rosshire. Freshwater Salmon Fisheries Research, Scotland, 32: 1-58. 
MILNER, J. W. 

1876 Nomenclature of the pike family. Forest and Stream 1876(7): 163. 
MINAKOWSKI, W. 

1962 Aminokwasy podczas rozwoju ikry szczupaka {Esox luciusL.). [Amino-acids 
during the development of the pike (Esox lucius L.) eggs.| Zeszyty Naukowe 
Wyzszej Szkoly Rolniczej w Olsztynie 12( 1 ):41-48. 

Studies on free amino acids with the use of ion-phorasis and chromatography. 
MINAKOWSKI. W. and Z. NOWICKA 

1962 Total content of L-ascorbic acid during the embryonal development of the 
common pike (Esox lucius L.) eggs. Zeszyty Naukowe Wyzsz, Szkoly Rol- 
niczej Olsztyn 12:49-54. 

219 



MINOR. J. D. 

1976 Analysis of meristic characters of northern pike. Eso.x Indus for longitudingal 
and latitudinal clines in Canada. University of Toronto, unpublished MS, n.p. 
MISHRA. T. N. and J. C. CHUBB 

1969 The parasite fauna of the hsh of the Shropshire Union Canal, Cheshire. Jour- 
nal of Zoology 157(part 2):2 13-224. 
MISIK. V. 

1964 Estimation of the quantitative occurrence and standing crop of mudminnow 
{Umbra krameri) and pike (Eso.x lucius) in the canals of the Zitny Ostrov in 
Slovakia. Vistnik Ceskoslovenske Spolecnosti Zoologicke 28:357-368. 
Sections of the canals were blocked off and fish were caught by 
electrofishing. Pike reacted well to electric current, and their visibility once 
at the surface made them easy to collect. The numbers and weights of both 
species caught from each locality are listed. 
MISRA, P. M. 

1966 Some observations on the morphology and food habits of northern pike Eso.x 
Indus. Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress 53(4):35. 
MISSISSIPPI RIVER WORK UNIT 

1978 Pool 8 northern pike spawning study. Summary report. In Mississippi River 
Work Unit Annual Report 1977-1978, Wisconsin Department of Natural 
Resources, pp. 31-44. 
MITCHILL, S. L. 

1815 Fishes of New York described and arranged. Transactions of the Literary and 
Philosophy Society of New York 1:355-492. 
MITENEV, V. K. 

1975 Two new species of parasites from fishes Myxobilatus schulmani new species 
and Apiosoma longiciliaris new species of the Kola Peninsula water bodies, 
Russian-SFSR, USSR. Parazitologiya 9:459-461. 
MITZNER, L. 

1971 Sport fishery harvest at Red Haw Lake and Red Rock Reservoir, 1971. Iowa 
State Conservation Commission, Job Completion Report 5-71-3. 
MOCZARSKI, K. M. and I. KOSCIUSZKI 

1983 Properties of pike Eso.x Indus L. milt and its cryopreservation. Polskie 
Archiwum Hydrobiologii 30:69-78. 

Non-injected males as compared with those injected with a carp pituitary 
homogenate, yielded more milt of heavier consistency. The greatest milt 
volume obtained per ejaculation was 4.0 cm. The percentage of spawn fertili- 
zation with thawed milt was 79.94%, similar to that obtained from fresh non- 
frozen milt, 78.41%. 
MOEN, T. and D. HENEGAR 

1971 Movement and recovery of tagged northern pike in Lake Oahe, South and 
North Dakota, 1964-68. American Fisheries Special Publication 8:85-93. 
During 1964-68, recovery of 2,019 out of 6,958 tagged pike provided infor- 
mation on angler harvest, angling mortality, and hsh movement. Direction 
and distance of movement varied with season, sex, and tagging location. 
MOEN, T. and M. LINDQUIST 

1954 The northern pike hatch at the Clear Lake (Iowa) hatchery. Progressive 
Fish-Culturist 16:89-90. 
An account of methods used, and results of, the first year's hatch of pike. 

220 



MOEN, T. E. 

1953 Summary of hatchery studies at Spirit and Clear Lake hatcheries, spring of 
1953. Iowa State Conservation Commission Quarterly Biology Report 
5(2):70-76 v 

1955 Summary of hatchery studies, spring, 1955. Iowa State Conservation Com- 
mission Quarterly Biology Report 6(4): 15-17. 
MOHL-HANSEN, U. 

1954 Marrow -split bones in interglacial deposits in Jutland. Saertryk af Aarboger 
for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historic pp. 101-126. 

MOILANEN. R.. H. PYYSALO, K. WICKSTROM and R. LINKO 

1982 Time trends of chlordane, DDT, and PCB concentrations in pike (Esox lucius) 
and Baltie herring (Clupea harengus), in the Turku Archipelago, Northern 
Baltie Sea for the period 1971-1982. Bulletin of Environmental Contamina- 
tion and Toxieology 29:334-340. 

Data on time trends and concentrations in muscle and liver tissues. 
MOLNAR, G. and E. TAMASSY 

1970 Study of the haemoglobin content of a single erythrocyte (M index) in vari- 
ous cultured fish species. Journal of Fish Biology 2:167-171. 
Investigations of the erythrocyte count, haemoglobin content, and M index of 
seven fish species, including pike, were performed under equivalent environ- 
mental conditions in the same period of the year. It is concluded that M index 
values are useful as one parameter differentiating between fish with distinctly 
different food habits. 
MOLNAR. G.. E. TAMASSY and 1. TOLG 

1967 The gastric digestion of living, predatory fish. In Gerking, S. D., ed., The bio- 
logical basis of freshwater fish production. IBP Symposium, Reading, 1966. 
pp. 135-149. 
MOLNAR. G. and I. TOLG 

1963 Versuche zum erkennen der mechanischen magentatigkeit einiger 
susswasserraubfische. Archiv fur Fischereiwissenschaft 14(l/2):33-39. 
Studies were conducted on the mechanical functioning of the stomach of 
several predatory fishes by taking X-ray photographs of artificially-stuffed 
stomachs every 5 to 6 hours. 
MOLNAR. K. 

1976 Data on the developmental cycle of Philometra obturans, Nematode, Phi- 
lometridae. Acta Veterinaria Academiae Scientianum Hungaricae 
26:183-188. 
1980 Recent observations on the developmental cycle of Philometra obturans, 
Nematoda, Philometridae. Parasitologia Hungarica 13:65-66. 
MONGEAU. J.. A. COURTEMANCHE, G. MASSE and B. VINCENT 

1974 Cartes de repartition geographique des especes de poissons au sud du Quebec. 
d'apres les inventaires ichthyologiques effectues de 1963 a 1972. Faune du 
Quebec, Special Report 4, n.p. 
MONGEAU. J. -R. 

1954 Valeur alimentaire comparative des larves aquatiques d'insectes et des pois- 
sons pour la croissance du brochets {Esox lucius L.). Annales de 
('Association Canadienne Francaise pour I'Avancement des Sciences 
20:80-85. 



221 



1955a Comportement alimentaire du brochet commun, Esox lucius L., dans deux 
lacs du Pare du Mont-Tremblant, province de Quebec. M.S. Thesis, Univer- 
sity of Montreal. 1 37 pp. 

Tables of food organisms consumed are provided, indicating the type and 
numbers of food items eaten and size of pike feeding. Conditions affecting 
food consumption were studied. Alleged voracity of pike was studied experi- 
mentally in an aquarium; results indicated an exaggeration of this assumption. 

1955b Valeur alimentaire comparative des larves aquatiques d'insectes et des pois- 
sons pour le croissance du brochets {Esox lucius L.) de moins d'un an. 
Annales de I' Association Canadienne Francaise pour TAvancement des Sci- 
ences 21:96-101. 

1960 Croissance du brochet commun, Esox lucius L., dans deux lacs du Pare du 
Mont-Tremblant, province de Quebec. Ph.D. thesis, University of Montreal. 
150 pp. 

Variations related to both physical and biological conditions are given. 
Effects of availability of food for the young and breeding ponds in nature are 
analysed. The principal factors influencing growth are discussed, as well as 
the way in which these factors act on the level of the individuals and the 
populations. 

1976 La dynamique de la population de grands brochets Esox lucius L., du lac Imp, 
Pare du Mont-Tremblant. Quebec Ministere du Tourisme, de la Chasse et de 
la Peche, Service Amenagement Faune, Rapport Technique. 76 pp. 

1979 Dossiers des poissons du Bassin Versant de la Baie Missisquoi et de la Rivi- 
ere Richelieu. Quebec Ministere du Tourisme de la Chasse et de la Peche, 
Rapport Technique. 251pp. 

MONGEAU, J.R., J. LECLERC and J. BRISEBOIS 

1980 La repartition geographique des poissons, les ensemencements, la peche spor- 
tive et commerciale, les frayeres et la bathymetrie du Fleuve Saint-Laurent 
dans le Bassin de la Prairie et les Rapides de Lachine. Quebec Ministere du 
Tourisme de la Chasse et de la Peche, Rapport Technique 06-29: 1-145. 

MONOD, T. 

1968 Le complexe urophore des poissons Teleosteens. Memoires de lTnstitut Fond 
Afrique Noire 81:1-705. 
MONTEN, E. 

1948 Undersokningar ovar gaddynglets biologi soch nagra darmed sammanhan- 
gande problem. Sodra Sveriges Fiskeriforening 1:1-38. 

1949 Research on the northern spawning grounds in northern Straken in 1948 and 
1949 on fry production and the hazards to the fry. Sodra Sveriges Fiskeri- 
forening 2:20-101. 

MONTPETIT, A. N. 

1897 Les poissons de'eau douce du Canada. Montreal, C. O. Beauchemin, 552 pp. 
MOODY, R. C, J. M. HELLAND and R. A. STEIN 

1983 Escape tactics used by bluegills and fathead minnows to avoid predation by 
tiger muskellunge. Environmental Biology of Fishes 8:61-65. 
Quantified behavioural interaction between pike x muskellunge hybrids and 
fathead minnows Pimephales promelas and bluegills Lepomis macrochirus to 
explain why esocids prefer cylindrical, soft-rayed prey over compressed, 
spiny-rayed prey. 



222 



MOORE, J. W. and D. J. SUTHERLAND 

1980 Mercury concentrations in fish inhabiting two polluted lakes in northern 
Canada. Water Research 14:903-908. 
MOORE. W. G. 

1942a Limnological conditions in ice-covered lakes, especially as related to winter 

kill of fish. Ecological Monographs 15:342-392. 
1942b Field studies on the oxygen requirements of certain fresh-water fishes. Ecol- 
ogy 23:319-329. 

Describes field studies on the delimitation of summer and winter oxygen 
thresholds and approximate lethal oxygen concentrations. 
MORALES. A. 

1980 Los peces fosiles del Yacimiento Achelense de Aridos 1 (Arganda, Madrid). 
Ocupaciones Achelenses en al Valle del Jarama, Diputacion Prov. de 
Madrid, pp. 93-104. 

Remains of seven species of fish from the Asheulian deposit of Aridos near 
Madrid are described and illustrated. The discovery of one pike vertebra, a 
species supposedly forming the Spanish ichthyofauna and the chronology of 
its extinction are discussed. 
MORAVEC, F. 

1977 A new nematode parasite Esocinema bohemicum, new genus, new species 
Skrjabillanidae, of the European pike. Folia Parasitologica 24:86-90. 

1978a Redescription of the nematode Philometra obturans with a key to the phi- 
lometrid nematodes parasitic in European freshwater fishes. Folia Parasitolo- 
gica 25:1 15-124. 

A redescription of P. obturans, based on specimens from pike from the Elbe 
basin in Czechoslovakia. Gravid, subgravid and mature females from the 
blood system, as well as males and mature females found for the first time in 
the host's eye, are described. 

1978b The development of the nematode Philometra obturans in the intermediate 
host. Folia Parasitologica 25:303-315. 

1979 Occurrence of the endoparasitic helminths in pike {Esox lucius L.) from the 
Macha Lake fish pond system. Vestnik Ceskoslovenske Spolecnosti Zoolo- 
gicke 43:174-193. 
MORAVEC, F. and I. DYKOVA 

1978 On the biology of the nematode Philometra obturans in the fish pond system 
of Macha Lake, Czechoslovakia. Folia Parasitologica 25:23 1-240. 

A description is given of the occurrence of the nematode P. obturans in pike 
from the Macha Lake fishpond system in Czechoslovakia. By contrast to 
other philometrid nematodes, this pathogenic, specific parasite of pike does 
not exhibit clear-cut seasonal changes in its maturation, and gravid females 
are recovered throughout the year. The natural reservoir hosts of the larvae 
are mainly perch Perca fiuviatilis. Differences in an affinity of P. obturans 
for the various size groups of pike are influenced mainly by the growth 
changes in the composition of food of these hosts. The development and cir- 
culation of P. obturans in the environment, and the problem of reservoir hosts 
of this nematode are discussed. 
MORAWSKA, B. 

1968 Ryby i rybactwo w Wisle pod Wloclawkiem. [Fishes and fisheries in the Vis- 
tula River near Wloclawek.] Zeszyty Naukowe S/koly Glownej 

223 



Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie, Ser. Zootechnika, 7(3):23-56. 
Biological and fishery studies undertaken as a result of constructing a small 
dam upon the Vistula River. 
MOREAU. G. and L. LEGENDRE 

1979 Relation between habitat and fish communities - experiment for definition of 
numerical method for northern rivers. Hydrobiologia 67:81-88. 

MORGAN, N.C. 

1972 Productivity studies at Loch Leven, a shallow nutrient-rich lowland lake. /// 
Productivity problems of fresh waters. Proceedings of the International Bio- 
logical Programme, Poland, 1970, pp. 183-205. 

MOR1N. R.. J. DODSON and G. POWER 

1980 Estuarine fish communities of the eastern James - Hudson Bay coast. 
Environmental Biology of Fishes 5: 135-141. 

MORRE, J. and J. BARRET 

1963 Potassium content of various fisheries products with a view to measuring the 
radioactivity of food. Revue des Travaux de ITnstitut des Peches Maritimes 
27:235-240. 

MORRIS, J., L. MORRIS and L. WITT 

1972 The fishes of Nebraska Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, Dingell- 
Johnson Project F-4-R:l-98. 
MORRIS, J. W. 

1972 Fishery inventory and investigations. Monitor survival of northern pike pro- 
duced in an experimental artificial spawning marsh. Nebraska Game and 
Parks Commission, Project F-4-R-17, Job 1:1—4. 

The artificial spawning marsh at Bluestem Lake was stocked with 47 adult 
pike, then was drained. Notes survival of the estimated 14,680 young pike 
that were released into the lake. 

1973 Monitor survival of northern pike produced in an experimental artificial 
spawning marsh. Monitor survival of hatchery-reared northern pike stocked 
in three Salt Creek watershed reservoirs. Nebraska Game and Parks Commis- 
sion, Dingell Johnson Project F-4-R- 1 8, Job IX-b and IX-c: 16-19. 

Report of a study of the success of two culture methods. All young were 
released in May, and summer surveys revealed that pike were present later in 
3 of the 4 study lakes. Continuing evaluation of these management tools was 
recommended. 

1974 Northern pike investigations in southeast Nebraska reservoirs. Nebraska 
Game and Parks Commission, Dingell-Johnson Project F-4-R-19, Job 9-b and 
9-C:l-4. 

Evaluated the stocking of hatchery reared pike and pike reared in artificial 
spawning marshes as management tools for maintaining populations. 
MORRIS, R. L. and L. G. JOHNSON 

1971 Dieldrin levels in fish from Iowa streams. Pesticides Monitoring Journal 
5:12-16. 
MORRISON, B. 

1976 The coarse fish of the lake of Menleith, recently developed as a trout fishery. 
Fisheries Management 7(4):89. 
MORROW, J. E. 

1964 Populations of pike, Esox lucius, in Alaska and north-eastern North America. 
Copeia 1964:235-236. 

224 



Meristic characters of 83 pike from the Tanana and Yukon rivers were com- 
pared in an attempt to establish whether Alaskan pike differed from those in 
northeastern North America. Statistically significant differences occurred 
between mean values of some counts, but the author suggested that these 
differences were no greater than what could be expected, since the two popu- 
lations were so widely separated. 

MORSTROM. R. J.. A. E. MCKINNON, A. S. W. DE FREITAS and D. R. MILLER 

1975 Pathway definition of pesticide and mercury uptake by fish. /// Environmental 
quality and safety supplement, vol. 1, Pesticides. International Union of Pure 
and Applied Chemistry, Third International Congress, Helsinki, 1974, pp. 
811-816. 

MOSINDY.T. 

1980 The ecology o\' northern pike, Eso.x Indus (Linnaeus), in Savanne Lake. 
Ontario. M.S. thesis, Lakehead University. 159 pp. 

A study of important aspects of the life history and population dynamics of 
pike in Savanne Lake, Ontario, during 1977 and 1978. Feeding relationships 
involving pike and walleye Stizostcdion vitreum vitreum and the initial impact 
of an open water sport fishery on these unexploited populations were also 
examined. 

MOSKALENKO. B. K. 

1956 Vliyanie mnogoletnikh kolebanii urovnya reko Obi na rost, plodovitost i 
razmnozhenie nekotorykh ryb. [The effect of perennial fluctuations in the 
level of the River Ob on the growth, fecundity and reproduction of some fish.] 
Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 35:746-752. 

MOSSIER. J.N. 

1971 The effect of salinity on the eggs and sac fry of the fathead minnow 
(Pimephales promelas promelas), northern pike (Eso.x lucius) and the walleye 
{Stizostcdion vitreum vitreum). Ph.D. thesis. North Dakota State University. 

MOULTON.J. 

1975 Establish northern pike in Bantam Lake. Connecticut Research Project Per- 
formance Report F-39-R- 1:1-13. 

MOULTON. J. C. 

1978 Establish northern pike in Bantam Lake. Evaluation of northern pike spawn- 
ing areas/Population estimates/Preparation of final report. Connecticut 
Department of the Environment, Project F-36-D, F-39-R:l-36. 
Data on the impact of the introduction of pike on the white perch population 
and the ability of pike to establish a self-sustaining population. Specific areas 
of the evaluation include: population estimates, calculation of age and growth 
parameters, operation of an experimental spawning marsh. 

MOYLE.J. B. 

1949a Fish-population concepts and management of Minnesota lakes for sport 
fishing. Transactions of the North American Wildlife Conference 
14:283-394. 
1949b Gill nets for sampling fish populations in Minnesota waters. Transactions of 
the American Fisheries Society 79:195-204. 

Data from 31 series of gill net catches were used to assess the reliability of 
standard experimental gill nets for estimating comparative size of popula- 
tions. A table showing error of means of series of net catches at the 80', pro 
bability level is included. 

225 



1955 Sport fishing trends in Minnesota. Progressive Fish-Culturist 17:136-137. 

In 1894-97, pike comprised 3.20% of the catch from seven Minnesota lakes, 
whereas in 1952, pike constituted 14.6% of the catch from six similar lakes. 
MOYLE. J. B. and C. R. BURROWS 

1954 Manual of instructions for lake survey. Minnesota Bureau of Fisheries, Fish 
Research Unit Special Publication 1:1-70. 

MOYLE. J. B. and W. D. CLOTHIER 

1959 Effects of management and winter oxygen levels on the fish population of a 
prairie lake. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 88:178-185. 
Pike were tolerant of low oxygen and survived well when levels fell to nearly 
1 ppm. Even with low winter oxygen levels, pike maintained themselves 
without stocking. 

MOYLE, J. B. and D. R. FRANKLIN 

1955 Quantitative creel census on 12 Minnesota lakes. Transactions of the Ameri- 
can Fisheries Society 85:28-38. 

Pike comprised 6.9% of the total catch for a one-year period, 28.2% of the 
total weight, and an average of 10.2 pounds per acre from the four lakes from 
which the take was principally of large predaceous fishes. 

MOYLE, J. B., J. H. KUEHN and C. R. BURROWS 

1948 Fish population and catch data from Minnesota lakes. Transactions of the 
American Fisheries Society 78:163-175. 

Pike is the most widespread and, from the viewpoint of fishery management, 
the most valuable predatory fish in Minnesota. Pike are an effective check on 
populations of yellow perch Perca flavescens. 

MOYLE, J. B. and R. LOUND 

1960 Confidence limits associated with means and medians of series of net catches. 
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 89:53-58. 

MRAZ, D. F. 

1961 Warm water fishery research. Delafield studies. Northern pike propagation 
studies. Stock ponds with northern pike and carp. Wisconsin Conservation 
Department, Dingell-Johnson Report F-61-R-l/Wk.Pl. 1 1/Job 1. 

1962a Warm water fishery research. Delafield studies. Northern pike propagation 
studies. Stock ponds with northern pike fry, adult carp and muskie finger- 
lings. Wisconsin Conservation Department, Dingell-Johnson Project F-61- 
R-2/Wk.Pl. 12/JobA:18-19 

1962b Warm water fishery research. Delafield studies. Northern pike exploitation 
studies. Tag northern pike. Wisconsin Conservation Department, Dingell- 
Johnson Report F-61-R-2/Wk.Pl. 13/Job A. 

1963 Warm water fishery research. Delafield studies. Northern pike propagation 
studies. Stock ponds with northern pike and carp. Wisconsin Conservation 
Department, Dingell-Johnson Report F-61-R-l/Wk.Pl. 1 1/Job A. 
MUENCH, B. 

1963 Length-weight relationship of eighteen species of fish in northeastern Illinois. 
Illinois Department of Conservation, unpublished MS. 

1964 The northern pike in Illinois. Illinois Department of Conservation, Fish 
Management Leaflet 29. 

MUHLEN,M. VONZUR, 

1903 Der Hecht, sein Nutzen Schaden. Grunes Korrespondenzbl. 



226 



MUIR. B.S. 

1957 Bay of Quinte sport fishery survey. Ontario Department of Lands and 

Forests, Progress Report. 
1961 Estimates of mortalities and population size for the Nogies Creek maskinonge 

(Esox masquinongy Mitehill). Ph.D. thesis. University of Toronto. 129 pp. 
MULCAHY. M. 

1970 Hemie neoplasms in eold blooded animals; lymphosarcoma in the pike Esox 

Indus. Comparative Leukemia Researeh 1969. Bibliotheea Haematologica 

36:644-645. 

General information on pike lymphosareoma. 
MULCAHY, M. F. 

1963 Lymphosareoma in the pike, Esox lucius L. (Pisees; Fsoeidae) in Ireland. 

Proeeedings of the Royal Irish Aeademy, vol. 63, seetion B(7): 103-129. 

Deseription of location and macroscopic appearance of tumours on 13 pike. 

Examination of histological sections showed all tumours to be lymphosarco- 
mas. One pike had lymphocytosis associated with the neoplastic condition. 

Attempts to isolate the virus from tumours of two pike failed. 

1969 Serum protein changes in UDN-infected Atlantic salmon. A possible method 
of diagnosis. Journal of Fish Biology 1:333-338. 

Describes the range of variation of serum protein level and electrophoretic 
pattern in healthy and diseased fish. Comparing the blood from five healthy 
and cancerous pike, the mean serum protein level of healthy pike was 4.68g% 
and 3.24g% in pike with lymphosarcoma. The serum electrophoretic pattern 
varied only slightly between the two. 

1970a Blood values in the pike Esox lucius L. Journal of Fish Biology 2:203-209. 
The ranges and mean values of haematocrit, red cell, white cell and differen- 
tial cell counts, red/white cell ratio, red cell fragilities, haemoglobin levels 
and serum protein concentrations of adult pike were measured, and the serum 
electrophoretic patterns on cellulose acetate and polyacrylamide gel are 
described and discussed. 

1970b The thymus glands and lymphosarcoma in the pike. Esox lucius (L.) in Ire- 
land. Comparative Leukaemia Research. Bibliotheea Haematologica 
36:600-609. 

Histology of the thymus gland was examined in healthy pike, in 1 1 pike with 
spontaneous lymphosarcoma, in 2 pike that were injected with ultrafiltered 
tumour homogenate, and in 5 controls. Discusses the role of thymus gland in 
lymphosarcoma development. 

1975 Fish blood changes associated with disease; a hematological study of pike 
lymphoma and salmon ulcerative dermal necrosis. In Ribelin, W. E., and G. 
Migaki, eds., The pathology of fishes. Madison, University of Wisconsin 
Press, pp. 925-944. 

1976 Epizootiological studies of lymphomas in northern pike in Ireland. Progress 
in Experimental Tumor Research 20:129-140. 

Discussion of incidence and distribution of lymphoma-bearing pike, age and 
sex ratio of neoplastic pike, and annual and seasonal incidence. 
MULCAHY, M. F. and A. O'LEARY 

1970 Cell-free transmission of lymphosarcoma in the northern pike Esox lucius L. 
(Pisces: Esocidae), summary trans, by R. B. Howland. Experientia 26:891. 



227 



In the pike, a lymphosarcoma could be transmitted using cell-free filtrate and 
therewith the virus etiology demonstrated. 
MULCAHY, M. F. and F. J. O'ROURKE 

1964a Lymphosarcoma in the pike Eso.x lucius L. in Ireland. Life Sciences 

3:719-721. 
1964b Cancerous pike in Ireland. Irish Naturalists' Journal 14:312-315. 
MULCAHY, M. F.. A. SAVAGE and N. CASEY 

1983 The leucocytes of the pike Eso.x lucius L. Irish Fisheries Investigations, Ser. 
A, 23:81-86. 
MULCAHY, M. F.. G. WINQUIST and C. J. DAWE 

1970 The neoplastic cell type in lymphoreticular neoplasms of the northern pike, 
Eso.x lucius L. Cancer Research 30:27 1 2-27 1 7. 

Morphological characteristics of lymphoreticular tumour cells are described. 
The study was based on light microscopy of sections and imprints subjected 
to selected staining and histochemical procedures and on electron microscopy 
of thin sections. 
MULLAN,J. 

1960 Walleyes, muskies and northerns. Massachusetts Wildlife 1 1(4): 17- 19. 
MULLER, H. 

1954 On pike breeding. Deutche Fischerei Zeitung 1: 101-102. 

1959 Hechtbesatz in Binnengewassern. [Pike stocking in inland waters.] Deutsche 

Fischerei Zeitung 6(3):69-73. 
1966 A practical classification of the lakes of northern Germany and its limnologi- 
cal basis. International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology 
Proceedings 16:1 145-1 160. 
MULLER, K. 

1982 Jungfischwanderungen zur Bottensee. Archiv fuer Hydrobiologie 
95(l/4):271-282. 
MUNRO, A. L. S., J. LIVERSIDGE and K. G. R. ELSON 

1976 The distribution and prevalence of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in wild 
fish in Loch Awe. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Section B, 
75:223-232. 
MUNRO, C. W. 

1921 A preliminary study of the digestive secretions of pickerel and perch. 
Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 20(269):273. 
MUNRO, W. R. 

1957 The pike of Loch Choin. Scottish Home Department, Freshwater and Salmon 
Fisheries Research 16:1-16. 

Fish population of the lake was destroyed by rotenone in October 1955; this 
permitted determination of abundance, food, sex ratio, and age at maturity. 
Length-weight relationships, growth rates, and ages (from scales) are given. 
MUNTYAN, S. P. 

1978 Some observations on the reproduction and embryonic development of five 
species of fish kept in experimental radioactive water bodies. Journal of 
Ichthyology 18:1033-1038. 

Data on the activity oi the muscles and bones of spawners. 
MURCHISON,C, ed. 

1868 Paleontological memoirs and notes of the late Hugh Falconer, A.M., M.D., 2 
vols. London, Robert Hardwicke. 

228 






MUSACCHIA. X. J.. B. J. SULLIVAN and C. G. WILBER 

1957 A comparison of liver and muscle lipids in Arctic lishcs. Copeia 1957: 10-12. 
Compares blackfish Dallia pectoralis liver cholesterol content, liver phospho- 
lipid, and total tatty acid values \\ ith those of pike. 
MYERS, B.J. 

1979 The great pike. Ontario Out of Doors. April 1979. p. 47. 
Stories of angling for pike. 
MYERS. G.S. 

1958a Trends in the evolution of teleostean tishes. Standord Ichthyological Bulletin 

7(3):27-30. 
1958b Nomenclator of certain terms used for higher categories of fishes. Stanford 
Ichthyological Bulletin 7(3):31-40. 




29 



NAGIBINA, L. F. 

1961 Parasitofauna of fish of "Novoe Vygozero" (New Vygozero Lake). In 
Petrushevskii, G. K., ed. Parasites and diseases of fish. Jerusalem. Israel Pro- 
gram for Scientific Translations, pp. 127-140. 

NANSEN, C. 

1973 The tiger muskie. Field and Stream 78(6):52, 53, 92, 94, 98. 
NASH, C. W. 

1913 Fishes. In Natural History of Toronto region, Ontario, Canada, pp. 249-271. 
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 

1965 Wondrous world of fishes. Washington, National Geographic Society, 
Natural Science Library. 367 pp. 
NAWRATIL, O. 

1954 On the biology of the pike in the Lakes Neusiedl and Atter in Austria. 
Oesterreichische Zoologische Zeitschrift 4(415):489-529. 
The pike is one of the fastest growing fishes of middle Europe (average length 
and weight in the 4th year 78 cm, 3650 g). The coefficient of condition for 
pike is given and length-weight relations are tabulated. 
NEBOLSINA, T. K. 

1956 Nerest ryb v kultuchnoi zone i avandeLte r. Volgi. [Fish spawning in the 
bayou area and in the sea off the Volga Delta.] Rybnoe Khozyaistvo 
12:53-55. 
NECKHAM, A. 

1863 De natura rerum libri duo. In Wright, T., ed., Chronicles and memorials of 
Great Britain and Ireland during the Middle Ages (Rolls Series), 34. London. 
Refers to fish and fishing in the Middle Ages; mentions pike. 
NECRASOV, O. 

1968 Sur la variabilite intraspecifique du volume de Lencephale et de la moelle au 
cours de la croissance chez les poissons. Revue Roumaine de Biologie, Serie 
deZoologie, 13:433-439. 
NEEDHAMJ.G. 

1920 Clean waters for New York State. Cornell Rural School Leaflet 13:153-182. 
1922 A biological reconnaissance of Lake George. A biological survey of Lake 
George, New York. New York State Conservation Commission, pp. 8-36. 
NEEDHAM, W. 

1720 Descriptio anatomica Lucii et Alosae. In Valentini, M. B., ed., 
Amphitheatrum zootomicum. Frankfurt, pp. 122-123. 
NEILL S. R. ST. J. and J. M. CULLEN 

1974 Experiments on whether schooling by their prey affects the hunting behavior 
of cephalopods and fish predators. Journal of Zoology (London) 
172:549-569. 

The effect of prey group size on hunting success was tested and found to 
decrease with increasing prey density. Increasing prey numbers appeared to 
cause frequent performance of acts not related to hunting in ambush preda- 
tors, including pike, therefore reducing the hunting success rate. 
NELLEN, W. 

1965 Beitrage zur Brackwasserokologie der Fische im Ostseeraum. [Contributions 
on brackish water ecology of fishes in the Baltic Sea area.] Kieler Meeres- 
forschung 21:192-198. 
This analysis of the community of fishes living in brackish waters connected 

230 



with the Baltic was based on freshwater fishes found in the northern German 

lowland. The salinity tolerance of pike was examined. 
NELSON. E. W. 

1887 Fishes. /// Henshaw, H. W., ed., Report upon natural history collections made 

in Alaska between the years 1877 and 1881 by F. W. Nelson. Washington, 

pp. 297-322. 
NELSON. G. J. 

1%°- Infraorbital bones and their bearing on the phylogeny and geography of 

osteoglossamorph fishes. American Museum Novitates 2394:1-37. 
1972 Cephalic sensory canals, pitlines, and the classification of esocoid fishes, with 

notes on galaxiids and other teleosts. American Museum Novitates 2492: 

1-49. 
NELSON. L. R. 

1983 Northern Pike {Esox lucius) and white sucker (Catostomus commersonii) 

swimming performance and passage through a step and pool fishladder. M.S. 

thesis, University of Alberta. 174 pp. 

Biological and swimming performance data collected at Driedmeat Lake and 

Steele Lake, Alberta. Observed speed in various man-made situations, and 

noted preferred hours of activity. 
NELSON, M. N. and A. D. HASLER 

1942 The growth, food, distribution and relative abundance of the fishes of Lake 
Geneva, Wisconsin, in 1941. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sci- 
ence, Arts and Letters 34:137-148. 

1943 Lake Geneva and its fishes. Wisconsin Conservation 8(7): 17-22. 
NELSON, W. R. 

1974 Age, growth, and maturity of thirteen species of fish from Lake Oahe during 
the early years of impoundment, 1963-68. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Technical Paper 77:1-29. 

Describes the body-scale relation, calculated length, length-weight relation, 
age at maturity, and sex ratio of fish caught with trap net and bottom trawl. 
As growth rate decreased, age at sexual maturity increased. Inundation of 
new lands was associated with rapid growth, but increased average reservoir 
depth was associated with decreased fish growth. 
' 1978 Implications of water management in Lake Oahe for the spawning success of 
coolwater fishes. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 11: 
154-158. 

Reviews spawning requirements for pike and three other species, since popu- 
lation trends of these species are related to changes in quantity and quality of 
spawning habitats. Recommends that minimum spring stream flows be 
assured and critical reservoir spawning areas be protected and enhanced. 

NETH, P. C. 

1978 An analysis of the International Champlain-Richelieu Board proposal for 
water level regulation in Lake Champlain. New York State Department of 
Environmental Conservation, pp. 1-62. 

A loss of more than 22% of the wetlands in the basin would adversely affect 
pike spawning to a considerable degree. 

NETSCH. N. F. 

1975 Fishery resources along the route of the Trans-Alaska pipeline between 
Yukon River and Atigun Pass in north central Alaska. U.S. Fish and Wildlife 

231 



Service Resource Publication 124:1-45. 
NEUMAN, W. F. and B. J. MULRYAN 

1968 The discrepancy in the carbonate found in fish bone and blood. Calcified Tis- 
sue Research 2:237-241. 

Just refers to the findings of Carlstrom and Glas (1959) for the bones of the 
Baltic pike. 

NEUMAYER, L. 

1895 Histologische untersuchungen uber den feineren Bau des centralnervensys- 
tems von Esox Indus mit Berucksichtigung vergleichend-Anatomischer 
verhaltnisse. Archiv fuer Mikrobiologie Anatomie 44(3):34-364. 

NEUSCH, A. 

1958 Augenentwicklung und Schlumpftermin bei Hecht und Forelle. Revue Suisse 
de Zoologie 65. 

NEVEU,G. andC. BRY 

1983 Ovulation spontanee de femelles brochets en petits etangs de maturation. In 
Billard, R., ed., Le brochet gestion dans le milieu naturel et elevage. Paris, 
Institute National de la Recherche Agronomique, pp. 77-74. 
Spontaneous ovulations were obtained in female pike stocked into small 
ponds together with forage fish several months before reproduction. This 
method may supply the pike culturist with spontaneously ovulated females in 
a dependable and efficient way. Over 3 to 5 weeks, almost all the females 
ovulate with high ovulation and fertilization rates. 

NEWBURG, H. 

1973 Statewide fisheries research. Evaluation of potential use of pulsed direct 
current electrofishing gear in some fish management activities. Minnesota 
Division of Game and Fish, Project F-26-R-3/Wk.Pl. 15:1-19. 
Unaltered and pulsed direct current boat-mounted electrofishing gear was 
evaluated for estimation of pike abundance in potential winter rescue areas. 

NEWDICK,J. 

1979 The complete freshwater fishes of the British Isles. London, A. & C. Black. 

NEW YORK DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 

1969 Fish and Fishing in New York. Albany, Division of Conservation Education, 
37 pp. 

NICHOLS, J. T. and V. HEILNER 

1920 World's record catches with rod and reel and otherwise of fifty N.A. popular 
fish and salt water fishes. Field and Stream, July 1920, pp. 268-269. 

NICHOLSON, D. 

1932 Diphyllobothhum infection in Esox Indus. Canadian Journal of Research 
6:166-170. 

The heaviest infections were in summer-caught, and small to medium-sized 
pike. Suggests the infection probably occurs annually in early summer and 
that the larvae die and disintegrate after a period of development 

NIENSTEDT, W., I. NIENSTEDT and J. MANNISTO 

1981 Metabolism of testosterone and progesterone by gastrointestinal tissues of the 
pike (Esox Indus). General and Comparative Endocrinology 43: 148-156. 
The two hormones were incubated with homogenates of liver and of eso- 
phageal, gasjric, and intestinal mucose. The metabolism in the intestinal and 
hepatic samples was almost identical both qualitatively and quantitatively and 
more active than that in the esophageal and gastric samples. 

232 



NIGRELLI. R. F. 

1947 Spontaneous neoplasma in fishes. 3. Lymphosarcoma in Astyanax and Esox. 

Zoologica 32: 101-109. 
1953 Tumors and other atypical cell growth in temperate freshwater fishes of North 
America. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 83:262-296. 
Mentions Nigrelli's 1943 report of an adenoma in the kidney of a pike. 
\IK WOROV. Y. I. 

1962 Ob ulovakh shchuki v ozere Seliger. [On the catches o\' pike in Lake Seliger.] 
Izvestiya Gosudarstvennogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Ozernogo i 
Rechnogo Rybnogo Kho/.vaistva 15:53-34. 

As a result of intensive fishing, the supplies of pike sharply declined. Data 
for the catches of I960 show that the spawning stock of pike was dominated 
by younger age groups. For increasing the abundance of pike, fish conserva- 
tion measures and artificial rearing are recommended. 

NIK1TINA. A. G. 

1958 Growth and development of pike in L. Syamo/ero during the first year of life. 
Ich. Zap. Leningr. Gos. Ped.In-ta im. A. I. Gertsena, 143. 

NIKOLSKI.G.W. 

1957 Spezielle Fischkunde. VEB Deutscher Verlag Der Wissenschafter, Verling. 
632 pp. 

MKOLSKII.G. V. 

1961 Special ichthyology, 2nd ed. Israel Program for Scientific Translations. 
National Science Foundation and Smithsonian Institute. 538 pp. 
Lists characteristics of the Esociformes and discusses origin and taxonomic 
position. A chart shows growth rate in various reservoirs. 

MKOLSKII.G. V. 

1969 Theory of fish population dynamics as the biological background for national 
exploitation and management of fishery resources. Edinburgh, Oliver & 
Boyd. 

NIKOLSKY. G. 

1946 Investigations on the subfossil freshwater fishes in the Soviet Union. Copeia 
1946:24-26. 

Reduction in mean length resulting from exploitation is marked among many 
of the species represented in the collections. Remains of many fish including 
pike in the Desna River included specimens much larger in size than are 
found in the same waters today. Distribution, growth rate, and even age com- 
position were different 2,000 years ago. 

NIKOLSKY. G. V. 

1963 The ecology of fishes, trans, by L. Birkett. London, Academic Press. 352 pp. 
NIKOLYUKIN.N. I. 

1935 Uber Kreuzungsversuche an Knochenfischen. Zoologischer Anzeiger 

1 1 2( 1 1 — 1 2):305— 3 1 8. 
1963 Ein versuch zur Ausnutzung von Hybriden zwischen Hausen und Sterlet als 

wirtschriftsobjekt in Strauseen. Rybno Khozyaistvo 39(2):32-34. 
NILSSON. D. 

1921 Nagra insjofiskars alder .och tillvaxt i Bottniska viken och Malaren. 

Meddelelser LantbrStyr., Stockholm, 231. 



233 



NILSSON, N.-A. 

1967 Interactive segregation between fish species. In Gerking, S. D., ed., The bio- 
logical basis of freshwater fish production. IBP Symposium, Reading, 1966, 
pp. 295-313. 
NISSINEN,T. 

1965a Gaddmarkningar i norra savolax. Meddelanden fran Byran for fiskeneko- 

nomiska undersotningar 1:10-16. 
1965b Tagging of northern pike in northern Savo. Kalataloudellisen tutkimustoimis- 
ton tiedonantoja 1:9-15. 

1971 Hauen kasvusta vaelluksista ja kalastuksesta Ouluvarvella suoritettujen mer- 
kintakokeiden valossa. [The growth and migration of the pike and pike 
fishing in Lake Oulujarvi in the light of marking tests.] Kalataloudellisen tut- 
kimustoimiston tiedonantoja 1:6-16. 

A total of 531 pike were aged, weighed, marked and released over two 
winters. Recapture data provided information on seasonal fishing intensity 
and migration. 

NITSKANSKII, S.G. 

1961 Pitanie i temp rosta shchuki, okunya i soma iz poimennykh oser r. Prut. 
[Feeding and growth rate of pike, perch, and Silurus from the floodplain lakes 
of the Prut River). Trudy Kishinevskogo SePskokhozyaistvennogo Instituta 
25:187-192. 

Analysis of commercial catches were done in connection with the use of the 
flood plain for carp Cyprinus carpio rearing. Predaceous fish comprised 20% 
of the catch. Feeding intensity and growth rate for these fish was considered 
to be low. 

NOGUSASHY, S. 

1960 A comparative study of the chromosomes in fishes with particular considera- 
tions on taxonomy and evolution. Memoirs of the Hyogo University of Agri- 
culture 3:1-62. 

NOLAND, W. E. 

195 1 The hydrography, fish, and turtle population of Lake Wingra. Transactions of 
the Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 40(2):5-58. 

NOMURA, S., T. IBARAKI, H. HIROSE and S. SHIRAHATA 

1972 Applications of back-pack cardiotelemeter for fishes. I. Heart rate and car- 
diac reflex in fishes during unrestrained swimming. Bulletin of the Japanese 
Society of Scientific Fisheries 38:1 105-1 1 17. 

NONNOTTE, G. 

1981 Cutaneous respiration in six freshwater teleosts. Comparative Biochemistry 
and Physiology, A, 70:541-543. 

An investigation of the oxygen consumption of excised skin and normal 
cutaneous oxygen uptake in situ. Uptake from the external medium was less 
than cutaneous oxygen consumption in pike, so the skin is not an oxygen 
exchanger for the benefit of other organs. 
NORDQUIST, H. 

1940 Preliminara resultat av gaddodlingsforsok. Skrifter Sodra Sveriges Fiskeri- 
forening Lund 1939(2):39-49. 
NORMAN, JR. 

1930 The emperor's pike: a fish story. Natural History Magazine 2(14): 177-1 81. 
Accounts in historical literature and paintings about a pike tagged and 

234 



released by Frederick the Second and recaptured 267 years later. Points out 

discrepancies in the literature. 
NORRIS.T. 

1S64 American angler's book, new ed. Philadelphia, Porter and Coates. 701 pp. 

A 19th century book on angling which mentions giant pike in Europe. 
NORTH. E. 

1980 The effects of water temperature and flow upon angling success in the River 
Severn. Fisheries Management 11:1-9. 

NOSAL. A. 

1961 Opyt razvedenija scuki na Ukraine. Rybovod. Rybolov. 4(4):23-24. 

NOWAK.W. 

1971 Eksploatacja rybacka i poloxy szczupaka w jeziorze Dargin. [Fishing exploi- 
tation and catches of pike in Lake Dargin]. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych, Seria 
H, Rybactwo. 93(4):87-102. [in Polish, English summary] 
An analysis of the number of pike in Lake Dargin carried out on the basis of 
catches by selected gear, 1953-62. The pike population dropped during the 
consecutive years, as shown by the increasing catches of pike >3 kg and by 
the decrease in effort needed to catch 1 kg of pike. 

NUHI. A. and Y. KHORASANI 

1981 Bacterial pollution indicators in the intestinal tract of various fish species liv- 
ing in Amir-Kolayeh Lagoon, Iran. Zentralblatt fuer Bakteriologie Parasiten- 
kunde Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene Zweite Naturwissenschaftliche 
Abteilung Mikrobiologie der Landwirtschaft der Technologie und des 
Unweltschutzes 1 36:566-57 1 . 

NUORTEVA. P.. M. LODENIUS and S.-L. NUORTEVA 

1979 Decrease in the mercury levels of Esox lucius (L.) and Abr amis far enus (L.) 
(Teleostei) in the Hameenkyro watercourse after the phenylmercury ban in 
Finland. Aquilo 19:97-100. 

NURNBERGER. P. K. 

1930 The plant and animal food of the fishes of Big Sandy Lake. Transactions of 
the American Fisheries Society 60:253-259. 

A report of the food and parasites found in the stomachs and intestines of 52 
pike, 62-620 mm in length. 

NURSALL. J. R. 

1973 Some behavioral interactions of spottail shiners {Notropis hudsonius), yellow 
perch (Perca flavescens), and northern pike (Esox lucius). Journal of the 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada 30:1 161-1 178. 

The species studied show a range of gregariousness from the solitary pike, the 
facultative schools of perch, to the obligate schooling of spottail shiners. Pike 
are described as lone, opportunistic predators whose hunting technique com- 
bines motionlessness, axial tracking, and lunging. Prey may be swallowed 
head first, tail first, or sideways. 

NURSALL. J. R. and M. E. PINSENT 

1969 Aggregations of spottail shiners and yellow perch. Journal of the Fisheries 
Research Board of Canada 26:1672-1676. 
Pike prey from below the aggregations. 

NYBLLIN.O. 

1943 Vara riskbar. [Our fishes.] Stockholm, Albert Bonniers. 83 pp. 

General text of Swedish fishes, which briefly discusses distribution. 

235 



taxonomy, life history, behaviour, food, and growth of the pike family. 

NYBERG. P. 

1979 Produetion and food consumption of perch Perca fluviatilis in two Swedish 
forest lakes. Institute of Freshwater Research Drottningholm Report 
58:140-157. 

NYGREN, A., P. EDLUND, U. HIRSCH and L. AHSGREN 

1968 Cytological studies in perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), pike (Esox lucius L.), pike- 
perch {Lucioperca lucioperca L.) and ruff {Acerina cernua L.). Hereditas 
59(2/3 ):5 18-524. 

Chromosome number (2n = 50) was determined in adult pike from Sweden. 
Polyploid mitosis was formed in the testis and kidney tissue and these cells 
may contain over 1000 chromosomes. Bivalents are formed only during 
meiosis and in polyploid meiotic cells bivalents alone are formed. 

NYSTROM. M. 

1979 Histological changes in some organs in pike with skin tumours. A prelim- 
inary study. Proceedings of the 9th Symposium of the Scandinavian Society 
for Parasitology, Turku, 1979. Institute of Parasitology Abo Akademi, Fin- 
land. 
1982 Skin tumours of pikes in the archipelagoes of southern Finland. Skargard 
5(1):25-31. [in Swedish] 



236 



OATIS. P. H. and J. G. LINDENBERG 

1979 The role of northern pike in Massachusetts inland sport fisheries. /// Dubc. J., 
and Y. Gravel, eds., Proceedings of the 10th Warmwater Workshop. Special 
Publication NL Division of the American Fisheries Society. Montreal, Que 
bee Ministere du Loisir, de la Chasse et de la Peche, pp. 195-200. 
In addition to natural reproduction, pike have been stocked as yearlings to 
help satisfy angler demand. East of the Berkshires, the survival of pike fry or 
spawn appeared inhibited but suggests methods to assure consistent supplies 
of pike. 

OBER. R. D. 

1976 Food habits o\' northern pike, Esox Indus Linnaeus, black bullheads, htalurus 
melas (Rafinesque), and white bass, Morone chrysops (Ratinesque), in Lake 
Ashtabula, North Dakota. M.S. thesis. University of North Dakota. 95 pp. 

OBERSZTYN, A. 

1953 The resorption of the teeth of the pike {Esox Indus). Folia Morphologica 
4(1 ):3 1-48. 

The resorption of pike teeth can be differentiated by three periods: A prelim- 
inary one in which the author observed the appearance of free reticular cells 
in the osteodentin channels. In the second period osteoclasts lay at the walls 
of the hole that was formed by resorption of the middle part of the dentin by 
osteoclasts. In the third period the joint of the tooth with the bone is des- 
troyed and the tooth stays loosely in the soft tissues. 

OCVIRK.J. 

1982 Slovenske kapitalne ribe. (The largest specimen of the Slovenian freshwater 
fish.] Ichthyos 2:31-34. 

Gives lists of length, weight, date of catch, river, and fisherman for 17 Slo- 
venian freshwater fish species caught from 1964 to 1982. 
1984 Dinamika rasti Scuke (Esox Indus Linnaeus 1758) v Jezeru Vrana. Otok 
Cres. [Growth dynamics of pike (Esox Indus Linnaeus (1758)) in Lake 
Vrana, Island Cres.] Ichthyos 2: 1 1-17. 

The growth dynamics of pike in Lake Vrana was established on the basis of 
measurements of 206 pike caught from 1974 to 1978. The sex ratio, length, 
and weight of pike are shown and compared with growth dynamics of pike 
from Mrtva Tisa. 

ODELL. T. T. 

1931 Lakes of the Oswegatchie and Black River systems. /// A biological survey 
of the Oswegatchie and Black River systems, Supplement to the 21st Annual 
Report 6:94-1 19. 

1932 The depth distribution of certain species of fish in some of the lakes o\ New 
York. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 62:331-335. 
Fifty-eight pike were collected in 35 of 277 net sets. Of these, 51 were 
between and 15 feet deep. 

ODENING. K. 

1974 On the species question in the trematode genus Azygia from European pike. 

Angewandte Parasitologic 15(1):5-10. 
1976 The life cycle of Azygia lucii trematoda in Last Germany Biologiske Zentral- 

blatt 95( 1 ):57-94. 



237 



ODENING, K. and I. BOCKHARDT 

1976 On the seasonal occurrence of Azygia lucii Trematoda in Esox lucius Pisces. 
Zoologischer Anzeiger 1 96: 1 82- 1 88. 

The transmission and infection by pike of various ages is discussed. 
ODENWALL, E. 

1927 Fiskfaunan i Lappajarvi sjo. Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 
56(13): 1-48. 
OEHMCKE, A. and K. WALKER 

1969 Temperature control in northern pike and muskellunge Qgg hatching. 
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Fish Management Report, 
unpublished MS. 
OEHMCKE, A. A. 

1949 Muskellunge fingerling culture. Progressive Fish-Culturist 11:3-18. 

Compares muskellunge growth with that reported for pike by Carbine (1942), 
and concludes that they are similar, but after 141 mm, muskellunge reared in 
ponds grow faster than pike. 
1951 Muskellunge yearling culture and its application to lake management. Pro- 
gressive Fish-Culturist 13:63-70. 
OEHMCKE, A. A., L. JOHNSON, J. KLINGBIEL and C. WISTROM 

1965 The Wisconsin muskellunge, its life history, ecology, and management. 
Wisconsin Conservation Department Publication 225:1-12. 
Contrasts and compares various aspects of life history of muskellunge with 
that of pike. 
OGRADY, M.F. 

1983 An estimate of the standing crop of adult pike (Esox lucius L.) in Lough 
Sheelin, 1977-1979. Journal of Life Sciences, pp. 191-194. 
OHLMER, W. and I. SCHWARTZKOPFF 

1959 Schwimmgeschwin dig keiten von Fischen aus stehenden Binnengewassern. 
Naturwissenschaften 46:362-363. 
OHMONO, Y., V. M1ETT1NEN, E. BLANKENSTEIN, M. TILLANDER, K. RISSANEN and 
J. K. MIETTINEN 

1969 Studies on the distribution of 203 Hg-labelled methyl mercury and phenyl 
mercury in pike. 5th Radioactivity in Scandinavia Symposium, Helsinki. 
OIKARI, A. 

1975a Hydro mineral balance in some brackish water teleosts after thermal acclima- 
tion particularly at temperatures near zero. Annales Zoologici Fennici 
12:215-229. 
1975b Seasonal changes in plasma and muscle hydro mineral balance in three Baltic 
teleosts with special reference to the thermal response. Annales Zoologici 
Fennici 12:230-236. 
1978 Ionic and osmotic balance in the pike, Esox lucius L., in fresh and brackish 
water. Annales Zoologici Fennici 15:84-88. 

Plasma Na, CI, and Mg concentrations are maintained at higher levels in 
brackish than in fresh water. Concentrations increased and blood glucose and 
tissue water concentrations decreased during 4-day exposure to a slightly 
hyperosmotic medium. Blood mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, 
a rough index of circulatory red cell volume, increased in pike exposed to 
slightly hypcrosomatic and Mg supplemented brackish water. 



238 



OIKARI, A. and A. SOIVIO 

1975 Influence of sampling methods and anesthetization on various hematological 
parameters of several teleosts. Aquaculture 6:171-1 80. 

1977 Physiological condition of fish exposed to water containing pulp and paper 
industry wastes and sewage. /// Alabaster, J. S., ed., Biological monitoring of 
inland fisheries. Proceedings of a symposium of the European Inland 
Fisheries Advisory Commission, Helsinki, 1976. London, Applied Science, 
pp. 89-96. 
OLIPHAN. L. V. 

1940 Diurnal rhythms in the respiration of fish larvae. Doklady Akademii Nauk 
SSSR 29:620-623. 
OLIVA, O. 

1956 K biologii stiky (Esox lucius L.). [To the biology of the pike (Esox Indus 
L.).| Vestnik Ceskoslovenske Zoologicke Spolecnosti 20:208-223. 
A study of the biology of the pike in some experimental small natural ponds. 
Age was determined by the scale method. Gives body-scale relationship, 
time of annulus formation, back-calculated lengths, and sexual maturity. 

1960 Jeste k. metode odhadu velikosti rybi osadky. [Some further remarks on the 
methods of estimating fish populations.] Vestnik Ceskoslovenske Zoologicke 
Spolecnosti 24:105-129. 

The fish population of the River Labe was studied using mark-recapture and 
the Schnabel method. Pike was an important species in the study. 

1965 The myodome in pike, Esox lucius Linnaeus. Vestnik Ceskoslovenske Zoolo- 
gicke Spolecnosti 3:256-258. 

Two myodomes or eye muscle canals occur in pike, the anterior (with two 
obliqui muscles) and the posterior (with rectus externus muscle only). The 
posterior myodome is closed by basioccipital bone. 
OLIVA. O. and A. S. NAIKSATAM 

1979 Note on growth of some fishes from the River Dunajec. Vestnik Ceskoslo- 
venske Zoologicke Spolecnosti 43:278-282. 

Growth from scales was studied in pike captured in a fish ladder of the 
Roznow Valley water reservoir. 
OLSSON,G. 

1975 Gaddans predation pa nyutsatt lax- och havsoringsmolt i Angermanalven. 
Fiskeriintendenten i nedre norra distriktet, Harnosand. 3 pp. 

OLSSON, M. 

1976 Mercury level as a function of size and age in northern pike 1 and 5 years 
after the mercury ban in Sweden. Ambio 5(2):73-76. 

Pike were collected in 1968 and 1972 in Lake Marmen, downstream from a 
papermill. The correlation was studied between mercury levels and different 
size parameters of specimens, considering sex and age classes. 
OLSSON, M. and S. JENSEN 

1975 Pike as the test organism for mercury, DDT and PCB pollution. A study of 
the contamination in the Stockholm Archipelago. Institute of Freshwater 
Research Drottningholm Report 54:83-106. 

Pike was shown to be a suitable organism for studying pollution patterns in 
areas contaminated by bioaccumulating substances. High levels of mercury, 
DDT, and PCB substances in pike from one of two island lakes in the prevail 
ing wind direction from Stockholm indicate airborne fallout. Differences in 

239 



the degree of contamination may be explained by the level of biomass and 
rate of the water exchange in the lake. 
OMAND, D. N. 

1950 A population estimate based on catch-effort statistics. Canadian Fish- 
Culturist 6:15-19. 

Pike were collected in O'Reilly Lake during a study of smallmouth bass 
Micropterus dolomieu planting. 
OMAROV, O. P. and O. A. POPOVA 

1985 Feeding behavior of pike, Esox lucius, and catfish, Silurus glanis, in the 
Arakum Reservoirs of Dagestan. Journal of Ichthyology 25:25-36. 
The daily, monthly, and annual rations of pike were determined and the quan- 
tity of various organisms eaten by a single predator during the year was 
examined. Pike in the Arakum reservoirs mainly prey on low value species 
and are valuable components of the ecosystem. 
O'NEILL. R. H. 

1932 We looked for trout and caught pike. Rod and Gun in Canada. 
ONTARIO DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 

1953 Some age and growth rates of Ontario northern pike (Esox lucius). Fish and 
Wildlife Management Report 10. 

The scale method is considered to be accurate to within one or two years for 
Ontario pike. Growth rate varies in different waters. 
OPUSZYNSKI. K. 

1979 Podstawy biologii ryb. [Bases of fish biology.] Warsaw, PWRiL. 589 pp. 
ORGAN, W. 

1960 Manitoba pike are no pikers. Rod and Gun, June 1960, pp. 14-15. 
ORLOVA, E. L. 

1976 Feeding habits of predatory fishes in the outer delta of the Volga. Hydrobio- 
logical Journal 12(2):41-47. 
ORLOVA, E. L. and G. K. AZHIGALIYEVA 

1984 Food availability and growth of pike in the Volga Delta. Hydrobiological 
Journal 20:26-31. 

Relationships are established for the annual ration and annual consumed 
amount of roach Rutilus rutilus, and also for an annual gain in weight and 
annual ration. The intensive roach consumption in spring enhances the pike 
growth in length, and the autumn feeding favours mainly gain in weight. 
ORLOVA, E. L. and O. A. POPOVA 

1976 The feeding of predatory fish, the sheatfish, Silurus glanis, and the pike, Esox 
lucius, in the Volga Delta following regulation of the discharge of the river. 
Journal of Ichthyology 16:75-87. 

Over a period of 25 years spawning and feeding conditions of the predator 
changed because of changes in the hydrologic regime of the delta with regula- 
tion of the discharge of the river. A redistribution of the predators occurred, 
as well as a change in species composition of their prey, feeding rhythm, size 
of annual ration, and a decrease in abundance of pike. 
ORME, L. E. 

1978 The status of coolwater fish diets. American Fisheries Society Special Publi- 
cation 11:1,67-171. 

Seven diets were formulated specifically for coolwater fish and tested. Pike 
fry did not start on the dry feeds. Pike-muskellunge hybrids readily accepted 

240 



all feeds with good survival and are fed them on a production scale. 
ORSKA. J. 

Anomalies in the vertebral columns of the pike {Eso.x Indus L.). Aeta Biolo- 

gica Cracoviensia, Series Zoologia 5:327-345. 
ORTENBURGER. A. I. and C. L. HUBBS 

1926 A report on the fishes of Oklahoma with descriptions of new genera and 
speeies. Proceedings o\' the Oklahoma Academy oi Science 5: 1 23- 141. 

OSBORN, T. C, D. B. ERNST and D. H. SCHUPP 

1981 The effects of water levels and other factors on walleye and northern pike 
reproduction and abundance in Rainy and Namakan reservoirs. Minnesota 
Department of Natural Resources, Investigational Report 374:1-46. 

OSBORNE. P. J. and F. W. SHOTTON 

1968 The fauna of the channel deposit of early Saalian age at Brandon, 
Warwickshire. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 
B, Biological Sciences 254(796):4 17-424. 

OSBL'RN.R.C. 

1901 The fishes of Ohio. Ohio Academy of Science Special Paper 4: 1-105. 
OTTE. E. 

1969 Mykobakterielle Infektionen bei Fischen-Erreger und ihre Beurteilung. 
Zeitschrift fuer Fischerei 17(5/7):5 15-546. 

OTTERSTROM. C. V. 

1927 Geddespesten. Ferskvandsfiskbl. 25(6): 13- 16. 

1928 Die Hechtpest in Danemark. Allgemeine Fischerei-Zeitung 53(20):3 1 2—3 13. 
OTTO, C. 

1979 The effects on a pike (Eso.x lucius L.) population of intensive fishing in a 
south Swedish lake. Journal of Fish Biology 15:461-468. 
During 7 years of intensive fishing, the average individual size of pike caught 
declined progressively until the last year of the study. Three phases could be 
identified: 1) a high proportion of large fish; 2) a high proportion of small 
fish; and 3) equal numbers of large and small fish. The growth of the dif- 
ferent year classes in their first year of life increased from 1 80 to 220 mm. 
OWMAN. C. and C. RUDEBERG 

1970 Light microscopic, fluorescence microscopic and electron microscopic studies 
on the pineal organ of the pike Esox lucius with special regard to 5-hydroxy- 
tryptamine. Zeitschrift fuer Zellforschung und Mikroskopische Anatomic 
107:522-550. 



241 



PAASIVIRTA. J., J. SAERKKA. K. SURMA-AHO, T. HUMPPI, T. KUOKKANEN and 

M. MARTTINEN 

1983 Food chain enrichment of organochlorine compounds and mercury in clean 
and polluted lakes of Finland. Chemosphere 12:239-252. 
Lakes polluted by pulp mill and urban wastes including chlorobleaching of 
pulp, semipolluted lakes, and reference lakes in nearly natural conditions in 
central Finland were studied for contents of mercury, methyl mercury, and 
organichlorine compounds in sediment, plankton, roach Rutilus rutilus and 
pike. 

PAASIVIRTA, J., J. SAERKKAE, M. AHO, K. SURMA-AHO, J. TARHANEN and A. ROOS 
1981 Recent trends of biocides in pikes of the Lake Paeijaenne. Chemosphere 
10:405-414. 

Pike were sampled in May 1980 from three areas of the lake and analysed for 
their contents of total mercury, methyl mercury, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 
DDE, PCB, and chlorophenolic residues. Results were compared to levels 
seen in 1970 from the same three areas. 

PAETZ, M. J. and J. S. NELSON 

1970 The fishes of Alberta. Edmonton, Queen's Printer. 282 pp. 
PAGEAU, G., Y. GRAVEL and V. LEGENDRE 

1979 Distribution and value of the Esocidae in Quebec waters. In Dube, J., and Y. 
Gravel, eds., Proceedings of the 10th Warmwater Workshop, Special Publica- 
tion NE Division of the American Fisheries Society. Montreal, Quebec Min- 
istere du Loisir, de la Chasse et de la Peche, pp. 1-7. 

Value of pike is described briefly in terms of sports fishing, commercial 
fishing, management, and regulations. 
PAGEAU, G., Y. GRAVEL and L. LEVESQUE 

1971 The ichthyofauna and flora of Lake St. Louis on the St. Lawrence River near 
Montreal, Quebec; general features and recent changes. Proceedings of the 
14th Conference on Great Lakes Research, 1971. International Association 
for Great Lakes Research, pp. 79-89. 

Accelerated changes that occurred in the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River 
over the past 30 years have affected Lake St. Louis. The major modifying 
agents have been pollution, Seaway construction, regional warming of the cli- 
mate, and the perturbation of biological competition. Increased fertility may 
have led to an increase in individuals and species, but game fish populations 
have shown a net reduction. 

PALMIERU. R. 

1975 Physiological strains of the strigeoid trematode Posthodiplostmum minimum 
Trematoda Diplostomatidae. Journal of Parasitology 61: 1 107. 

PALOHEIMO, J. E. 

1958 A method of estimating natural and fishing mortalities. Journal of the 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada 15:749-758. 

PANCHENKO, S. E. 

1972 O nakoplenii pestitsidov v rybe. [On the accumulation of pesticides in fish.] 
Rybnoe Khozyaistvo 12:31-32. 

Accumulation of organichlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in fish liv- 
ing in Karpievskii Firth was studied. Accumulation occurs even if pesticide 
does not exceed 0.05 mg/1, and may lower reproductive capacity. 



242 



PAPAS, T. S., J. DAHLBERG and R. A. SONSTEGARD 

1976 Type C virus in lymphosarcoma in northern pike (Esox lucius). Nature 
261(5560):506-508. 

Outlines the method for detecting reverse transcriptase, an enzyme present in 
all known RNA tumour viruses. The enzyme was found in cancerous pike 
but not healthy ones. Due to the seasonal nature of the disease, a temperature 
profile of enzyme activity was done. 
PAPAS, T. S., M. SHAFFER, T. PRY and R. A. SONSTEGARD 

1977 DNA polymerase in lymphosarcoma in northern pike (Esox lucius). Cancer 
Research 37:3214-3217. 

This study characterized the lymphosarcoma enzyme and compared its 
biochemical properties with those associated with neoplasia in mammals and 
birds. 
PARAGAMIAN. V. L. 

1976 Population characteristics of northern pike in the Plover River, Wisconsin. 
Progressive Fish-Culturist 38:160-163. 

Population size, standing stock, growth, K-factors, total annual mortality, and 
survival of pike were determined. 
PARISI.G. 

1968 Biochemistry of oxidative phenomena in the arteries. Quaderni di Anatomia 
Pratica 24:108-122. 
PARSONS, R. F. 

n.d. The limnology and fish biology of Ten Mile Lake, Labrador. Resource 
Development Branch, Newfoundland Region, Technical Report Series 
NEW/T-75-3. 

Pike was one of the seven species collected during the summer of 1974. 
Chemical and physical parameters of the lake were measured. 
PASTUSZYNSKU. 

1966 Hodowla narybku szczupaka w stawach karpiowych. [Breeding of pike 
fingerlings in carp ponds], Gospodarka rybna 1 8(4): 1 1-13. 
Requirements for fish production in ponds, also autumn pike. Prospects for 
the development of such production. 
PATERSON. R. J. 
• 1968 The pike population. In The lake trout of Swan Lake, Alberta. Alberta 

Recreation. Parks and Wildlife, Fisheries Research Report 2:88-96. 
PATRIARCHE. M. H. 

1963 Research and management of sport fisheries of Michigan. Northern Michigan 
fish population investigations. Study of lakes subject to extreme oxygen 
depletion. Michigan Department of Conservation, Dingell-Johnson Report 
F-27-R-l/Wk.P1.6/Job9. 
1966 Research and management of sport fisheries of Michigan. Study of lakes sub- 
ject to extreme oxygen depletion. Michigan Department of Conservation. 
Dingell-Johnson Project F-19-R-6 and F-27-R-4, Job No. 9(7/1/60-6/30/63) 
and 7(7/1/63-6/30/66). 

In 1959 pike were stocked in Grebe Lake to evaluate their survival potential 
under low oxygen conditions. Tested several techniques to prevent severe 
oxygen depletion beneath the ice in Lodge Lake. 
1968 Warmwater fish biology and population ecology. Artificial manipulation of a 
northern pike population in a lake. Michigan Department of Conservation. 

243 



Dingell-Johnson Project F-29-R-2, Job 7: 1-7. 

Calculated pike population and production in Grebe Lake, and tested the 

application of a mathematical model for maximum sustained production. 

1971 Controlled harvest of northern pike in a lake closed to angling. Michigan 
Department of Natural Resources, Dingell-Johnson Project F-29-R-4, No. 
7:71-72. 
PATRIARCHE, M. H. and H. COWING 

1961 Northern Michigan tish population investigations. Study of lakes subject to 
extreme oxygen depletion. Michigan Department of Conservation, Dingell- 
Johnson Report F-19-R-l/Job 9. 

1962a Northern Michigan fish population investigations. Evaluation of population 
manipulation on angling success and growth. Michigan Department of Con- 
servation, Dingell-Johnson Report F-19-R-2/Job 10. 

1962b Northern Michigan fish population investigations. Study of lakes subject to 
extreme oxygen depletion. Michigan Department of Conservation, Dingell- 
Johnson Report F-19-R-2/Job 9. 
PATRIARCHE, M. H. and J. W. MERNA 

1970 A resume of the winterkill problem. /// Schneberger, E., ed., A symposium 
on the management of midwestern winterkill lakes. North Central Division, 
American Fisheries Society, Special Publication, pp. 7-17. 

PATRICK, B. and R. HAAS 

1971 Finpulling as a technique for marking muskellunge hngerlings. Progressive 
Fish-Culturist 33:1 16-1 18. 

PATTERSON, R. R. 

1971 Statewide fisheries investigations. Establishment of breeding populations of 

northern pike in Alamagordo, Ute, Conchas, and Elephant Butte reservoirs 

from fry and fingerling releases. New Mexico Department of Game and Fish, 

Project F-22-R-12/Wk.PI. C/Job4:l-3. 

Stocking fry was 100% unsuccessful. Fingerling stocking did appear to have 

some merit. 
PAUL, A. 

1980 Knochenfunde aus dem mittelalterlich-neuzeitlichen Lubeck (Grabung 
Konigstrasse 59-63). Lubecker Schriften zur Archaeologie und Kultur- 
geschichte 2:7-104. 

Excavated remains of three pike from earliest (12th century) stratum. 
PAVLOV, D. S.. A. D. MACHEK and S. N. KAPUSP1N 

1981 Daytime distribution of fish in a river based on underwater observations. 
Voprosy Ikhtiologii 21:177-180. 

PEACH. U. A. and V. A. REMOROV. eds. 

1977 Motor and secretary function of gastrointestinal tract of fishes other than in 
digestion. Conference on the Ecology of Fish, 1967. Indian National 
Scientific Documentation Centre, New Delhi, pp. 339-350. 

PEARCE. W. A. 

1961 The upper St. Lawrence River ice fishery. New York Fish and Game Journal 
8(l):32-36. 

Pike was the primary species fished during the winters of 1958-59 and 
1959-60. Gives information on fishing pressure, catch per unit effort, ratio of 
males to females. There was no indication of overharvest of pike. 



244 



PEARSE. A. S. 

1922 Distribution and food of the fishes of Green Lake. Wisconsin, in summer. 
Bulletin o\' the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries 37:253-272. 

PEARSE. A. S. and H. ACHTENBERG 

1918 Habits of yellow perch in Wisconsin lakes. Bulletin of the U.S. Bureau of 
Fisheries 36:295-366. 

PEARSON, J. 

1980 Migration of northern pike into tributaries of an Indiana watershed. Indiana 
Department o\' Natural Resources. Division o( Fish and Wildlife, Fisheries 
Section. 9 pp. 

Determined the spawning areas and migratory routes of pike in the Elkhart 
River and its tributaries. Management proposals concerning population sur- 
veys, tagging, and stocking are listed. 

PEARSON, W. D. and L. A. KRUMHOLZ 

1984 Distribution and status of Ohio River fishes. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 
Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 401pp. 

PECHA. O. 

1983 Methodes de production d'oeufs embryonnes et alevins a vesicule resorbee de 
brochet {Esox Indus L.) a Lecloserie de Tabor en Tchecoslavaquie. /// Bil- 
lard, R., ed., Le brochet gestion dans le milieu nature] et elevage. Paris, Insti- 
tute National de la Recherche Agronomique. 37 1 pp. 

Describes techniques used by the Tabor hatchery, which produces 20 million 
eyed eggs annually and as many sac fry. 

PECHKURENKOV. V. L. and G. L. POKROVSKAYA 

1978 On the correspondence of data on the incubation of fish eggs in solution of 
strontium-90 — yttrium-90 of varying activity under laboratory conditions and 
natural waters. Journal of Ichthyology 18:995-1002. 

Dose load determined by levels of radionuclide accumulation by developing 
egg, silting up of egg, and radionuclide accumulation in ooze; involved 
correction coefficients for egg sizes. 

PECHKURENKOV, V. L.. I. A. SHEKHANOVA and I. G. TELYSHEVA 

1972 The effect of chronic small dose irradiation on the embryonic development of 
fishes and the validity of various assessment methods. Journal of Ichthyology 
12:71-79. 

Studied the effect of four radionuclides on pike and found that the 
Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was best but were unable to establish the effect of 
radionuclides in this study. 
PECK. J. W. 

1974 Migration, food habits, and predation on yearling coho salmon in a Lake 
Michigan tributary and bay. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 
103:10-14. 
PECKHAM.R. 

1968 Spawning techniques for northern pike in Nebraska. /// Proceedings of the 

North Central Warmwater Fish Culture Workshop, Ames. pp. 18-20. 
1970 Northern pike management in Pelican Lake, Cherry County. Nebraska Game 
and Parks Commission, unpublished report, 9 pp. 
PECKHAM. R. D. 

1973 Annual progress report for Study G-III-E lake and stream investigations. 
Evaluation of interior Alaska waters and sport fish with emphasis on managed 

245 



lakes. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Sport Fish, 
14:18-47. 

Harding Lake was test netted from June 8-2 1 to determine abundance of pike 
spawners in potential spawning habitat and to evaluate gill nets as a possible 
means of control. Only 1 1 pike were captured in 215 net hours; 8 were ripe 
males, 3 were spent females, indicating that spawning had occurred while the 
lake was still ice-covered. Also gives catch per net hour and stomach con- 
tents of 33 pike. 
PECOR, C. H. 

1978 Intensive culture of tiger muskellunge in Michigan during 1976 and 1977. 
American Fisheries Society Special Publication 1 1:202-209. 

The pike-muskellunge hybrid was reared intensively on artificial diets during 
1976 and 1977. Improved survival during 1977 was attributed to better egg 
quality and modifications of feeding techniques which resultsed in a lower 
incidence of cannibalism. 

1979 Experimental intensive culture of tiger muskellunge in a water reuse system. 
Progressive Fish-Culturist 4 1 : 1 03- 1 08. 

PECZALSKA, A. 

1953 Ryby slodkowodne Baltyku. [Freshwater fishes of the Baltic Sea.J Wydawn- 
ictwa Komunikacyjne, Warsaw. 94 pp. 

1954 Ryby uzytkowe Baltyku. [Fishes of the Baltic Sea.] Panstwowe Zaklady 
Wydawnictw Szkolnych, Warsaw. 86 pp. 

PEHRSON, T. 

1944 The development of laterosensory canal bones in the skull of Esox lucius. 
Acta Zoologica 25:135-157. 

The embryonic stages studied were between 8-40 mm long. Whole material 
was examined in transverse sections. 
PENA,J. C. 

1985 Annotated bibliography on northern pike in Europe. Unpublished MS, 17 pp. 
n.d. Introduccion y expansion del lucio {Esox lucius L. 1758) en la peninsula Iber- 
ica: Sintesis general y estudio de las poblaciones en la Cuenca del Esla. 
[Introduction and expansion of pike {Esox lucius L. 1758) in Iberian penin- 
sula: General synthesis and populations study of pike in Esla basin]. Univer- 
sidad de Leon, unpublished MS. n.p. 
PENA, J. C, F. J. PURROY and J. DOMINGUEZ 

n.d. Alimentacion del lucio, Esox lucius L. 1758, en la Cuenca del Esla (Espana): 
Predacion sobre la trucha comun. [Food of pike, E. lucius L. 1758. in the 
Esla Basin (Spain): Predation on the brown trout.] Universidad de Leon, 
unpublished MS, n.p. 

Stomachs of 505 pike were analysed during 1982-85. Diet variation in rela- 
tion to pike length was: small size - invertebrates; medium size -invertebrates 
and fishes; big size - fish and some invertebrates; very big - fish. 
PENAZ, M. 

1963 Nekolik poznamek k umelemu chovu stiky. Ces. rybarstvi 4:55-56. 
PENCZAK, T. 

1966 Udzial ciernika i cierniczka w pokarmie ryb drapieznych. [Share of stickle- 
backs in the, food of predatory fishes.] Kosmos 15(4):44 1-443. 
Review of the literature on the share and availability of sticklebacks as prey 
for predatory species such as pike. 

246 



1969a The ichthyofauna of the rivers of the Lodz Upland and adjacent areas. Part I. 
The hydrography and fishes o( the Warta basin. Aeta Hydrobiologica 
11:69-118. 
1969b The ichthyofauna o\' the rivers of the Lodz Upland and adjacent areas. Part 
III. A review and character of species. Acta Hydrobiologica 11:339—360. 
| in Polish. English summary] 
1970 Wyzsze kregowce w pokarmie ryb drapie/.nych. [Higher vertebrates in the 
food of predatory fishes.] Wszechswiat 1 : 19-20. 

Review of the literature on the share of higher invertebrates (amphibians and 
their larvae, reptiles, birds, mammals) in the food of local predatory fishes, 
such as pike. 
1981 Ecological fish production in two small lowland rivers in Poland. Oecologica 
48:107-111. 
PENCZAK. T., M. ZALEWSKI and M. MOLINSKI 

1976 Produkcja szczupaka, ploci i klenia w wybranym odcinku rzeki Pilicy (rejon 
brzany). [Production of pike, roach and chub in a selected fragment of Pilica 
River (Narbel region)]. Polish Archiwum Hydrobiologii 23:139-153. 
Material was collected monthly with the use of an aggregate producing 
rectified full-wave current. Production was calculated arithmetically and 
graphically. 
PENN.G. H. 

1950 Utilization of crayfishes by cold-blooded vertebrates in the eastern United 
States. American Midland Naturalist 44:643-658. 
PENNANT. T. 

1788 Introduction to the Arctic zoology. 2nd ed. London, 334 pp. 
PENNEL, H. C. 

1863 The pike family. In The angler-naturalist; a popular history of British fresh- 
water fish. London, pp. 181-209. 
PENNELL, D. A. 

1969 Parasite studies. University of Washington, Fisheries Research Institute, pp. 
27-28. 
PENNOCK, J. F., R. A. MORTON, D. E. M. LAWSON and D. L. LAIDMAN 

1962 Quinones and related compounds in fish tissues. Biochemistry Journal 
84:637-640. 
PERGAMINUS, N. 

1480 Dyalogus creaturarum moralizatus. Gouda, Gerard Leeuw. 

Alleged to contain the earliest known illustration of an angler fishing with a 
float; apparently was fishing for pike. 
PERLOWSKA, R. 

1969 The helminth parasites of fishes in the Zegrzynski Reservoir in 1963-1964. 
Acta Parasitologic^ Polonica 16( l/19):27-32. 
PERMITIN, I. E. 

1959 Age and rate of growth of pike in Rybinsk Reservoir. Trudy Instituta Biologii 
Vodokhranilishch 2:148-158. 
PERMYAKOV, E. A., L. P. KALINICHENKO, V. N. MEDVEDKIN, E. A. BURSTEIN and 
C.GERDAY 

1983 Sodium and potassium binding to paralbumins measured by means of intrin- 
sic protein fluorescence. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 749:185-191. 
The binding of Na+ and K+ to pike paralbumins (pi 4.2 and 5.0) results in a 

247 



rise of the tyrosine and phenylalanine fluorescence quantum yield for the pike 
protein. 

PERRIER, H.. J. P. DELCROIX, C. PERR1ER and J. GRAS 

1974 Disc electrophoresis of plasma proteins of fish physical and chemical charac- 
ters; localization of fibrinogen transferrin and ceruloplasmin in the plasma of 
the rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiol- 
ogy, B, Comparative Biochemistry 49:679-685 

PERSSON, P. E. 

1980 Sensory properties and analysis of two muddy odour compounds, geosmin 
and 2-methylisobomeol, in water and fish. Water Research 14:1 1 13-1 1 18. 

PERSSON. P.E.. H. PENTTINEN and P. NUORTEVA 

1978 DI-2 ethylhexyl phthalate in the vicinity of an industrial area in Finland. 
Environmental Pollution 16:163-166. 

PERVOZVANSKIJ, V. Y. 

1984 Biology of pike Esox lucius (Esocidae) from water bodies associated with the 
Kamennaya R. (the Kern' R. basin, the White Sea). Voprosy Ikhtiologii 
24:54-68. 

Biological characteristics of pike from four Karelian lakes are based on the 
analysis of 623 individuals, 2-18 years old. Intensive fishery for pike and 
sport fishing resulted in the deterioration of the biological state of the popula- 
tion. Suggests raising the commercial size of pike up to 40 cm and to retain 
the pike fraction in the catches of 7-10%. 

PETERKA,J. J. 

1972 Effects of saline waters upon survival of fish eggs and larvae and upon the 
ecology of the fathead minnow in North Dakota. North Dakota Water 
Resources Research Institute, Completion Report WI-22 1-01 3-72: 1-1 1. 
Pike eggs hatched well in water of 1300 microhmos, but poorly at 4000 
micromhos. No sac fry survived in water of 6000 microhmos. 

PETERKA, J. J. and J. S. KENT 

1976 Dissolved oxygen, temperature, survival of young at fish spawning sites. U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency, National Environmental Research Center, 
Ecological Research Series EPA 600/3-76-1 13:1-36. 

Fluctuations of dissolved oxygen concentrations and water temperatures in 
their natural spawning sites were measured during embryo through larva 
stages of pike. Dissolved oxygen concentrations from combined measure- 
ments 1 and 10 cm from the bottom ranged from 0.0-16.6 mg/1, and water 
temperatures from 2.5-23.0 C; average daily fluctuations were 3.0 mg/1 and 
1.6 C. 

PETERKA, J. J. and L. L. SMITH, JR. 

1970 Lake whitefish in the commercial fishery of Red Lakes, Minnesota. Transac- 
tions of the American Fisheries Society 99:28-43. 
Pike made up 3% of the average annual catch for the years 1949-1961. 

PETERS. J. C, ed. 

1964 Summary of calculated growth data on Montana fishes, 1948-61. Montana 
Fish and Game Department, Dingell-Johnson Job Completion Report F-23- 
R-6(Jobs 1-2): 1-76. 

PETERS, L., D. CAVIS^and J. ROBERTSON 

1978 Is Diphyllobothrium latum currently present in northern Michigan? Journal 
of Parasitology 64:947-949. 

248 



PETERSON. J.. M. TAYLOR and A. HANSON 

1980 Leslie population estimate for a large lake. Transactions o\' the American 
Fisheries Society 109:329-331. 

The accuracy of a population estimate made by the Leslie removal method 
was evaluated for adult pike in a 288-hectare lake. The Leslie estimate of 
6.290 fish was within \°/t of that obtained from direct enumeration. 
PETIT. G. D. 

1973 Effects o\' dissolved oxygen on survival and behavior of selected lishes of 
western Lake Erie. Bulletin of the Ohio Biologieal Survey, N.S. 4(4): 1-76. 
A 3-year study to determine oxygen tolerances of young-of-the-year pike. 
PETLINA. A. P. 

1980 Diseussion of problems of fish culture in Siberia-Russian SFSR. USSR. 
Voprosy Ikhtiologii 20:762-764. 
PETROSKY. B. R. and J. J. MAGNUSON 

1973 Behavioral responses of northern pike, yellow perch and bluegill to oxygen 
eoneentrations under simulated winterkill conditions. Copeia 1973:124-133. 
Maximum ventilation rates oeeurred at 0.5 mg/1 dissolved oxygen for pike, 
loeomotory aetivity was greatest at 0.25 mg/1, and they began to move 
towards the surface at 0.5 mg/I. 
PETRUSHEVSKILG. K., ed. 

1961 Parasites and diseases of fish. Jerusalem, Israel Program for Scientific Trans- 
lations. 338 pp. 
PETTERSEN. S. 

1980 Supersaturation in water from Norwegian hydroelectric power station. /// 
Tiews, K., ed., Aquaculture in heated effluents and recirculation systems. 
Berlin, Heenemann Verlagsgesellschaft, pp. 95-101. 

Supersaturation of gases was the likely cause of pike deaths downstream from 
the Rygene power plant. 
PFLIEGER. W. L. 

1971 A distributional study of Missouri fishes. University of Kansas Publications, 
Museum of Natural History 20:225-570. 
PHENICIE. C. K. and J. R. LYONS 

1973 Tactical planning in fish and wildlife management and research. U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service Resource Publication 123:1-22. 

A step-down plan for a pike artificial spawning marsh study is outlined as one 
system for developing a tactical plan. 
PHILLIPS. C. L. 

1971 Fishery investigations. Warm water studies - northern pike. Rhode Island 
Division of Fish and Game, Project F-20-R-12/Job 4: 1-7. 

Forty-two hundred pike were stocked through the ice in Worden Pond, Rhode 
Island, in late December. The winter ice fishery resulted in the examination 
of 420 adult pike. The following were studied: age and growth on 180 pike, 
fecundity of 18 pike, and stomach contents o\' 1 18 pike. 

1972 Fishery investigations. Warm water studies - northern pike. Rhode Island 
Division of Fish and Game, Project F-20-R- 13/Job 4: 1-6. 

Twenty-six hundred yearling pike were stocked in three Rhode Island water 
bodies in early December. The winter ice fishery resulted in the examination 
of 306 adult pike. Studied age and growth, stomach contents, and sex ratio. 



!49 



1980 Study of northern pike in the Connecticut River. Connecticut Department of 
Environmental Protection, Project F-41-R:l-23. 

Pike in the Connecticut River demonstrated fast growth, high natural mortal- 
ity, and a relatively short life span of 8.41 years. Yield models were used to 
evaluate the effect of various minimum length limits on yield in weight, 
numbers, and number of trophy sized pike. 
PHILLIPS. G. R. and R. W. GREGORY 

1979 Assimilation efficiency of dietary methylmercury by northern pike {Eso.x 
lucius). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 36:1516-1519. 
Pike retained an average of 19% of the methylmercury ingested. The total 
amount increased with time (up to 42 d), but concentration in the tissue 
decreased due to growth dilution. Dietary source was young-of-the-year carp 
Cyphnus carpio. 

PHILLIPS, G. R., T. E. LENHART and R. W. GREGORY 

1980 Relation between trophic position and mercury accumulation among fishes 
from the Tongue River Reservoir, Montana. Environmental Research 
22:73-80. 

PHILLIPS, R. 

1974 Dry diet trials. /// Proceedings of the 6th Interstate Muskellunge Workshop, 
Morehead, 1974, pp. 10-13. 

Outlines the methods and results of rearing pike on a dry diet. 
PICHU, E. C. 

1966 Rybochozjajstvenno-biologiceskoje znacenije scuki, okunja, sudaka i nalima 
v Pskovsko-Cudskom ozere. Gidrob. i ryb. choz, Psk. Cud. oz 4:235-247. 
PICOS, C. A., G. NASTASESCU and G. IGNAT 

1969 Comparative researches on the oxygen consumption of some freshwater 
species of fishes. Communications in Animal Physiology, pp. 89-94. 

PIENING, H. 

1970 Nurseries for northerns. Wisconsin Conservation Bulletin 35(4): 10-1 1. 
Reports a study of physical and biological requirements for pike spawning 
and makes recommendations for semi-natural developments that closely 
resemble natural spawning marshes. 

PIETERS, H., J. SPEUR and P. G. WASSENAAR-SCHOLTZ 

1983 Total mercury contents in fish species from Dutch surface waters in relation 

to biological parameter and pollution level. International Council for the 

Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen, 1983. ICES-CM- 1983/E: 1-19. 
PIEZ, K. A. 

The amino acid chemistry of some calcified tissues. Annals of the New York 

Academy of Science, pp. 256-268. 
PIEZ, K. A. and J. GROSS 

1960 The amino acid composition of some fish collagens: the relation between 
composition and structure. Journal of Biological Chemistry 235:995-998. 

PIHU, E. 

1961 Biology of pike in Lake Vortsjarv. Loodus Selts. Tallinn 53:195-217. 
[English summary] 

PIKHU.E. K. andE. R. PIKHU 

1969 Seasonal changes in the nutrition of pike, perch, and burbot in Lake Pskov- 
Chudskoe. /// Hydrobiology and fish farming in the inland reservoirs of the 
Baltic region, Tallin, Valgus Press, pp. 212-213. 

250 



PINCHER.C. 

1948 A study of fish. New York, Duell, Sloan and Pearce. 343 pp. 

PIPPING. M. 

1927 Erganzende Beobaehtungen uber den Geruchsinn tier Fische mit besonderer 
Berucksichtigung seiner Bedeutung fur das Aufsuchen des Futters. Com- 
ment. Biol. Helsingf. 2(10): 1-10. 
PIROZHNIKOV. P. L., A. F. KARPEVICH. A. I. 1SAYEV and V. I. KARPOVA 

1969 Biological principles for improving fisheries in inland waters. Problems in 
Ichthyology 9:744-751. 
PITCHER. T.J. 

1980 Some eeologieal consequences of fish school volumes. Freshwater Biology 
10:539-544. 
PITKYANEN. G. B. and Y. A. ZAITSEV 

1974 Charaeteristics of the radiation conditions of development of eggs of freshwa- 
ter fishes belonging to different eeologieal groups. Ekologiya 5(6):73-75. 
PITMAN. C. R. S. 

1961 Waterfowl predation in Canada by the northern pike (or jackfish), Esox Indus 
L. Bulletin of the British Ornithology Club, N 82. 
PIWERNETZ, D. 

1968a Zur Entwicklung der Schwanzflossenanlage bei Hechtlarven. Zoologischer 

Anzeiger 18 1(3/4): 199-203. 
1968b Regeneration und Missbildung bei Verletzung embryonaler Flossenanlagen 
bei Hechtlarven (Esox lucius L.). Zeitschrift fuer Fischerei, N.S. 
16(3/4):279-300. [English summary] 
PJATECKIJ. V. E. and J. N. O. SAVCENKO 

1969 Uber den Einfluss des Schleimes auf den hydrodynamischen Widerstand des 
Fischen. Bionika, Kiev 3:90-96. 
PLACK. P. A. 

1964 Retinal in eggs, blood and liver. Exploratory Eye Research 3:383-387. 
PLACK. P. A. and S. K. KON 

1961 A comparative survey of the distribution of vitamin A aldehyde in eggs. 
Biochemistry Journal 81:561-570. 
PLATONOVA, O. P. 

1966 The food of predatory fishes in the Sviyaga Inlet of Kuibyshev Reservoir. 
Kazansk University, pp. 111-151. 

A study of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the food and feed- 
ing rates of various age and size groups of pike during different seasons and 
years. Materials were collected from ecologically different areas of the inlet. 
PLISZKA, F. 

1956 Fizjologia ryb. [Physiology of fishes.] Lodz, PWN. 239 pp. 
1964 Biologiaryb. [Fish biology.] Warsaw, PWRiL. 334 pp. 
PLISZKA, F. R. 

1954 Spostrzezenia nad xyplwem warunkow rozrodu ryb jeziorowyeh na liczeb- 
nosc populacji ich statiow mlodoeianyeh. |The effect of spawning conditions 
in lakes on young fish populations.] Polskie Archiwum Hydrobiologii 
1(14): 165—1 88. 

A study of conditions of spawning, relations between fry, the loss of try at the 
earliest times of life, as well as the various stages between the larvae and the 
early predatory and non-predatory fry. 

251 



PODDUBNY. A.G. 

1976 Ecological topography of fish populations in reservoirs. New Delhi. Amer- 
ind. 
PODDUBNYI. A. G., L. K. MALININ and V. V. GAIDUK 

1970 Experiment in telemetric observations under ice of the behaviour of wintering 
fish. Biologiya Vnutrennykh Vod Informatsionii Byulleten 6:65-70. 
POJMANSKA. T.. B. GRABDA-KAZUBSKA, S. L. KAZUBSKI, JADWIGA and K. NIEWIA- 
DOMSKA 

1980 Parasite fauna of five fish species from the Konin Lake complex artificially 
heated with thermal effluents and from Lake Goplo, Poland. Acta Parasitolo- 
gic^ Polonica 27:319-358. 
POLLOCK. K. H. and R. H. K. MANN 

1983 Use of an age-dependent mark-recapture model in fisheries research. Cana- 
dian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 40: 1449-1455. 
An age-dependent generalization of the Jolly Seber mark-recapture model for 
fish populations subject to birth and migration is illustrated using data from a 
study on pike in Dorset, England. These data show strong evidence of dif- 
ferential survival with age. The average annual survival rate is estimated to 
be 50% for pike aged 2 or more years and 34% for those aged 1 year. 
POLYAK. S. 

1957 The vertebrate visual system. Chicago, The University of Chicaco Press. 
PONEDELKO, B. I. 

1957 Factors in distribution and numbers of eggs and larvae of phytophilous fish of 
Lake Il'men. /// Akatova, N. A., et al., eds., Transactions of the 6th Confer- 
ence on Biology of Inland Waters, pp. 1 77- 181. 
POPOVA, O. A. 

1960 Nekotorye osobennosti ekologii shchuki i okunya v deLte Volgi. [Some 
features of the ecology of the pike and perch in the Volga delta.] Voprosy 
Ikhtiologii 15:55-70. 

Information on growth rate, nutritional status, and fertility in the lower and 
middle zones of the delta. Recommendations are made for the regulation of 
the numbers of predatory fish in the different zones of the delta. 

1961 O vozdeistvii shchuki i okunya na populyatsiyu nekotorykh ryb v deLte 
Volgi. (Effect of pike and perch on the population of some fish in the Volga 
Delta.] Trudy Soveshchanii Ikhtiologicheskoi Komissii Akademii Nauk 
SSSR 13:283-289. 

1962 Nekotorye osobennosti ekologii shchuki i okunya v deLte Volig. [Some 
features of the ecology of the pike and perch in the Volga Delta.] Anales del 
Instituto Forestal de Investigaciones y Experiencias Madrid. 

1965 Ekologiya shchuki i okunya v deLte Volgi. [The ecology of pike and perch in 
the Volga dalta.] /// The food of predaceous fishes and their relationships 
with their food organisms. Moscow, Nauka, pp. 91-172. 
Changes in the ecology of the delta due to dams (1954-55), regulation of 
water flow ( 1966), and a decrease in the water level of the Caspain Sea were 
investigated. The differences in size, age, sex composition, spawning pat- 
terns, and survival rates of spawn and fry were recorded. The size-age struc- 
ture of the pjke population and the feeding relationship between pike and 
perch are discussed. 



252 



1967 The 'predator-prey' relationship among fish. /// Clerking, S. I)., ed., The bio- 
logical basis of freshwater fish production. IBP Symposium, Reading, 1966, 
pp. 359-376. 

1971 Biologieal indices of the pike and perch in waters with different hydrologic 

regimes and feeding capacities. /// Patterns of growth and maturation of 
fishes. Moscow, Nauka, pp. 102-153. 

PORTER. L. R. 

1977 Review of selected literature on muskel lunge life history, ecology and 
management. Minnesota Department of Natural Resourees, Division of Fish 
and Wildlife, Section Fisheries, Speeial Publication I 19:1-81. 

POTOPOVA. O. I. 

1966 Some aspeets of the reproduction and spawning grounds of Karelian pike. 
Trudy KareFskogo Otdeleniya Gosudarstvennogo Nauchno-IssledovateF- 
skoto Instituta Ozernogo i Reehnogo Rybnogo Khozyaistva 4(2):36-46. [in 
Russian) 

POTVIN, C. 

1973 Inventaire iehthyologique du bassin de la riviere des Envies. Deeouverte de 
populations indigenes de maskinonge. Travaux en Cours, Serviee de la Faune 
du Quebec, Rapport 7:105-121. 

POUPE. J. 

1973 Note on growth of the pike, Esox lucius Linnaeus, 1758 in the eentral 
Bohemian inundation area of the River Labe. Vestnik Ceskoslovenske 
Spoleenosti Zoologieke 38:279-284. 

A study of the scales of pike captured mostly during seining operations in the 
Central Bohemian inundation area of the river Labe. The growth of pike 
there is faster; it is only a little slower than in Ireland and North Ameriea. 
where the largest increments were observed. 

POUVREAU, M. 

1980 Etude du cycle sexual femelle du brochet, Esox lucius L., et de quelques 
problemes lies a Finduction de la ponte. Dipl. Etudes Approf. Univ. Poitiers, 
Ecophysiologie Reproduction, 29 pp. 

POUVREAU. M., G. MAISSE, B. JALABERT and B. BRETON 

1983 Efficacite du controle de Fovulation par traitement gonadotrope dans und 
population heterogene de brochet {Esox lucius): relation avec le stade ovo- 
cytaire et comparaison avec les resultats d'ovulations spontanees. /// Billard, 
R., ed., Le brochet gestion deans le milieu naturel et elevage. Paris, Institute 
National de la Recherche Agronomique, pp. 85-95. 

A single injection of partially purified salmon gonadotropic hormone was 
given to 122 female pike. The best efficiency was observed when injections 
were performed at the stage of peripheral germinal vesicle, but the number of 
ova produced was lower than after spontaneous ovulation. 

POWELL. T. G. 

1972a Warm water fisheries investigations. Northern pike introductions. Colorado 
Game. Fish and Parks Department, Fish Research Review Project F-34-R- 
7/Job3:l-9. 
1972b Northern pike in Colorado. Fishery information leaflet number 19. Outdoor 
facts. Colorado Game, Fish and Parks Department, Report I -34 R: 1-2. 
General information on size, appearance, spawning, early life, habitat 
management, and stocking to control sun fish populations. 

253 



1972c Warmwater fisheries investigations. Northern pike introductions. Colorado 
Game, Fish and Parks Department, Report F-34-R-7/Job 3:1-9. 
In 1971, 2,000 pike were stocked in Carbody Reservoir. Gill net catches 
were analysed by various statistical tests. Determined the effect of introduc- 
tions on the fish population structure. 
1973 Effect of northern pike introductions on an overabundant crappie population. 
Colorado Division of Wildlife, Special Report 3 1 : 1-6. 

In 1969 subadult and fingerling pike were successfully planted in the Carbody 
Reservoir for crappie population control. Increased average size of age group 
III crappies and a levelling off of the abundance cycle resulted. Stocking 
recommendations for panhsh control are provided. 

PRAKKEN, R., J. BEKENDAM and G. A. PIETERS 

1955 The chromosomes of Esox Indus L. Genetica 27:484-488. 

Pike was found to have 48 rod-shaped chromosomes with completely termi- 
nal centromeres. In previous work done by Svardson and Wickbom (1939) 
the somatic number of chromosomes was found to be 18. Differences in 
methods used may explain the discrepancy of the results. 

PRATT, H. S. 

1935 A manual of land and fresh water vertebrate animals of the United States, 2nd 
ed. P. Blakiston's Son. 416 pp. 

PRATT, K. 

1975 Rearing tiger muskies on artificial diets. Proceedings of the 7th Interstate 
Musky Workshop, La Crosse, 1975, pp. 25-33. 

Discusses rearing the pike-muskellunge hybrid at the Wolf Lake Hatchery, 
Michigan, in 1975. Artificial food was used during the 90-day rearing pro- 
gram with good success. Observations on survival rates, weight gains, water 
quality, behaviour, rearing problems and successes, and techniques are 
presented. 
PRAVDA. O. 

1973 On the influence of herbicides on some freshwater animals. Hydrobiologia 
42:97-142. [in German, English abstract] 

Toxicity of 14 herbicides was determined for 13 animal species, including 
pike. The organisms were divided into four groups according to their sensi- 
tivity to herbicides. 

PRAVDINA, N. I. and M. A. CHEBOTAREVA 

1971 Fatty-acids of the phospholipids from the vertebrate brain. Zhurnal Evolyut- 
sionnoi Biokhimii i Fiziologii 7:30-39. 

PRAVDINA, N. I., M. A. CHEBOTAREVA and E. E. KRUGLOVA 

1974 Sphingomyelin fatty-acids in myelin and mitochondria in vertebrates. Zhur- 
nal Evolyutsionnoi Biokhimii i Fiziologii 10:325-330. 

PRAWOCHENSKI, R. 

1976 Rybactwo. [Fisheries.] Warsaw, PWN. 172 pp. 
PREBLE, E. A. 

1908 A biological investigation of the Athabaska-MacKenzie region. U.S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, North American Fauna 27:1-574. 
PREFONTAINE.G. 

1941 Etude biologique des eaux de la plaine de Montreal Quebec Ministere de la 
Chasse et de la Peche, Rapport de la Station Biologique de Montreal et de la 
Station Biologique du Pare des Laurentides 1:34-66. 

254 



PREISSER, E. 

1976 Investigations on the mass cultivation of zooplankton and its use for rearing 
artificially brooded edible fish together with a summary of previous experi- 
ence in this field. Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Universitaet Rostock 
Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Reihe 25:327-332. 
PREUDHOMME.J.-C. 

1965 Notes techniques explicatives se rapportant aux discussions du comite de la 
peche. Magazine Fishing Club du Moyen-Atlas, Revue Annuelle, pp. 13- IS. 

1976 Troubles sexuels resultant de I' acclimation chez les poissons, notamment bro- 
chet et truite arc-en-ciel. Pisciculture Francais 43:38-46. 
PR1BYSLAVSKY, J. and Z. LUCKY 

1967 Parasite fauna of the fish in the reservoir of Kninicky. 11. Results of invesgi- 
ations of parasites of several prey fish. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Facul- 
tas Veterinaria 36:137-145. 
PRICE. C. E. 

1969 Report on an unpublished manuscript: the first study of Danish freshwater 
monogenetic trematodes. Revista Iberica de Parasitologia 29(2/3):233-234. 
PRICE, J. W. 

1957 Embryonic development of the northern pike, Esox lucius Linn., at the St. 
Mary's Fish Farm, spring 1956. Ohio Department of Natural Resources, 
unpublished MS. 16 pp. 
PRIEGEL. G. R. 

1965 Statewide fishery research. Movement and harvest of stocked northern pike. 
Wisconsin Conservation Department, Dingell-Johnson Report F-83-R- 
l/Wk.P1.16/JobA:l-4. 

1967 Statewide fishery research. Lake Winnebago studies. Movement and harvest 
of stocked northern pike. Wisconsin Conservation Department, Dingell- 
Johnson Report F-83-R-2/Wk.Pl. 05/Job G. 

1968a Movement and harvest of tagged northern pike released in Lake Poygan and 
Big Lake Butte des Morts. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 
Research Report Fisheries 29:1-7. 

Describes an investigation of the movement and harvest of pike captured in 
Rush Lake during winter rescue operations and released into waters contain- 
ing an excellent natural northern pike population. 

1968b Northerns, Swedish style; Wisconsin Conservation Bulletin, January- 
February 1968, pp. 18-19. 

1969 Statewide fishery research. Factors influencing success of northern pike 
reproduction in natural and artificial spawning areas. Wisconsin Conserva- 
tion Department, Project F-83-R-5/Job 15:1-4. 

Two spawning marshes were stocked with brood fish, then they were drained 
to capture the fingerlings. In the artificial area, the fingerlings were tagged 
and released and recaptured in November to determine survival. 
PRIEGEL, G. R. and D. C. KROHN 

1971 Statewide fishery research. Northern pike spawning in Gilbert and Big Cedar 
Lakes, Washington County. Wisconsin Conservation Department, Project F- 
83-R-6:l-26. 

Egg density associated with vegetation, condition of spawners, egg develop 
ment and survival, movement of adult fish, average length of male and female 



255 



spawners. Spawning was observed from March 25 through the first week in 
April. 

1973 Characteristics of a northern pike spawning population. Wisconsin Depart- 
ment of Natural Resources, Technical Bulletin 86:1-18. 
The Gilbert Lake population was studied in 1968 and 1969 to describe 
characteristics of the spawning habitat, early life history, spawning popula- 
tion, and to determine the extent of angler harvest. 
PRINCE. E. E. 

1896 On the Esocidae of Canada. Report of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science 66:688. 
PRITCHARD, D. L., O. D. MAY and L. RIDER 

1976 Stocking of predators in the predation stocking evaluation reservoirs. 
Presented at the 13th Annual Conference, Southeastern Association of Game 
and Fish Commissioners. 
PRIVOLNEV, T. I. 

1951 Transportation of live fish. Moscow, Pishchepromizdat. [in Russian] 

1954 Physiological adaptations of fishes to new conditions of existence. Trudy 
Soveshchanii Ikhtiologicheskoi Komissii Akademi Nauk SSSR 3:40-49. 
(Trans, from Russian by Risheries Research Board of Canada Translation 
Series 422, 1963.) 

1963 Threshold concentration of oxygen in water for fish at different temperatures. 
Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Biological Science Section 151:439-440. 
(Trans, published by National Science Foundation, 1964.) 

1964a Relationship of freshwater and diadromous fishes to different salinities. 
Izvestiya Gosudarstvennogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Ozernogo i 
Rechnogo Rybnogo Khozvaistva USSR 58:58-83. [English summary] 
The tolerance of fishes to various concentrations of dissolved salt was studied 
experimentally. Seventeen species of fish were kept in aquaria at different 
salinities for 15-20 days. According to salinity tolerance, the fishes are 
divided into two groups. Group I includes fishes, such as pike, capable of 
withstanding a salinity not higher than 10-12%. 

1964b On the respiratory coefficient of fishes. Izvestiya Gosudarstvennogo 
Nauchno-IssledovateLskogo Instituta Ozernogo i Rechnogo Rybnogo Khoz- 
vaistva USSR 58:123-127. 
PRIVOLNEV, T. I. and N. V. KOROLEVA 

1953 Critical concentrations of oxygen for fish at different temperature in different 
seasons of the year. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR 89:175-176. [in Rus- 
sian] 
PROKOPENKO, L. L, A. S. ARTAMOSHIN and A. A. FROLOVA 

1978 Distribution of diphyllobothriasis in the USSR and prevention of the forma- 
tion of new foci of invasion. Part 2. The role of migration of the USSR popu- 
lation in the dissemination and importation of diphyllobothriasis. Meditsin- 
skaya Parazitologiya i Parazitarnye Bolezni 47(2): 10-14. 
PRONINA, S. V. 

1977a Changes in argyrophilic liver stroma in some fishes during infection with the 
pleurocercoids of Triaenophorus nodulosus and Diphyllobothriwn dendriti- 
cum Cestoide<a Pseudophyllidea. Parazitologiya 1 1:361-364. 

1977b Cytochemica! characteristics of labrocyte-like cells in the capsule of cestode 
plerocercoids Triaenophorus nodulosus and Diphyllobothriwn dendriticum. 

256 






Arkhiv Anatomii Gistologii i Embriologii 73:108-1 12. [in Russian] 
PRONINA. S. V., E. D. LOGACHEV and N. M. PRONIN 

1981 Carbohydrate containing biopolymers of plerocercoid cestodes of the order 
Pseudophyllidea and capsules surrounding them. 1/vestiya Sibirskogo 
Otdeleniya Akademii Nauk SSR, Seriya Biologo-Meditsinskikh Nauk 
2:121-127. 

PRONINA. S. V. and N. M. PRONIN 

1982 The effect of cestode (Trianophorus nodulosus) infestation on the digestive 
tract of pike {Esox lucius). Journal of Ichthyology 22: 105- 1 1 3. 
Histological and histochemical structure of normal and cestode infested 
digestive iiaeis of pike were studied. Significant histopathologic^! distur- 
bances were observed not only at the places of contact between the parasite 
and the host, but also in the entire mucosa of the stomach and intestine. 

PROROK. P. 

1983 Early summer lunker pike. In-Fisherman 49:70-92. 
PROTAL. J. 

1947 Observations sur la pisciculture artificielle du brochet. Bulletin Francais de 
Pisciculture 147:61-70. 
PROTASOWICKI. M. and A. OCIEPA 

1978 Wplyw wieku. ciezaru i plci na zawartosc rteci w miesniach i wybranych nar- 
zadach szczupaka (Esox lucius L.). [Effect of age, weight and sex on the 
mercury content in the muscles and selected organs of northern pike (Esox 
lucius L.).] Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Rolniczo, Szczecin, Ser. Rybactwo 
Morskie, 9(70): 145- 155. 

Average levels of mercury in muscles, kidney, liver, food tract, spleen, gills, 
and gonads. 
PUCILOWSKA. A. 

1969 Dynamics of infection with endoparasites of fishes in the Zergrzynski Reser- 
voir. Acta Parasitologica Polonica 1 6( 1/19):33— 46. 
PUPYRNIKOVA, A. V. 

1953 Seasonal variation in feeding and growth of young pike. Trans. USSR Inst. 
Fish Ocean. VNIRO 24:338-345. 

During spring and summer, accumulation of body protein was accompanied 
by an increase in length and weight. Fat was accumulated in winter and only 
weight increased. Relative size of 24 hour food ration decreased as pike 
switched from plankton to predatory feeding and decreased again as the 
winter months approached. Duration of winter had no effect on survival rate. 
PUTNAM. F. W. 

1861 On the young of Pomotis brythus and Esox. Proceedings of the Boston 
Society of Natural History 7(3):34. 



257 



QADRI, S. U. and P. J. RUBEC 

1977 Age, growth and population density of brown bullhead, northern pike, wal- 
leye, sauger and yellow perch in a 3 mile section of the Ottawa River. 
Ottawa River Project Progress Report, 60 pp. 
QUEBEC MINISTERE DES PECHERIES ET DE LA CHASSE 

1961 List of species known to occur in Verendrye Park. Journal de bord, de 
Loffice de biologie, 4(76). 
QUEBEC MINISTERE DU TOURISME, DE LA CHASSE, ET DE LA PECHE 

1966 Les poissons combative du Quebec. [Quebec sport fishes.] Province du Que- 
bec. 41 pp. 
QUEIRAZZA, G., E. SMEDILE and E. TIBALDI 

1969 On the transfer of some radioactive isotopes through a food chain in a river. 
Atti dell'Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei Rendiconti Classe di Scienze 
Fisiche Matematiche et Naturali 46:81-90. 
QUIGLEY, D. T. 

1982 Ireland's specimen pike. Coarse Angler 6(6):22-24. 
QUILLIER, R. and R. LABAT 

1977 Mise au point sur la reproduction des esocides; etude preliminarire. [Study 
on the reproduction of Esocidae; preliminary investigation.] Investigacion 
Pesquera 41:33-38. [in French] 

Various methods of controlling the reproduction of pike are considered: to 
have a supply of sexually mature specimens, to trigger spawning in the 
female, to reconstitute milt in the male. The use of heterologous gonadotro- 
pins to induce maturation and ovoposition is one possibility; hormonotherapy 
with delay steroids has allowed abundant milt to be obtained. 
QVENILD, T. 

1981 The fisheries in Lake Randsfjorden, Norway, 1978-1980. Fauna 34: 
116-122. 






258 



RAAT, A. J. P. 

1987 Synopsis of the biological data on the northern pike Esox lucius Linnaeus 
1758. Fisheries and Agricultural Organization Fisheries Synopsis 30(rev. 2). 
The most up-to-date synopsis of pike literature and biology. 

RADCLIFFE. W. 

1921 Fishing from the earliest times. London. 

Has notes re pike and ponds in the Middle Ages. 

RADFORTH. I. 

1944 Some considerations on the distribution of fishes in Ontario. Contributions of 
the Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology 25:1-1 16. 
Contains a brief note on the distribution of pike throughout the world. 
P. and C. LERAY 

Comparative study on amp deaminase EC-3.5.4.6 in gill muscle and blood of 
fish. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, B, Comparative Biochemis- 
try 67:533-540. 
E. 

Statewide fisheries investigations. Management surveys of the Missouri 
River and its mainstem reservoirs in North Dakota. North Dakota State Game 
and Fish Department, Project F-2-R-17, Job I. 

In 1975, 1,441 pike were tagged to study movement in two large reservoirs. 
Lake Oahe and Lake Sakakawea. Pike movements in Lake Oahe ranged from 
59 miles upstream to 58 miles downstream. Lake Sakakawea pike moved 
upstream 13 miles and downstream 38 miles. 

Mortality and movement of adult walleye and pike. North Dakota Game and 
Fish Department, Dingell-Johnson Project F-2-R-23, Study 4, Jobs 4-A and 
4-B. 



RAFFIN.J. 

1980 



RAGAN,J 

1970 



1975 



RAHN, J. 

1972 

1978 



RAHN, M 

1975 



RAJAD, M. 



n.d. 



Hy produktion in Intensivanlagen. Zeitschrift fuer Binnenfischerei 
19:124-127. 

Wasserzufuhr und Sauerstoffverhaeltnisse in Zuger Glaesern dei der Hechter- 
bruetung. [Water addition and oxygen ratio in Zuger glasses in pike rearing]. 
Zeitschrift fuer die Binnenfischerei der DDR 25(2):39-43. 
The quantity of water flowing through the Zuger glasses and consequently the 
oxygen supply to the eggs is an important factor for the successful rearing of 
pike. At the Eldenburg breeding station a flow of 2.3-3.0 1/min from the 30 
d.degree to 4-7 1/min for the 40 d.degree. The quantity of oxygen transported 
to the eggs was not fully used. The reasons for this and the necessary condi- 
tions for optimum oxygen use are discussed. 

New method tempts northern pike. Fins and Feathers, February 1975. 
Describes a method of fishing for pike through the ice, using large, dead suck- 
ers and minnows. 

Note sur Introduction du brochet au Maroc. Morrocco Ministere de 
T Agriculture, Service de la Peche, unpublished MS. 3 pp. [in French] 
A history of the introduction of pike in Morocco is reviewed, and culture ami 
artificial propagation are detailed. The methods of collection, fertilization, 
and culture of the eggs are explained. The fry are reared in nursery ponds for 
4-6 weeks and are then stocked. 



259 



RAMANUJAM, S. G. M. 

1966 The study of the development of the vertebral column in teleosts, as shown in 
the life history of the herring. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Lon- 
don 3:365-414. 
RANDOW, F. and H. A. SCHULZE 

1971 Studies on the artificial radioactivity of fish in 1967 and 1968. Nahrung 
15:81-89. 
RANEY, E. C. 

1955 Natural hybrids between two species of pickerel (Eso.x) in Stearns Pond, Mas- 
sachusetts. ///Supplement to fisheries report for some central, eastern, and 
western Massachusetts lakes, ponds, and reservoirs, 1951-1952. Mas- 
sachusetts Bureau of Wildlife Resource Management, Division of Fish and 
Game. 447 pp. 

1959 Some young fresh-water fishes of New York. New York State Conservation- 
ist, August-September 1959, pp. 22-28. 

Contains a brief and general description of spawning, distribution, size, 
growth, migration, and early life history of pike. The destruction of spawning 
habitat by shoreline construction is mentioned. 
RANEY, E. C. and W. H. MASSMAN 

1953 The fishes of the tidewater section of the Pamunkey River, Virginia. Journal 
of the Washington Academy of Science 43:424-432. 
RATHBUN, R. and W. WAKEHAM 

1897 Report of the joint commission relative to the preservation of the fisheries in 
waters contiguous to Canada and the United States. U.S. House Document 
315, 54th Congress, Second Session, 1897, pp. 14-178. 
RATHKE, M. H. 

1824 Beitrage zur Geschichte der Thierwelt. Neuer Schrift Naturforschung Ges 
Danzig, Heft 1-4. 
RAWSON, D. S. 

1932 The pike of Waskesiu Lake, Saskatchewan. Transactions of the American 
Fisheries Society 62:323-330. 

The study was conducted because fishing pressure may have resulted in a 
marked decrease in angling success. The fish were examined during the 
spawning period, from May 12 to mid June 1932, for information on life his- 
tory, growth rate, and population size. 

1947a Northwest Canadian fisheries survey. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 
Bulletin 72:45-68. 
Mentions habitat, predatory habits, and parasites of pike in Great Slave Lake. 

1947b Northwest fisheries survey. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 
. 72:69-85. 
Reports on parasites and domestic use of pike in Lake Athabasca. 

1947c Estimating the fish population of Great Slave Lake. Transactions of the 
American Fisheries Society 77:81-92. 

1948 The failure of rainbow trout and initial success with the introduction of lake 
trout in Clear Lake, Riding Mountain Park, Manitoba. Transactions of the 
American Fisheries Society 75:323-335. 

Briefly mentions pike in the lake and the effects that changing water levels 
had on the population. Predation by pike was also considered partly responsi- 
ble for the destruction of the rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri population. 

260 



1949 A check list of the fishes of Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Department of 
Natural Resources and Industrial Development, Report of the Royal Commis- 
sion on Fisheries. 8 pp. 

1951 Studies of the fish of Great Slave Lake. Journal of the Fisheries Research 

Board of Canada 8:207-240. 
1957 Limnology and fisheries of five lakes in the Upper Churchill drainage. 

Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Department of Natural Resources, Fish 

Branch, Fisheries Report 3:7-61. 

Pike are present in the lakes, grow rather slowly, and eat small fish, amphi- 

pods, and chiromids. 
1959 Limnology and fisheries of Cree and Wollaston lakes in northern 

Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Department of Natural Resources, Fisheries 

Report 4:5-73. 

Pike in Cree Lake eat a variety of fish and grow slowly. 
1960a Five lakes on the Churchill River near Stanley, Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan 

Department of Natural Resources, Fish Branch, Fisheries Report 5:1-38. 

Information on numbers caught in test nets, growth rate, food, parasites, and 

angling fishery. 
1960b A limnological comparison of twelve large lakes in northern Saskatchewan. 

Limnology and Oceanography 5: 195-2 1 1 . 

Pike inhabit all of the lakes, but are considerably more numerous in the south. 
RAWSON. D. S. and F. M. ATTON 

1953 Biological investigation and fisheries management at Lac la Ronge, 

Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Department of Natural Resources, Fisheries 

Branch, pp. 7-39. 
RAWSON, D. S. and J. E. MOORE 

1944 The saline lakes of Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Research 

22:141-201. 

Pike is considered to be a dominant species throughout lakes with salinities 

<1 5,000 ppm. 
RAY. J. 

Kansas and the great northern. Fish and Game 23(3):3-4. 

Popular account on experimental stocking, description of appearance, spawn- 
ing habits, and advice on angling and preparation for eating. 
REAY,G. A. 

1939 The nitrogen extractives of fish. Report of the Food Investigation Board 

1938:87-89. 
REECE. M. 

1963 Fish and fishing Meredith Press. 224 p. 
REED. E. B. 

1962 Limnology and fisheries of the Saskatchewan River in Saskatchewan. 

Saskatchewan Fisheries Report 6:1-48. 

Pike is classified as a species of secondary importance, but one of the chief 

angling species. 
REED. G. B. and G. C. TONER 

1 94 1 Red sore disease of pike. Canadian Journal of Research 1 9: 1 39- 1 43. 

Common in pike in eastern Ontario waters, the disease is caused b\ infection 

with Proteus hydrophilus, which is also responsible for "red leg" disease in 

frogs and may cause "ulcer disease" in trout in a New York hatchery. 

261 



1942 Proteus hydrophilus infections of pike, trout and frogs. Canadian Journal of 
Research 20:161-166. 
REGAN, C. T. 

1911 The freshwater fishes of the British Isles. London, Methuen. 287 pp. 
REGIER, H. A. 

Changes in species composition of Great Lakes fish communities caused by 
man. Proceedings of the 44th North American Wildlife Conference, pp. 
558-566. 
REGIUS, K. 

1921 Ein Hecht im Freilandbecken. Blattchen Aquarien und Terrarien Kunde. 
REHBROUN 

1965 Eine ambulante Hechterbrutungsanlage. Allgemeine Fischerei-Zeitung 
90(5): 130- 132. 

REICHENBACH, S. F. and H. H. KLINKE 

1961 Beitrag zur Fleckenseuche des Hechtes. Allgemeine Fischerei-Zeitung 
86:310-311. 
REICHENBACH-KLINKE, H. H. 

1966 Krankheiten und Schadigungen der Fische. Stuttgart, Gustav Fischer Verlag. 
389 pp. 

1970 Die wichtigsten Nutzfischarten der Donau und ihre mutmassliche Verteilung. 
[The main commercial fishes of the Danube and their supposed distribution.] 
Archiv fuer Hydrobiologie Suppl. 36(2/3):263-278. 

About 4.4 million kg of fish are caught annually in the Danube. An attempt is 
made to show how this catch is distributed by individual species; pike is a 
predominant species. 

1971 On a new disease of the skin of salmoids in central Europe. Rivista Italiana 
di Piscic. Ittiopatologia 6:17-18. 

1974 The manifestation types of ulcerative dermal necrosis. Muench Beitraege zur 
Abwasser-Fischerei- und Flussbiologie 25:47-54. 
REID, D. J. 

1977 1977 spring pike spearing creel census. Ontario Ministry of Natural 
Resources, unpublished MS. 29 pp. 

From March 21 till April 17, an estimated 1,108 pike were harvested, 75.4% 
of which were females. 
REIFEL, C. W. and A. A. TRAVILL 

1978a Gross morphology of alimentary canal in 10 teleostean species. Anatom- 

ischer Anzeiger 144:441-449. 
1978b Structure and carbohydrate histochemistry of the stomach in eight species of 
teleosts. Journal of Morphology 158:155-168. 

Esocids have the simplest looking stomachs, which consist of spindle-shaped 
expansions of the fore-gut. Presumably, their straightness and length allow 
an entire ingested fish to be accommodated easily. 
REIGHARD, J. 

1915 An ecological reconnaissance of the fishes of Douglas Lake, Cheboygan 
County, Michigan, in midsummer. U.S. Bureau of Fisheries Bulletin 
33:215-249. 
REIGHARD, J. E. 

1914 A plea for the preservation of records concerning fish. Transactions of the 
American Fisheries Society 43:106-1 10. 

262 



REIST.J.D. 

1978 Predation as a factor in maintaining the pelvic polymorphism in a central 
Alberta population of Culaea inconstans (Kirtland) (Pisces : Gasterosteidae). 
M.S. thesis. University of Alberta. 1 77 pp. 

L980 Selective predation upon pelvic phenotypes of brook stickleback, Culaea 
inconstans, by northern pike, Esox Indus. Canadian Journal of /oology 
58:1245-1252. 

Laboratory and held work assessed the importance of pike predation in main- 
taining pelvic skeletal phenotypes in a population of brook stickleback. Indi- 
viduals possessing a pelvis and pelvic spines had a selective advantage over 
those lacking these parts. The advantage conferred by the spines depended 
upon relative size of predator to prey, and likely has no effect upon predation 
by larger pike. 

1983a Studies on the systematic significance of the external body morphometry of 
esocoid fishes. Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto. 

1983b Behavioral variation in pelvic phenotypes of brook stickleback, Culaea 
inconstans. in response to predation by northern pike, Esox lucius. Environ- 
mental Biology of Fishes 8(3/4):255-267. 

Populations of brook stickleback from Alberta and Saskatchewan exhibit 
phenotypic variation in expression of the pelvic skeleton and associated 
spines, from complete presence through intermediate forms to complete 
absence. Such variation influences predation by pike, which prefer the least 
spiny prey. 

1985 An empirical evaluation of several univariate methods that adjust for size 
variation in morphometric data. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63:1429-1439. 
An extensive set of morphological data collected from 300 pike from five 
geographic regions from both Europe and North America is examined to 
determine what analytical procedures should be used to reduce the effect of 
size variation. 
REMBISZEWSKI, J. M. and H. ROLIK 

1975 Katalog fauny Polski kraglouste i ryby. [Catalogue of the fauna of Poland 
Cyclostomata and Pisces.] Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Zoology. 
252 pp. 

REMOROV, V. A. 

1966 Motor function in the stomach of the pike (Esox lucius L.) and the influence 
on it of transection of the vagus nerves. Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR Imeni 
I. M. Sechenova 5 1:6 13-620. 
RENAULD. R. 

1953 Le brochet. Ses moeurs. — Ses peches. Paris, Bornemann, p. 128. 
REPERANT, J., M. LEMIRE, D. MICELI and J. PEYRICHOUX 

1976 A radioautographic study of the visual system in freshwater teleosts following 
intraocular injection of tritiated fucose and proline. Brain Research 
118:123-131. 

REZNICHENKO, P. N. 

1956a O ritmakh dvizhenii embrionov nekotorykh kostistykh ryb. [On the move- 
ment rhythm of embroys of some bony fish (Teleostei).] /// Soveshchanie po 
biologicheskim osnovam rybnogo kho/yaistvo. Te/isy dokladov, pp. 35-36. 

1956b Protsess stanovleniya embrional'noi motoriki shchuki v khode ontogeneze. 
[Development process of the embryonic motor system of pike in the course <>t 

263 



ontogeny.] /// Tezisy dokladov na soveshchanii po izucheniy fiziologii ryb, 
pp. 57-59. 
1958 Ontogenez embrional 'noi motoriki schuki. [The ontogenesis of the 
embryonic motor activity in the pike.] Trudy Soveshchanii Ikhtiologicheskoi 
Komissii Akademii Nauk SSSR 8:393-409. 

Movements of the pike embryo were observed from fertilization to hatching. 
The effects of temperature, oxygen, and carbon dioxide were studied using 
kymography and time photography. Two stages of embryonic motor activity 
were identified, protoplasmic and neuromuscular activity. 
REZNICHENKO, P. N., N. V. KOTLYAREVSKAYA and M. V. GULIDOV 

1966 Demonstration of specific ecological features of pike spawn in relation to 
temperature by incubation at constant temperature. Proceedings of All-Union 
Congress on the Ecological Physiology of Fishes, Moscow. 

1967 Survival rates of pike spawn incubated at constant temperature. In Morpho- 
ecological Analysis of the Development of Fishes. Moscow, Nauka. 

RHODES, C. J. and W. BARKER 

1953 Alaska's fish and wildlife. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Circular 17:1-60. 
RHUDE, L. 

1980 Driedmeat Lake - northern pike tagging study. Alberta Department of Energy 
and Natural Resources. 
RIBELIN, W. E. and G. MIGAKI, eds. 

1975 The pathology of fishes. Madison, The University of Wisconsin Press. 
RICHARD, A. 

1979 Recherches sur les etangs. Contribution a 1'etude du brochet {Esox lucius L. 
1758). Croissance et population. Institute National de la Recherche Agro- 
nomique, Ecologie Hydrobiologique Rennes. 
RICHARDS, B. and N. FICKLING 

1979 Zander. London, A. & C. Black. 
RICHARDSON, J. 

1836 The fish. Part 3. Fauna Boreali-Americana; or the zoology of the northern 
parts of British America; containing descriptions of the objects of natural his- 
tory collected on the late northern land expeditions under command of Sir 
John Franklin, R. N. London, R. Bently. 327 pp. 
RICHARDSON, JR. 

1823 Notice of the fishes. In Franklin, J., ed., Narrative of a journey to the shores 
of the Polar Sea in the years 1819, 1820, 1821 and 1822. London, John Mur- 
ray, pp. 705-728. 
1836 Fishes. In Back, G., ed., Narrative of the Arctic Land Expedition of the 
mouth of the Great Fish River and along the shores of the Arctic Ocean in the 
years 1833, 1834, and 1835. London, John Murray, pp. 518-522. 
RICHARDSON, L. R. 

1935 The freshwater fishes of south eastern Quebec. Ph.D. thesis, McGill Univer- 
sity. 
1941 The parasites of the fishes of Lake Wakonichi, central northern Quebec. 

Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 71:286-289. 
1944 Brief record of fishes from central northern Quebec. Copeia 1944:205-208. 
RICKARDS, B. 

1976 Pike fishing step by step. London, Cassells. 



264 



1978 Tarbel turns up trumps. Angler's Mail, April 12, 1978, pp. 8-9. 

Advice on suitable location and tackle for angling at Loch Lomond. Scotland. 

based on author's trip there. Photographs of trip. 
1980 Pike killing: the big con. Coarse Fisherman, December 1980, pp. 32-33. 

An attempt to persuade anglers not to remove big pike. 
1984 The great Irish tolly. Coarse Fisherman, April 1984, pp. 42-43. 

Contains tables that record numbers and tonnage of pike killed by the Irish 

Inland Fisheries Trust. 
RICKARDS. B. and R. WEBB 

1971 Fishing for big pike. London, A. & C. Black. 
RICKARDS, B. and K. WHITEHEAD 

1976 Plugs and plug fishing. London. A. &. C. Black. 

1977 Spinners, spoons and wobbled baits. London, A. & C. Black. 
RICKER. W. E. 

1975 Computation and interpretation of biological statistics of fish populations. 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada Bulletin 191:1-382. 
RICKER. W. E..cd. 

1968 Methods for assessment of fish production in fresh waters. Oxford, 
Blackwells. IBP Handbook No. 3. 313 pp. 
RIDENHOUR. R. L. 

1955 The northern pike. Esox lucius L., population of Clear Lake, Iowa. M.S. 

thesis, Iowa State University. 
1957 Northern pike, Eso.x lucius L., population of Clear Lake, Iowa. Iowa State 
College Journal of Science 32:1-18. 

Gill nets, fyke nets, wire traps, and angling were used to collect 445 pike 
from 1941 to 1955 in Clear Lake and adjacent Ventura Marsh. Growth and 
condition of pike from the lake, marsh, and other systems were compared. 
Angler tag returns were used to estimate harvest. The lake was stocked in 
1953. 
1960 Abundance, growth, and food of young game fish in Clear Lake, Iowa, 1949 
to 1957. Iowa State Journal of Science 35:1-23. 
RIEHL. R. and K. J. GOETTING 

1975 Structure and development of the micropyles in the oocytes of some freshwa- 
ter teleosts. Zoologischer Anzeiger 195:363-373. 
RIEHL. R. and E. SCHULTE 

1977 Vergleichende rasterelektronenmicroskopische Untersuchungen an den 
Mikropylen ausgewaehlter Suesswasser-Teleosteer. [Scanning electron 
microscopical investigations of the micropyles of selected freshwater teleost 
fishes]. Archiv fuer Fischereiwissenschaft 28(2-3):95-107. 

Criteria based on micropyles can be used for the identification of eggs. Pike 
eggs can be fertilized when their micropyles are clogged. This explains why 
egg envelopes must also be penetrable for sperm at other places. 

1978 Bestimmungsschlussel der wichtigsten deutschen Susswasser-Teleosteer 
anhand ihrer Eier. |An identification key of the most important German 
freshwater teleost fishes by means of their eggs.| Archiv fuer Hydrobiologie 
83:200-212. 

RIEMENS.R.G. 

1977 Overleving van snoek die met de hengel is gevangen en meteen daarna is 
teruggezet. | Survival of northern pike capture by angling and released 

265 



immediately after capture.] Annual Report Organisatie ter Verbetering van 
de Binnenvisserij 1975/1976:67-83. [in Dutch, English summary] 
1978 De invloed van geslikte enkele en drietandige haken op de overleving van de 
hengelgevangen snoek. [The influence of swallowed single and treble hooks 
on the survival of northern pike caught by angling.] Annual Report Organisa- 
tie ter Verbetering van de Binnenvisserij 1977/1978:60-68. [in Dutch, 
English summary] 
RIPLEY, O. 

1932 Muskies in the fall. Rod and Gun in Canada 34(4): 13. 
RISTIC, M. 

1964 Nova saznanja u komplexu problems vestackog razmnozavanja stuke (Esox 
luciusL.). Ribarstvo Jugoslaviye 19(3):57-63. 
R1VO 

1976 Projekt5.1. Onderzoek snoek. [Northern pike research.] Visserj 29:313. 
RIZVANOV, R. A. 

1971 The availability of food and spawning grounds for the Lake Ladoga pike- 
perch [Lucioperca lucioperca (L.)]. Journal of Ichthyology 1 1:624-630. 
Pike are one of the species consumed by young pike-perch. 
RIZVI, S. S. H. 

1969 Studies on the structure of the sucker and seasonal incidence of Argulus 
foliaceus (L., 1758) on some freshwater fishes (Branchiura, Argulidae). 
Crustaceans 17:200-206. 

A. foliaceus was found on pike from the eutrophic lake, Rostherne Mere. The 
fish showed infestations rates from 16 to 31.28% with an intensity of 1 to 10 
parasites per infested host. The total of infested fish was high from July to 
September. 
ROACH, L. S. 

1948 In fishing circles. Ohio Conservation Bulletin 12(6): 12-1 3. 
ROBERTSON, D. 

1886 The pike Esox lucius L. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Glas- 
gow, N.S. 2:212-214. 
ROBERTSON, M. R. 

1969 An investigation of a spawning population of northern pike {Esox lucius Lin- 
naeus) from Floatingstone Lake, Alberta. Alberta Fish and Wildlife Division, 
Research Report 5:1-57. 
ROBINSON, G. 

1941 Bait casting. A.S.Barnes. 66 pp. 
ROGALSKI, J. 

1937 Moj Pobyt w Wielkopolskim - Pomorskim Towarzystwie Rybackim w czasie 
produkcji ikry szczupaka. [My visit to Pomeranian Fishery Association dur- 
ing production of pike eggs.] Przeglad Rybacki 10(7):268-270. 
Methods of artificial fertilization of pike eggs. 
ROGOWSKI, U. and F. W. TESCH 

1961 Erste Nahrung fressfahig gewardener Fischbrut. Zeitschrift fuer Fischerei 
9:735-747. 
ROSEBOROUGH, D. 

1957 Internal repqrt on the age of pike in inner Long Point Bay. Ontario Depart- 
ment of Lands and Forests, unpublished MS. 



266 



ROSEN. D. E. 

1974 Phylogeny and zoogeography of salmoniform fishes and relationships of 
Lepidogalaxias salamandr aides. Bulletin of the American Museum of 
Natural History 153:267-325. 
ROSENLUND. K. 

1976 Catalogue of subfossil Danish vertebrates. Fishes. Kobenhavn. 
A report of pike remains found in Denmark. 
ROSS. D. A. 

1940 Jackfish investigations. Alberta. Winnipeg, Dueks Unlimited. 
ROSS. M. J. and C. F. KLEINER 

1982 Shielded-needle technique for surgical implanting radio-frequency 
transmitters in fish. Progressive Fish-Culturist 44:41-43. 
Describes a shielded-needle technique to guide an antenna of Teflon coated 
conductor wire along the intestine under the pelvid girdle. The method 
enables the transmitter to be positioned anywhere in the peritoneal cavity, 
thus reducing healing problems and the damage to vital organs that may occur 
when the transmitter is placed at the incision or anterior to it. 
ROSS. M.J. andD. B. SINIFF 

1980 Spatial distribution and temperature selection of fish near the thermal outfall 
of a power plant during fall, winter, and spring. Environmental Protection 
Agency Report EPA-600/3-80-009. 

ROSS. M. J. and J. D. WINTER 

1981 Winter movements of four fish species near a thermal plume in northern Min- 
nesota. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 1 10:14-18. 

During winter 1975, six pike were equipped with radio frequency transmitters 
to determine movements. Data on mean home range size, mean water depths 
at fish location, and average number of movements between heated and 
unheated areas per individual per week. 
ROSSI. A.. P. DAMIANI and E. DONATI 

1973 Characterization of the principal fish species of Trasimeno Lake by protein 
electrophoretic patterns. Rivista di Idrobiologica 12:3-20. 
ROST. G. 

1914 Einhumische Fische: Hecht. Woehenschrift Aquarien und Terrarien Kunde 
11:284-285. 
ROSTLUND, E. 

1952 Freshwater fish and fishing in native North America. University of California 
Publications in Geography 9: 1-3 1 3. 
ROTH. H. 

1960 The propagation of pike and the development of fry. Schweizerische 
Fischerei-Zeitung 9:214-216, 10:239-243. 

ROTH. H. and W. GEIGER 

1972 Brienzersee, Thunersee, and Bielersee: effects of exploitation and eutrophi- 
cation on the salmonid communities. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board 
of Canada 29:755-764. 
ROTHSCHILD. B. J. 

1961 Production and survival of eggs of the American smelt, Osmerus mordax 
(Mitchill). M.S. thesis, Cornell University. 41pp. 



!67 



ROUSSOW, G. 

1960 Cycle du parasite Diphyllobothrium latum (Linne). Journal de Bord de 
rotrice Biologie 3(52): 398-401. 
ROWLEY, L. B. 

1934 Lake Wingra and its borders in the seventies. /// Sachse, N. D. A thousand 
ages. App. 1 , pp. 109-114. 
ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM 

1946 Pike, pickerel and maskinonge. Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology, mimeo- 
graphed circular no. 1:1-3. 

Discussion of the common names of the Esocidae and the various fish to 
which these names have been applied. An effort was made to define each 
species and apply an appropriate common name. 
ROYER, L. M. 

1971 Comparative production of pike fingerlings from adult spawners and from fry 
planted in a controlled spawning marsh. Progressive Fish-Culturist 
33:153-155. 

Study was done over a 7-year period at Kenosee Lake, Saskatchewan. 
Stocked adult spawners produced 1000+ fingerlings/acre while the planted fry 
produced only 2 fingerlings/acre. Possible factors responsible for the low sur- 
vival of hatchery fry are discussed. 
ROZANSKI, M. 

1913a Czy me nalezaloby zwrocic uwagi na szczupaka? [Should we not pay atten- 
tion to pike?] Okolnik Rybacki 30(3):46-48. 
Points out pike's value as a consumption and market product. 
1913b W sprawie sztucznej hodowli szczupakow. [On artificial breeding of pike.] 
Okolnik Rybacki 30(8): 161-165. 
Some sceptical comments on artificial farming of pike. 
1914 Szczupak (Esox Indus). [The pike (Esox lucius).] Okolnik Rybacki 
3 1(6): 128-1 32. 

General data on pike biology. Role of pike in fishery management. 
ROZNIAKOWSKI, J. 

1957 Zaplodnienie ikry szczupaka bezposrednio w sloju. [Fertilization of pike 
eggs directly in ajar.] Gospodarka Rybna 9(5):27. 

"Dry" method of artificial fertilization of pike eggs; 95% survival of the eggs 
was obtained. 
ROZWADOWSKI.J. 

1904 Szczupak (Esox lucius - Der Hecht). [The pike (Esox lucius - Der Hecht).] 
Okolnik Rybacki 69:81-91. 

Morphometry, biology, distribution, pond farming, commercial and recrea- 
tional catches of pike. 
RUBNER, M. 

1924 Aus dem Leben des Kaltbluters. I. Teil: Die Fische. [On the life of cold- 
blooded animals. 1. Fishes.] Biochemische Zeitschrift 148:222-267. 
RUCKE 

1911 Die kunstliche Aufzucht der Hechtbrut. Fischerei Zeitung Neudamm 
14:199-200. 
RUDAKOVSKIY, L. G., L. N. SOLODILOV, V. R. PROTAXOV and V. M. KRUMIN 

1970 The frightening of fish by an explosion. Journal of Ichthyology 10:555-557. 
Indications that pike may have been frightened by the explosive effect of 

268 



pneumatic emitters with chamber volumes of 0.7 and 3 liters and a gas deto- 
nator with a chamber of S liters, whose main energ) was concentrated in the 
frequency band 20-150 cps, and also the detonation of hexogen charges 
weighing between 1.5 and 35 g. 
RUDD, J. W. M.. A. FURUTAN1 and M. A. TURNER 

1980 Mercury methylation by fish intestinal contents. Applied Environmental 
Microbiology 40:777-782. 
RUDEBERG.C. 

1969 Structure of the parapineal organ of the adult rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri 
Richardson. Zeitschrift fuer Zellforschung unci Microskopische Anatomic 
Abtetlung Histochemia 93:282-304. 
1971 Structure of the pineal organs of Anguilla anguilla and Lebistes reticulums 
Teleostei. Zeitschrift fuer Zellforschung und Microsckopische Anatomic 
Abtetlung Histochemia 122:227-243. 
RUDENKO, G. P. 

1971 Biomass and abundance in a roach-perch lake. Voprosy Ikhtiologii 
11:630-642. 

In July 1961 fish were collected by toxicant treatment on Lake Dements, 
USSR. Data given include biomass, production, abundance, and size-age and 
sex structure of the pike population. 
RUDENKO. G. P. and Y. P. VOLKOV 

1974 The productivity of the fish populations in the mesotrophic Lake Rachkovo, 
the Velikaya River basin. Hydrobiological Journal 10:63-67. 
RUDNICKI. A. 

1951 Ryby i ich zycie. [Fishes and their life.] Wiedze Powszechna. 72 pp. 
1965 Ryby wod polskich. Atlas. [Fishes of Polish waters. Atlas.] Panstwowe 
Zaklady Wydawnictw Szkolnych. 104 pp. 
RUDNICKI. A.. J. WALUGA and T. WALUS 

197J Rybactwo jeziorowe. [Lake fisheries.] Warsaw, PWRiL. 391pp. 
RUDOLPHI.C. A. 

1802 Anatomisch-physiologische Abhandlungen. Ueber die Darmzotten, pp. 
39-108. 
RULEWICZ, M. 
• 1974 Ze studiow nad rybolowstwen we wczesnosredniowiecznych miastach przy 
ujscie Odry. Archeologia Polski 19:387-475. 

Reference to 9th- 13th century angling for pike, including the use of iron and 
brass spoons. 
RUNDBERG. H. 

1977 Trends in harvests of pikeperch (Stizostedion lucioperca), Eurasian perch 
(Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike {Esox lucius) and associated environmen- 
tal changes in lakes Malaren and . Hjalmaren 1914-74. Journal of the 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada 34:1720-1724. 

The fish communities in and the trophic states of lakes Malaren and Hjal- 
maren have changed gradually since the late 1700's. In both lakes, pike arc 
important species in the recreational and commercial fishery. 
RUNNSTROM. S. 

1949 Director's report for the year 1948. Institute of Freshwater Research 
Drottningholm, Report 29:5-28. 



!69 



1950 Director's report for the year 1949. Institute of Freshwater Research 
Drottningholm, Report 31:5-18. 

Outlines results of several tagging methods, which were an attempt to assess 
the effectiveness of stocking in Sweden, and experiments on egg loss in 
nature. Notes the outcome of stocking the colour mutant. 
1954 Director's annual report for the year 1953. Institute of Freshwater Research 
Drottningholm, Report 35:5-10. 
RUPP, R. S. 

1959 Variation in the life history of the American smelt in inland waters of Maine. 
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 88:241-252. 
RUTLEDGE, W. P. and S. G. CLARKE 

1971 Fisheries studies. Region 1-A. Northern pike study. Texas Parks and 
Wildlife Department, Project F-7-R-20/Job 176:1-10. 

Data collected during 1971 indicated that the pike population in Greenbelt 
Lake, Texas, was rapidly declining. There were 91 pike captured, 52 tagged, 
28 examined for stomach contents and gonadal development, and an absence 
of pike spawning during 1 97 1 . 
RUTLEDGE. W. P. and J. A. PRENTICE 

1973 Northern pike life history study. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Pro- 
ject F-7-R-21, Job 17b: 1-30. 

To assess the 1967 introduction of pike into Texas lakes, a study was con- 
ducted from 1968 to 1971 on Greenbelt Lake, Donley County. Food and 
reproductive habits, growth patterns, seasonal distribution and movement, and 
parasitic observations were made. 

RYCHECKY, F. 

1966 Chov rocni nasady a rychleneho pludku stiky. Ces rybarstvi 4:53-54. 

RYDER, R. A. and S. R. KERR 

1978 The adult walleye in the percid community — a niche definition based on feed- 
ing behaviour and food specificity. American Fisheries Society Special Pub- 
lication 11:39-51. 

RYDER, R. A., S. R. KERR, K. H. LOFTUS and H. A. REGIER 

1974 The morphoedaphic index, a fish yield estimator - review and evaluation. 
Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 31:663-688. 

RYDER, R. A., W. B. SCOTT and E. J. GROSSMAN 

1964 Fishes of northern Ontario, north of the Albany River. Royal Ontario 
Museum, Life Sciences Contribution 60:1-30. 

Gives distribution, habitat, and commercial importance of pike in the Patricia 
portion of Ontario. 






70 



SACHSE. N.D. 

1965 A thousand ages. Regents of the University of Wisconsin. Madison. LSI pp. 
SACKMAUEROVA. M., O. PALTJSOVA and A. SZOKOLAY 

1977 Contribution to the study o\' drinking water. Danube water and biocenoses 
contamination with chlorinated insecticides. Water Research 1 1:551-556. 
SAKOWICZ. L. 

1939 Szczupak. Produkcja materialu zarybieniowego. [Pike. Production of stock- 
ing material.] Wydawnictwa Zw. Org. Rybacki R.P., Warsaw. Ser. B, Prak- 
tyczne Opracowania Techniczno-Gospodarcze 1 1:1-52. 
An outline of pike biology, methods of stocking, and breeding of pike fry. 
SAKOWICZ. L. and W. URBANOWSKI 

1933 Wasowa produkcja zaoczkowanej ikry szczupaka. [Mass production of eyed 
pike eggs.] Przeglad Rybacki 6(6): 198-205. 

Practical suggestions on the method of incubating pike eggs in two types of 
California!] apparatus, together with the methods of egg transport. 
SALMI. J. 

1982 Food of northern pike, perch, pike-perch and burbot in our coastal waters. 
M.S. thesis. University of Helsinki. 97 pp. [in Finnish] 
SALOJARVI. K.. H. AUVINEN and E. IKONEN 

1981 A plan for management of fishery in the watercourse of the River Oulujoki. 
Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Fisheries Division. Monestet- 
tuja julkaisuja 1:1-277. 

1982 A plan for fisheries management in the lakes drained by the Oulujoki River. 
Hydrobiologia 86:21 1-218. 

SALYER. J. C. II and K. F. LAGLER 

1949 The eastern belted kingfisher, Megaceryle alcyon alcyon (Linnaeus), in rela- 
tion to fish management. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 
76:97-117. 

The kingfisher eats pike, which are considered to be a liability in trout 
streams. 

SAMOKHVALOVA. L. K. 

1974 The biological characteristics of the pike. Trudy Atlanticheskogo Nauchno- 
IssledovateLskogo Instituta Rybnogo Khozyaistva Okeanografii 46:148-153. 
.1976 Ratsiony in kormovye koehffitsienty khishchnykh rybrkurshskogo zaliva. 
[Diets and food coefficients in predatory fish from Kursiu Mariosh.) /// 
Fedorov, S. S., et al., eds., Biological fishery investigations in the Atlantic 
Ocean. Kaliningrad, AtlantNIRO, 65:69-75. 

The annual rations and food coefficients in pike were calculated from the bal- 
ance equation formula suggested by Vinberg. Food coefficients were \\n\v,L\ 
to increase with the predator age and to be significantly higher in males than 
in females. 

SANDERSON, C. H. and Z. BEAN 

1974 Tiger muskellunge culture. Artificial diet — concrete rearing units. Proceed- 
ings 6th Interstate Muskellunge Workshop, Morehead. Kentucky, 1974. pp. 
19-20. 

Discusses a project to determine the practicability of training pike 
muskellunge hybrids to accept pellet food. Data indicate some success. 



'71 



SAUTER. S., K. S. BUXTON, K. J. MACEK and S. R. PETROCELLI 

1976 Effects of exposure to heavy metals on selected freshwater fish. U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency, National Environmental Research Centre, 
Ecological Research Series, EPA 600/3-76-105:1-75. 
SAUVADON.G. 

1868 Note sur le brochet. Bulletin de la Societe Acclim. Paris, 2, ser. 5. 
SAVAGE, A. G. 

1983 The ultrastructure of the blood cells of the pike Esox lucius L. Journal of 
Morphology 178:187-206. 

The ultrastructure of pike peripheral blood cells, lymphocytes, thrombocytes, 
granulocytes, and monocytes is described. 
SAZONOVA. Y. A. 

1979 The fecundity of the pike of Lake Pskov-Chud. /// Fisheries development of 
reservoirs. Leningrad, State Institute for Lake and Rivers Fisheries, 
26:48-51. 
SBIKIN, Y. N. 

1974 External morphology of the brain in Acipenseridae. Journal of Ichthyology 
13:797-800. 

Brief information on optic lobes of pike. 
SCHAFERNA, K. 

1944 Aus der Pathologie der Susswasserfische. Archiv fuer Hydrobiologie 
40:733-742. 
SCHAPERCLAUS, W. 

1933 Lehrbuch der Teichwirtschaft. Berlin, Paul Parey. 289 pp. U.S. Fish and 

Wildlife Service Leaflet 31 1:1-260. 
1940 Studies on eggs and fry of marane, pike and trout. International Association 

of Theoretical and Applied Limnology Proceedings 9:215-251. 
1961 Lehrbuch der Teichwirt-schaft. Berlin, Paul Parey. 582 pp. 
1979 Fischkrankheiten, 4th ed. Berlin, Akademie Verlag. 
SCHAU1NSLAND 

1906 In O. Hertwing's Entwickelunglehre der wirbeltiere. Bd. iii, Teil 2, Kap. vi, 
1906 Jena. 
SCHINDLER 

1946 Concerning the development, habits and the culture of the pike. Allgemeine 
Fischerei-Zeitung71(7/8):13-16, (9/10):l-6. 
SCHLESINGER, D. A. and H. A. REGIER 

1983 Relationship between environmental temperature and yields of subarctic and 
temperate zone fish species. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sci- 
ences 40: 1 829- 1 837. 
SCHLUMPBERGER, W. 

1961 Besatz mit Hechtbrut oder vorgestreckten Hechten? Ein Beitrag zur Frage 
der Rentabilitat des Hechtbesatzes. Deutsche Fischerei Zeitung 8:259-261. 
SCHMIDT, B. 

1913 Das Gegiss den Cyclopterus lumpus L. Zeitschrift fuer Natur- 
wissenschaftich-Medizinische Grundlagenforschung 49:3 1 3-372. 
SCHMIDT, K. P. 

1946 On the zoogeography of the Holarctic region. Copeia 1966(3): 144-152. 



272 



SCHMIDTT. H. 

1980 Fisheries studies of a gravel pit lake used exclusively by spoil fishermen. /// 
Gravel pit lakes and nature conservation characteristics and usefulness. -\ka 
demie der Natursch. Landschaftspflege, Laufen/Salzach, pp. 243-257. 

The results show the importance of gravel pits for private angling clubs, and 
conclusions are discussed. Activities leading to unnatural composition of the 

tish populations are shown. 
SCHM1TZ. W. R. 

1953 Observations of the northern pike in Lake Mendota. University of Wisconsin, 
unpublished speeial report. 

A report of spawning observations and collections o\' spontaneously laid eggs 
made in marshes of Lake Mendota in 1952. 
SCHNAKENBECK, W. 

1936 Uber den Zahnweehsel beim Heeht. Zoologischer Anzeiger 1 l4(3/4):69-76. 
SCHNEIDER. J. C. 

1971 Charaeteristies of a population of warm-water fish in a southern Michigan 
lake. 1964-1969. Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Research 
Development Report 236:1-158. 

The size of the fish populations was estimated each spring by means of 
mark-recapture techniques. Data on growth and food habits were also col- 
lected. Age structure, year class strength, and natural mortality rates o\' the 
fish populations were determined. 
SCHNUTE. J. and D. FOURNIER 

1980 A new approach to length-frequency analysis: growth structure. Canadian 
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 37: 1 337- 1 35 1 . 
SCHOENECKER, W. 

1961 Summary of northern pike, Esox lucius, tagging in Watts Lake, Cherry 
County. Nebraska Game and Parks Commission Annual Report, 1961:34-37. 
1970 Management of winterkill lakes in the sandhill region of Nebraska. /// Schne- 
berger, E., ed., A symposium on the management of midwestern Winterkill 
lakes. American Fisheries Society, North Central Division, Special Publica- 
tion. 
SCHOETTGER. R. A. and E. W. STEUCKE. Jr. 
. 1970a Quinaldine and MS-222 as spawning aids for northern pike, muskellunge, and 
walleyes. Progressive Fish-Culturist 32: 199-201 . 

The study was done under held conditions using 10 to 20 ppm of quinaldine. 
or 100 to 150 ppm of MS-222. Both anesthetics act rapidly. Quinaldine 
could be tolerated for relatively long exposures but did not block reflex 
activity, while the reverse was true if MS-222 was used. 
1970b Synergic mixtures o\' MS-222 and quinaldine as anesthetics for rainbow trout 
and northern pike. Progressive Fish-Culturist 32:202-205. 
Mixtures were found to be 3 to 5 times more effective, with a reduced chemi 
cal cost of 609r or more (ranges 20-60 ppm MS-222 and 5-20 ppm quinal- 
dine). All reflex movement was blocked within 2 to 12 minutes, and 
anesthesia maintained for up to one hours. 
SCHOLTZ. ( 

1932 Experimental Untersuchungen die Nahrungsuertung ties ein und zweisom 
merigen Hechtes. Zeitschrift fuer Fischerei 30:523-604. 



273 



SCHOOTS, A. F. M. and J. M. DENUCE 

1981 Purification and characterization of hatching enzyme of the pike (Eso.x 

Indus). International Journal of Biochemistry 13:591-602. 

A choriolytic enzyme was isolated from the hatching medium of pike. The 

molecular weight was 24,000, its isoelectric point was 6.5 and pH optimum 

about pH 8. The enzyme was a glycoprotein containing 2% carbohydrate. 

The molecule contained two disulphide bonds but no free cysteine. Enzyme 

was a zinc-metal-loprotease. 
SCHOOTS, A. F. M., P. A. C. M. EVERTSE and J. M. DENUCE 

1983 Ultrastructural changes in hatching-gland cells of pike embryos (Eso.x lucius 

L.) and evidence for their degeneration by apoptosis. Cell and Tissue 

Research 229:573-589. 
SCHOOTS, A. F. M., B. J. A. JANSSEN and J. M. DENUCE 

1981 Antigenicity of highly purified hatching enzyme from the pike, Eso.x lucius. 
Archives Internationales de Physiologie et de Biochimie 89:B75-B76. 

The function and possible source of the proteolytic or hatching enzyme (HE) 
is discussed. The preparation of antibodies against pike hatching enzyme and 
some preliminary immunological studies are described. 
SCHOOTS, A. F. M., R. J. G. OPSTELTEN and J. M. DENUCE 

1982 Hatching in the pike Eso.x lucius L.: Evidence for a single hatching enzyme 
and its immunocytochemical localization in specialized hatching gland cells. 
Developmental Biology 89:48-55. 

Antibodies against purified hatching enzyme (HE) have been used to examine 
different aspects of the presence of the enzyme in the ontogeny of pike. 
Immunochemical analysis indicates that the two proteolytic enzymes that 
occur in the hatching medium rise from a single protease. 
Immunofluorescence microscopy by means of anti-HE demonstrates that HE 
is localized in the so-called hatching gland cells. HE can be detected from 
the ten somite stage on. Discrete hatching gland remnant bodies phago- 
cytized by epidermal cells are observed in larval stages until 3-7 days after 
emergence of the embryo. 

SCHOOTS, A. F. M., J. J. M. STIKKELBROECK, J. F. BEKHUIS and J. MANUEL DENUCE 
1982 Hatching in teleostean fishes; fine structural changes in the egg envelope dur- 
ing enzymatic breakdown in vivo and in vitro. Journal of Ultrastructure 
Research 80:185-196. 

During the hatching process distinct ultrastructural changes take place in the 
egg envelopes of pike. In the pike, with thin envelopes, a decrease in thick- 
ness of 30% is observed. The extent to which the ZRI is affected in vitro by 
hatching enzyme or Pronase depends on incubation time, temperature, and 
enzyme concentration. Total breakdown of the ZRI is possible, while the 
zona radiata externa remains intact. 

SCHOPF, J.F. 

1 784 Der gemeine Hecht in Amerika. Naturforcher 20:26-3 1 . 

SCHREITMULLER, W. 

1915 Junge Hechte (Eso.x lucius L.) im aquarium. Blattchen Aquarien und Ter- 
rarien Kunde 26:209-21 1. 

SCHRYER, F. and W. D. COLE 

1966 Statewide fisheries survey. Determinations of conditions under which north- 
ern pike spawn naturally in Kansas reservoirs. Kansas Forestry, Fish and 

274 



Game Commission, Dingell-Johnson Report F-15-R-l/Wk.Pl. C/Job 3:1-40. 

SCHRYER. F. and V. EBERT 

1%8 Statewide fisheries survey. Determination of conditions under which north- 
ern pike spawn naturally in Kansas reservoirs. Kansas Forestry, Fish and 
Game Commission. Dingell-Johnson Report F-15-R-3/Wk.Pl. C/Job 
3/PT3:l-17. 

SCHRYER, F.. V. W. EBERT and L. DOWLIN 

1971 Statewide fisheries survey. Determination of conditions under which north- 
ern pike spawn naturally in Kansas reservoirs. Kansas Forestry, Fish and 
Game Commission. Dingell-Johnson Report F-15-R-6/Wk.Pl. C/Job 
3/FIN:l-37. 

Presents complete records of stocking and a review of reproduction. Data on 
tag returns, growth, population dynamics, and other observations during 6 
years of pike study at two reservoirs. 

SCHULTZ. F. H. 

1955 Investigation of the spawning of northern pike in Prince Albert National Park, 
Saskatchewan, 1953. Canadian Wildlife Service, Wildlife Management Bul- 
letin, ser. 3(4): 1-21. 

The effects of beaver colonies on pike migration were studied to determine 
what action could improve spawning facilities. Dams were dynamited to free 
passageways and pike were trapped on the spawning run. Length, weight, 
age. sex, maturity, and stomach contents were determined. 

1956 Transfer of anaesthetized pike and yellow walleye. Canadian Fish Culturist 
18:1-5. 

Describes experiments to discover how long pike could be held on ice in an 
anaesthetized condition. 

SCHUMANN. GO. 

1963 Artificial light to attract young perch: a new method of augmenting the \\kk\ 
supply of predaceous fish fry in hatcheries. Progressive Fish-Culturist 
25:171-174. 

SCHUPP. D. H. 

1974 The fish population structure and angling harvest of Lake of the Woods. Min- 
nesota 1968-70. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Division of 
Fish and Wildlife, Fisheries Investigational Report 324:1-16. 
Gill nets were used for sampling; six species made up over 999£ of the 
catches. Differences in seasonality of catches and in depth distribution 
among species were noted. Pike appeared able to sustain more intensive sport 
fishing. 

SCHWALME, K. 

1984 The influence of burst exercise on the carbohydrate metabolism and blood 
acid-base status of northern pike (Esox lucius L.). M.S. thesis. University of 
Alberta. 49 pp. 

SCHWALME. K. and W. C. MACKAY 

1985a The influence of exercise-handling stress on blood lactate, acid-base, and 
plasma glucose status of northern pike {Esox lucius L.). Canadian Journal of 
/oology 63:1 125-1 129. 

Capture by angling was used to exercise pike lor the study. Glycogen in the 
white muscle and liver, lactate in the white muscle, liver, and blood, and glu 
cose in the blood were measured from 0-96 hours after exercise. 

275 



1985b The influence of angling-induced exercise on the carbohydrate metabolism of 
northern pike {Esox lucius L.). Journal of Comparative Physiology B 
156:67-75. 

Changes in blood lactate, pH, PCO-,, and plasma bicarbonate, and glucose 
were measured during recovery from exercise-handling stress in chronically 
cannulated pike. Intraarterial infusion of a large quantity of sodium lactate 
elevated plasma glucose only slightly, indicating that postexercise hypergly- 
cemia in pike is a response to stress and not simply a consequence of lactate 
removal by conversion into glucose. 
SCHWALME, K., W. C. MACKAY and D. LINDNER 

1985 Suitability of vertical slot and Denil hshways for passing north-temperate, 
nonsalmonid fish. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 
42:1815-1822. 

Although high water levels allowed most fish to surmount the weir, of those 
that chose the fishway, pike strongly preferred to ascend the Denil hshways. 
Plasma glucose and lactate measurements on pike revealed that ascending the 
Denil hshways was only moderately stressful for these fish. 
SCHWARTZ, F.J. 

1960a The pickerels. Maryland Conservationist 37(4):23-26. 

A short article discussing esocids in Maryland and providing a simple key to 
help distinguish between species. General information on length, weight, 
spawning, and distribution. 

1960b A bibliography of Maryland fisheries, including published and unpublished 
papers on the fisheries and related fields of tidewater Maryland. Chesapeake 
Biological Laboratory Contribution 144:1-35. 

In 1956 pike were first introduced into Maryland in Deep Creek Lake, Garrett 
County, as a predator for yellow perch Pcrca flavescens. 

1962 Artificial pike hybrids, Esox americanus vcrmiculatus x E. lucius. Transac- 
tions of the American Fisheries Society 91:229-230. 

Two experimentally produced hybrids exhibited characteristics intermediate 
between the parent species, although the snout seemed shorter than found 
normally. 

1972 World literature on fish hybrids with an analysis by family, species, and 
hybrid. Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Publication 3:1-328. 
SCHWARTZ, F. J. and H. J. ELSER 

1962 Additions to Maryland list: new record fish. Maryland Conservationist 
39(2):26-27. 
SCHWARTZ, J. J. 

1974 Prevalence of pathogenic pseudomonad bacteria isolated from fish in a warm- 
water lake. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 103:1 14-1 16. 
SCHWARZ, S. S., V. G. ISTSCHENKO, L. A. DOBRINSKAYA, A. Z. AMSTISLAVSKII, I. N. 
BRUSYNINA. I. A. PARAKETZOV and A. S. YAKOLEVA 

1968 Rate of growth and size of the fish brain. A contribution to the problem of 
species and intraspecific categories in different classes of vertebrates. Zoolo- 
gicheskii Zhurnal 47:901-915. [in Russian, English summary | 
SCTDMORE, W. J. 

1955 Notes on thejish population structure of a typical rough lish-crappie lake of 
southern Minnesota. Minnesota Department of Conservation, Investigational 
Report 162:1-1 i. 

276 



1964 Use of yearling northern pike in the management of Minnesota fish lakes. 
Minnesota Division of Game and Fish. Investigational Report 227. 

1970 Using winterkill to advantage. /// A symposium on the management of 
mid western winterkill lakes. 32nd Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference, 
Winnipeg, pp. 47-52. 
SCOTT. D. P. 

1964 Thermal resistance of pike (Eso.x Indus L.), muskellunge (/-.. masquinongy 
Mitchill). and their Fj hybrids. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of 
Canada 21:1043-1049. 

Comparison oi thermal resistances indicates close similarity between the 
species. The hybrids tend to be more resistant to thermal stress at the average 
acclimation and test temperatures encountered in the experiments. The 
greatest difference between the hybrids and parents occurred at the lowest test 
temperatures. 

1974 Mercury concentration o\' white muscle in relation to age, growth, and condi- 
tion in four species of fishes from Clay Lake, Ontario. Journal of the 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada 31:1 723- 1 729. 

Studies of large samples from each of four areas of Clay Fake, a highly 
mercury-contaminated lake, confirmed previous findings that the larger the 
fish, the greater the white muscle mercury concentration, within species, 
within populations. 
SCOTT. D. P. and F. A. J. ARMSTRONG 

1972 Mercury concentration in relation to size in several species of freshwater 
fishes from Manitoba and northwestern Ontario. Journal of the Fisheries 
Research Board of Canada 29:1685-1690. 

Approximately 20 specimens from several fishing areas were obtained by gill 
netting; the largest available size range was collected. Fork lengths and total 
weights were recorded. Mercury in the white muscle was determined. 
SCOTT. W. B. 

1954 Freshwater fishes of eastern Canada. Toronto, University of Toronto Press. 

75 pp. 
1958 A checklist of the freshwater fishes of Canada and Alaska. Royal Ontario 

Museum, Division of Zoology and Palaeontology. 30 pp. 
.1967 Freshwater fishes of eastern Canada, 2nd ed. Toronto, University of Toronto 
Press. 137 pp. 
SCOTT. W. B. and E. J. CROSSMAN 

1969 Checklist of Canadian freshwater fishes with keys for identification. Royal 
Ontario Museum, Life Sciences Miscellaneous Publication. 104 pp. 

1973 Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada Bulletin 
184.966 pp. 

SEABURG. KG. 

1957 A stomach sampler for live fish. Progressive Fish-Culturist 19:137-139. 
SEABURG. K. G. and J. B. MOYLE 

1964 Feeding habits, digestive rates, and growth of some Minnesota warm-water 
fishes. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 93:269-285. 
Quality and quantity of food- ingested, summer feeding habits, and digestion 
rates are reported for pike from two western Minnesota lakes, one of which 
had a dense population of centrarchid pan fishes and the other a smaller popu- 
lation. Both lakes also had game and forage fishes. 

277 



SEAMAN, W. 

1968 ID for fish. Colorado Outdoors. 
SEDLAR, J. 

1969 Die gegenwartige Beschaffenheit des Fisch bestandes im Einzugsgebiet des 
Flusses Nitra (Slowakei). Biologicke Prace 15(2): 1-78. [in Slovakian, Rus- 
sian and German summaries] 

1971 Some data on the age and growth of Stizostedion lucioperca and Esox lucius 
found in the Lake Lion. Biologia 26:627-634. 

SEGERSTRALE, C. 

1948 Northern pike and perch in the coastal waters of southern Finland. Helsinki, 
Skargardsboken, pp. 401-441. 
SEGUIN,R. L. 

1967 Salvelinus fontinalis and other fish of the Quyon River, Pontiac County, Que- 
bec. Quebec Service de la Faune Rapport 4:5-23. 

1972 Work and activity report of the administrative district Outaouais Abitibi dur- 
ing 1967. Quebec Service de la Faune Rapport 6:77-91. 

SEIDLITZ, H.J. 

1979 Einseitiger Hechtfang auf der Edertalsperre und seine Folgen. Osterreichs 
Fischerei 32:6-10. 
SEKUTOWICZ, S. 

1938 Ryby. [Fishes.] Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Ksiazek Szkolnych. 48 pp. 
School atlas of most common fish species. 
SELBIG, W. 

1970 Chemical rehabilitation of chronic winterkill lakes. /// A symposium on the 
management of midwestern winterkill lakes, 32nd Midwest Fish and Wildlife 
Conference, Winnipeg, pp. 27-30. 

SELL, J. 

1974 Przyczynki do plamicy szczupakow i wrzodzienicy lososiowatych. [Macu- 

losis of pike and furunculosis of salmonids.] Gospodarka Rybna 

26(10): 16- 17. 

Factors causing the disease. Description of clinical symptoms. Methods of 

prevention and cure. 
SELL, R. J. 

1952 A survey of the incidence of infestation of helminth parasites in the northern 

pike, Esox lucius, from northwestern Ohio. M.S. thesis. Bowling Green State 

University, 26 pp. 
SENTEIN, P. and P. REBOULIN 

1969 Origine mitochondriale du vitellus dans l'ovocyte d'Esox lucius L. Comptes 
Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances d l'Academie des Sciences, Serie D, Sci- 
ences Naturelles 268:345-347. 

SEPPANEN, P. 

1970 The growth of fishes in the Helsinki Sea area. Water Conservation Labora- 
tory Report 2( 12): 1 -89. [ in Finnish] 

SEREBRINIKOVA, T. P. and E. M. LYZLOVA 

1977 Some characteristics of the molecular evolution of glycogen phosphorylase 
and amino transferases in muscle tissue of vertebrates. Journal of Evolution- 
ary Biochemistry and Physiology 13:106-1 13. 



278 



SERNS. S. L. and T. C. MCKNIGHT 

1977 The occurrence of northern pike \ grass pickerel hybrids and an exceptionally 
large grass pickerel in a northern Wisconsin stream. Copeia 1977:780-781. 
Five hybrids were captured between 1970 and 1975 in Rice Creek, Vilas 
County, using 25-mm square mesh fyke nets. A table listing the characteris- 
tics of each species and the hybrid is given, along with a physical and chemi 
cal description of the creek. 
SHAFI. M. 

1969 Comparative studies of populations of perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) and pike 

{Esox lucius L.) in two Scottish lochs. Ph.D. thesis. University of Glasgow. 
1974 Studies of populations of perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius in two 
British lakes. Dacca University Studies, Part B, 22:33-37. 
SHAFI. M. and P. S. MAITLAND 

1971 Comparative aspects of the biology of pike, Esox lucius L., in two Scottish 
lochs. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Section B (Biology) 
71:41-60. 
SHAMARADINA, I. P. 

1954 Changes in the respiratory rate of fishes in the course of their development. 
Doklady Akademii Nauk SSR 98:689-692. [in Russian] 
SHAMARDINA. I. P. 

1957 The developmental stages of the pike. Trudy Instituta Morfologii Zhivotnykh 
Akademii Nauk SSSR 16:237-298. 
SHANDON 

1889 The matter of the big Irish pike. American Angler 15(25):898-899. 

The author described large pike commonly found in Ireland in 1889. 
defended the use of the otter and cross line to remove pike from lakes with 
good trout fishing. 
SHARONOV, I. V. 

1961 The role of the pike in the formation of the fish fauna of the Kuibyshev reser- 
voir. Rybnoe Khoziaistvo Respublikanskii Mezhvedomstvennyi Tema- 
ticheskii Nauchnyk Sbornik 12:30-33. 
SHARP. R. W.. L. H. BENNETT and E. C. SAEUGLING 

1952 A preliminary report on the control of fungus in the eggs of the pike {Esox 
lucius) with malachite green. Progressive Fish-Culturist 14:30. 
The experiments reported on here indicate that malachite green might be of 
much value in controlling fungus and reducing the labour in handling pike 
eggs. 
SHCHERBUKHA, A. Y. 

1971 The growth and condition of fishes of the northern Donets and its tributary, 
the Aydar, in the area affected by warm water discharged from Lugansk 
power station. Journal of Ichthyology 1 1 :23 1 -24 1 . 

Information on six species in the USSR, including pike. States minimum 
breeding sizes. 
1974 Study of morphological variability in the pike from some Ukrainian rivers. 
Vestnik Zoologii 2:45-49. 
SHFNTIAKOV, V. A. 

1963 The parameters of fish reactions in electric fields of alternating currents. Bio 
logical aspects of research in reservoirs. Trudy Instituta Biologii Vnutrennikh 
Vod Akademii Nauk SSSR 6-9:224-229 

279 



Considers the influence of temperature and electric conductivity of water on 
reactions of fish in electric fields. One parameter was kept constant and the 
other varied; changes in sensitivity to alternating current were observed. 
SHENTYAKOVA, L. F. 

1966 Some biological and topographical characteristics of fish scales. Gidrobiolo- 

gicheskii Zhurnal 2(3):60-67. 
1969 The technique of compiling monograms for reconstruction of the growth of 
fishes from their scales. Hydrobiological Journal 5(6):83-86. 
SHERSTYUK. V. V. 

1965 Nutrition of Esox Indus in the upper part of the Kremenchug reservoir. 
Gidrobiologicheskii Zhurnal I(6):50— 53. 
SHERWOOD, F. 

1978 Phenetic and cladistic lineages of the family Esocidae (Osteichthyes: Salmon- 
iformes). University of Toronto, unpublished MS. 12 pp. 
A comparison of current theories of esocid phylogeny and evolution based on 
zoogeographical data and some meristics, with those derived from numerical 
taxonomy character analysis. 
SHETTER, D. S. 

1949 A brief history of the sea lamprey problem in Michigan waters. Transactions 
of the American Fisheries Society 76:160-176. 
SHIELDS, J. T. 

1956 Report of fisheries investigations during the third year of impoundment of 
Fort Randall Reservoir, South Dakota, 1955. South Dakota Department of 
Game, Fish and Parks, Dingell-Johnson Project F-l-R-5: 1—91 . 

1957 Report of fisheries investigations during the fourth year of impoundment of 
Fort Randall Reservoir, South Dakota, 1956. South Dakota Department of 
Game, Fish and Parks, Dingell-Johnson Project F-l-R-6:l-60. 

SHIKHSHABEKOV, M. M. 

1978 Sexual cycles of catfish (Silurus glanis L.), pike {Esox lucius L.), perch Perca 
ftuviatilis L.), and pikeperch {Lucioperca lucioperca L.). Journal of Ichthyol- 
ogy 18:457-468. 

The specificity of the sexual cycles and of the spawning ecology of four 
species from Dagestan waters is shown on the basis of material collected in 
1967-1975. 
SHILENKOVA, A. K. 

1956 Materialy po biologii shchuki Irgiz-Turgaiskikh ozer. [Data on the biology of 
pike of the Irgiz-Turgai Lakes.] Sbornik Rabot po Ikhtiologii i Gidrobiologii 
1:215-231. 
SHILIN, Y. A. 

1972 The reproductive system of fish from the middle Kolyma. Soviet Journal of 
Ecology 2:245-252. 
SHKOLNIK-YARROWS, E. G. 

1975 Microscopic study of the comparative morphology of the retina. Neurophy- 
siology 7:52-58. 
SHKORBATOV,G. L. 

1965a Intraspecific variability in respect to oxyphilia among freshwater fishes. 

Gidrobiologicheskii Zhurnal l(5):3-8. (in Russian] 
1965b Intraspecific variability in thermal tolerance among freshwater fishes. Khar- 
kov Universytet Vestnik, Seriia Biologii, 1:123-126. 

280 



SHLYAPNIKOVA. R. L. 

1961 The parasitofauna oi Lake Vyrts'yarv fish. /// Petrushevskii, (i. K... ed. 
Parasites and diseases offish. Jerusalem, Israel Program for Scientific Trans- 
lations, pp. 226-274. 

SHLYUMPBERGER, V. 

1966 Opredelenie soleustoichivosti shchuki Esox lucius s pomoshch 'yu Na 22 . 
| Determination of the salt tolerance of pike (Esox Indus) by means o\' Na .] 
/// Ecology of aquatic organisms. Moscow, Nauka, pp. 161-167. 
The rate of Na" excretion was found to rise with increased salinity. After 
they were transferred from fresh to salt water, the excretion rate increased 
within 5-15 hours. On transfer from salt to fresh water, the Na excretion 
rate fell off within 10 hours. 

SHODEEN. D. 

1969 Spawning marsh area requirements. Presented at 31st Midwest Fish and 
Wildlife Conference, Minnesota, 1969. 

SIBLEY, C. K. 

1922 Notes on the adult fishes of Lake George, and their feeding habits. /// A bio- 
logical survey of Lake George. New York Conservation Commission, pp. 
64-68. 

SIBLEY. C. K. and V. RIMSKY-KORSAKOFF 

1931 Food of certain fishes in the watershed. Section 4. /// A biological survey of 
the St. Lawrence watershed. New York Conservation Department Biological 
Survey 1930, pp. 109-120. 

SIEDELMAN. D. L.. P. B. CUNNINGHAM and R. B. RUSSELL 

1973 Life history studies of rainbow trout in the Kvichak drainage of Bristol Bay. 
Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Sport Fish Division, 14: 1-50. 

SIEFERT. R. E., W. A. SPOOR and R. F. SYRETT 

1973 Effects of reduced oxygen concentrations on northern pike (Esox lucius) 
embryos and larvae. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 
30:849-852. 

At 15 and 19 C, and at flows of 60 and 30 ml/min (velocities about 3.3 and 
1.6 cm/min), 50% oxygen saturation was sufficient for survival and develop- 
ment of pike from fertilization until all surviving larvae fed. Oxygen tensions 
of about 33% saturation appeared inadequate for proper survival. 

SILLS. J. B.. J. L. ALLEN, P. D. HARMAN and C. W. LUHNING 

1973 Residue of quinaldine in ten species of fish following anesthesia with quinal- 
dine sulfate. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Investigations in Fish Control 
50:1-9. 

The concentration and persistence of residues of the anesthetic quinaldine in 
five species of both coldwater and warm water fishes were measured follow- 
ing treatment with the new formulation quinaldine sulfate. Pike were treated 
with 30 mg/1 of quinaldine sulfate for 30 minutes at 7 and 1 2 C. 

SIMONTACCHI, C, C. BOITI. N. BONALDO, P. COLOMBO BELEVEDERE and 

L. COLOMBO 

1983 Hormonal induction of spawning, biosynthesis and plasma levels of ovarian 
steroids in pike (Esox Indus). In Billard, R.. ed., Le brochel gestion dans le 
milieu naturel et elevage. Paris. Institute National de la Recherche Agro- 
nomique, pp. 97-107. 
Three experiments have been worked out on pike females: induction and 

281 



anticipation of spawning in capture females by hormonal injections; study of 
variations in plasma levels of ovarian steroids, according to the ovarian 
maturational condition; and in vitro biosynthesis of ovarian tissue with 
labelled pregnenolone or progesterone. 
SIMONTACCHI. C, D. CASCIOTT1 and C. BOITI 

1982 Plasma steroid profile during the spawning season of pike. In Richter, C. J. J., 
and H. J. Goos (compilers). Reproductive physiology of fish. Center for Agri- 
cultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen, Netherlands, p. 110. 
The aim of this work was to investigate plasma profiles of sex-steroid hor- 
mones in connection with gonadal maturation of female pike during the 
reproductive cycle. 

SIMONTACCHI, C, D. CASCIOTTI, M. SILVESTRELLI and C. BOITI 

1981 Preliminary report on hormonally induced spawning of pike {Esox lucius). 
Abstracts of World Conference on Aquaculture, Venice, 1981. [Abstract] 
SISOVA-KASATOCKINA, O. A. and A. J. DUBOVSKAJA 

1975 Proteinase activity in certain cestode species parasitizing vertebrates of dif- 
ferent classes. Acta Parasitologica Polonica 23:389-393. 
SJOBERCG. 

1983 Gaddan i ett kraftverksmagasin-pbestandsstorlek och fodoval. [Northern pike 
in a river reservoir. Population size and food habits.] FAK informerar nr 16. 
National Board of Fisheries, Harnosand, Sweden. 28 pp. [in Swedish, 
English summary] 

Information on population size, standing crop, food, prey length, sport 
fishing, management. 

SJOLANDER, E. and B. OHMAN 

1981 Gaddlek i kraftverksmagasin. Projektarbete pa fiskevardslinjen, Goteborgs 
Universitet. Unpublished MS. 8 pp. 

SKIBINSKTL. 

1910 Hodowla szczupaka w malych lesnych rzeczulkach. [Pike culture in small 
woodland streams.] Okolnik Rybacki 109:69. 

Culture of two-year-old pike in small enclosures in the rivers of Polesie lake- 
land. 

SKRYABINA, E. S. 

1978 Morphological variability of thorny-headed worms of the genus Neoechi- 
norhynchus Acanthocephala Neoechinorhynchidae from fishes of water 
bodies of the glacial province in USSR. Parazitologiya 12:512-522. 

SKUBBE, G. 

1979 Erfolge und Misserfolge mit dem Hechtvorstreckkasten. Zeitschrift fuer 
Binnenfischerei 26(3):86. 

SKURDAL, J. 

1981 A snub-nosed pike caught in Lake Tyrifhorden. Fauna 34(2):87. 
SLAN 

1925 Der Hecht. Osterreichische Fischerei-Zeitung. 
SLASTENENKO, E. P. 

1956 Una lista de los hibridos naturales de peces del Mundo. Revista Sociedad 
Mexicana de Historia Natural 17( l/4):63-84. 

1957 A list of natural fish hybrids of the world. Hidrobiologi, ser. B, 
4(2-3):76-97! 



282 



SLOKA, J. 

1977 Fish from 13th- 14th century Riga. Latvijas psr Zinatnu Akademijas Vcstis 
6:100-107. [in Latvian] 
SLOTERDIJK, H. 

1979 Concentrations of PCB\s, mercury and some other metals in lateral muscle of 
northern pike. Esox lucius L., in the province of Quebec. /// Dube, J., and Y. 
Gravel, eds.. Proceedings o\' the 10th Warmwater Workshop, Montebello. 
Quebec, Ministere du Loisir. de la Chasse et de la Peche, pp. 89-1 15. 
Mercury, but not other heavy metals, is accumulated by pike to a much higher 
degree than by its prey species, possibly because mercury in biological sys- 
tems is mainly in the organic form, for which intestinal and branchial absorp- 
tion efficiency is high. PCBs are also bioconccntrated along the food chain. 
There is a significant regression between mercury concentration and the size 
or age of pike. 
SMALL. H. B. 

1883 Fishes of the Ottawa district. Transactions of the Ottawa Field Naturalists' 
Club 4:31-49. 
SMIRNOV, A. A. and E. V. CHIRKOVSKAYA 

1969 Phosphatidic-acid in vertebrate brains and a technique for determining them. 
Zhurnal Evolyutsionnoi Biokhimii i Fiziologii 5:255-260. 
SMISEK.J. 

1966a Vyber generacnich stik pro umely vyter a odchov stikiho pludku. Metodiky 
UVTI-MZLH, Praha 19:1-19. 

1966b Odchov sticihoplodku. Oborova norma On 46 6836, UNM Praha. 8 pp. 

1966c Odchov sticiho pludku. Zivocisna vyroba 39:703-714. 

1967a Investigation of the possibility of a repeated spawning of brood pike. Buletin 
Vyzkumy Ustav Rybarsky a Hydrobiologicky Vodnany 3(1): 18-24. 

1967b The fertilizability of pike spawn from different parts of the ovary. Buletin 
Vyzkumy Ustav Rybarsky a Hydrobiologicky Vodnany 3(2):34-36. 

1968a Feeding of pike fry by natural feeds and substitutes. Buletin Vyzkumy Ustav 
Rybarsky a Hydrobiologicky 4(l):3-7. 

1968b The intensity of the acceptance of food by pike fry in the course of 24 hours. 
Buletin Vyzkumy Ustav Rybarsky a Hydrobiologicky 4(3): 14-18. 
SMISEK. J. and J. HAVELKA 

1964 Pruzkum zdravotniho stavu generacnich stik, lihnuti a odchov sticiho pludku. 
Buletin Vyzkumy Ustav Rybarsky a Hydrobiologicky. 69 pp. 
SMITH, C. L. 

1962 Some Pliocene fishes from Kansas, Oklahoma and Nebraska. Copeia 
1962:505-520. 

Record of two complete teeth found in the High Plains Pliocene deposits. 
The teeth appear to belong to a species of Esocidae, quite possibly Esox 
lucius L., due to the similarity in tooth shape. 
SMITH, E. C, F. BERKES and J. A. SPENCE 

1975 Mercury levels in fish in the La Grande River area, northern Quebec. Bul- 
letin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 13:673-677. 
SMITH. H. M. 

1893 Report on a collection of fishes from the Albermarle region o\ North Caro- 
lina. Bulletin of the U.S. Fisheries Commission 11:1 85-200. 



283 



1896 A review of the history and results of the attempts to acclimatize fish and 
other water animals in the Pacific states. Bulletin of the U.S. Fisheries Com- 
mission 15:379-472. 

In December 1891, 400 yearling pike were put in Lake Cuyamaca, near San 
Diego and 100 in Feather River, Butte County, all from Quincy, Illinois. In 
1896 four fish under 8 inches were caught; two were females with well 
developed eggs. 
1907 The fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Geographic and Economic Sur- 
vey 2:1-453. 
SMITH. H. M. and T. A. BEAN 

1899 Fishes known to inhabit the waters of the District of Columbia. Bulletin of 
the U.S. Fisheries Commission 18:179-187. 
SMITH, H. M. and M.-M. SNELL 

1891 Review of the fisheries of the Great Lakes in 1885. /// Report of the U.S. 
Commission of Fish and Fisheries 1887(Part 15): 1—333. 
SMITH, L. L., D. R. FRANKLIN and R. H. KRAMER 

1958 Investigations of year class formation in game fish. Determination of factors 
influencing year class strength in northern pike and largemouth bass. Min- 
nesota Division of Game and Fish. Project F-12-R-3; F-12-R-02/Job 
2:1-328. 
SMITH, L. L., Jr. 

1941 The northern pike, its past and future. Minnesota Conservation Volunteer 
3(15): 1-5. 
SMITH, L. L., Jr. and N. L. MOE, Compilers 

1944 Minnesota fish facts. Minnesota Department of Conservation Bulletin 
7:1-31. 
SMITH, L. L., Jr. and D. M. OSEID 

1970 Toxic effects of hydrogen sulfide to juvenile fish and fish eggs. Scientific 
Journal Series 4(6):56. 

Bioassays were conducted on eggs and fry of pike. Fry were much more sen- 
sitive to hydrogen sulfide than their eggs. 
1974 Effect of hydrogen sulfide on development and survival of eight freshwater 
fish species. In Blaxter, J. H. S., ed.. The early life history of fish. Berlin, 
Springer- Verlag. pp. 417-430. 
SMITH, L. L. and D. M. OSEID 

1972 Effects of hydrogen sulfide on fish eggs and fry. Water Research 6:71 1-720. 
SMITH, M. W. 

1950 The use of poisons to control undesirable fish in Canadian fresh waters. 
Canadian Fish Culturist 8: 17-29. 

Describes attempts to poison pike selectively, and by controlling the numbers 
of the host of Traenophorus crassus, to reduce its infestation in the valuable 
coregonids. 
SMITH, O. W. 

1922 The book of the pike. Cincinnati, Stewart Kidd. 197 pp. 
SMITH-VANIZ, W. F. 

1968 Freshwater fishes of Alabama. Agricultural Experimental Station, Auburn 
University. 21 1 pp. 



284 



SMITT. F. A. 

1 892 A history of Scandinavian fishes. The pike. Stockholm, vol. 2, pp. 

997-1010. 
SNIESZKO. S.F. 

1952 Ulcer disease in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)'. its economic importance, 

diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Progressive Fish-Culturist 14:43-49. 
SNIESZKO. S. F. and G. L. BULLOCK 

1968 Freshwater fish diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genera Aeromo- 

ihis and Pseudomonas. U.S. Department of the Interior, Report F.D.L.-l 1. 
SNOW. H. 

1958 Northern pike o( Murphy Flowage. Wisconsin Conservation Bulletin 

23(2): 15-18. 

General information on how mortality of eggs and young due to natural 

causes and angling affect population size. Notes on average length-weight of 

various age groups. 
SNOW, H. E. 

Results of stocking northern pike in a 180 acre Wisconsin impoundment. 

Presented at 30th Annual Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference, Columbus. 
1961 A comparison of the fish population in Murphy Flowage, Wisconsin, before 

and after a panfish removal program. Wisconsin Conservation Department, 

pp. 1-5. 
1967a Statewide fishery research. Murphy Flowage studies. Northern pike stocking 

in Murphy Flowage. Wisconsin Conservation Department, Dingell-Johnson 

Project F-83-R-2(Wk.Pl. 3)Job A: 1-20. 
1967b Statewide fishery research. Northern pike stocking in Murphy Flowage. 

Wisconsin Conservation Department, Dingell-Johnson Project F-83-R- 

3(Wk.Pl. 3)JobA:l-7. 
1967c Statewide fishery research. Murphy Flowage studies. Standing crop and 

mortality estimates in Bucks Lake. Wisconsin Conservation Department, 

Dingell-Johnson Report F-83-R-2(Wk.Pl. 3)Job D. 
1969a Comparative growth of eight species of fish in thirteen northern Wisconsin 

lakes. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Research Report 

46:1-23. 
1969b Statewide fishery research. Northern pike of Murphy Flowage. Wisconsin 

Conservation Department. 1 13 pp. 

1973 The constant northern. Wisconsin Conservation Bulletin, May-June 1973. 2 
pp. 

A hypothetical pike population was used to describe mortality and food 
preference at various stages of the life history. Angling mortality was con- 
sidered to have little or no effect on total mortality, so a size limit was con- 
sidered unnecessary. 

1974 Effects of stocking northern pike in Murphy Flowage. Wisconsin Department 
of Natural Resources, Technical Bulletin 79:1-20. 

The pike population was increased by stocking in an effort to control bluegill 
Lepomis macrochirus numbers and increase growth. After stocking, pike 
mortality increased and angler harvest declined, while the bluegill population 
was unaffected. Stocking considerations are discussed. 
1978a Responses of northern pike to exploitation in Murphy Flowage. Wisconsin. 
American Fisheries Society Special Publication 1 1:320-327. 

285 



This 15-year study was conducted under liberalized fishing condition. Com- 
plete creel census and annual population estimates were used to describe rela- 
tionships between exploitation and other selected statistics. 

1978b A 15-year study of the harvest, exploitation, and mortality of fishes in Mur- 
phy Flowage, Wisconsin. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 
Technical Bulletin 103:1-22. 

Complete angling records were obtained through compulsory creel census 
from 1955 to 1970. Information on harvest, angler success, natural mortality, 
and exploitation rate are given as an annual average. A significant relation- 
ship between natural mortality and harvest rate for pike was found, since 
catch by anglers had little effect on total mortality. 

1982 Hypothetical effects of fishing regulations in Murphy Flowage, Wisconsin. 
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Technical Bulletin 131. 
The hypothetical effects of bag, season, and size limits on pike were 
estimated using complete angling and harvest records. These were obtained 
through compulsory creel census over 15 years while no regulations were in 
effect. It was concluded that liberalized regulations within the range of 
fishing pressure seen were not a detriment to the fish populations. 

n.d. Responses of northern pike to exploitation in Murphy Flowage. Wisconsin 
Department of Natural Resources. 

Conclusions from a 15-year study (1955-70) which included compulsory 
creel census, liberalized fishing conditions (no bag, season, or size limits) and 
annual population estimates. Discussion of three management techniques 
(pike stocking, panfish removal, and winter drawdown) and the impact of 
these techniques both directly and indirectly on the native pike population. 
SNOW, H. E. and T. D. BEARD 

1972 A ten-year study of native northern pike in Bucks Lake, Wisconsin, including 
evaluation of an 18.0 inch size limit. Wisconsin Department of Natural 
Resources, Technical Bulletin 56:1-20. 

Pike was the only predator species present, and its growth rate was con- 
sidered slow, both locally and regionally. Estimates for average and max- 
imum standing crops, annual fishing pressure, and catch rates are given. The 
size limit was not considered biologically justified. 
SOBOLVE,J. A. 

1973 Rekomendacii po razvedeniju scuki v karpovych chozjajstvach. Trudy 
Belorusskogo Nauchno-IssledovateTskogo Institute Rybnogo Chozjaj pp. 
26-37. 

SOIN, S.G. 

1980 Type of development of salmoniform fishes and their taxonomic importance. 
Journal of Ichthyology 20:49-56. 

SOIVOI, A. and A.OIKARI 

1976 Haematological effects of stress on a teleost, Esox lucius L. Journal of Fish 
Biology 8:397-411. 

Stress produced a haemoconcentration, elevated blood lactate, increased glu- 
cose concentrations, and altered the plasma electrolyte balance in two groups 
(brackish and freshwater) of the pike after one month's starvation. The blood 
glucose level of the freshwater pike was twice that of the brackish-water 
group, and tne plasma sodium and magnesium concentrations in the 



286 






brackish-water pike were significantly higher in freshwater pike. The plasma 

potassium and calcium concentrations in the two groups did not differ. 
SOKOLOV. B. M. 

1961 Fish scales as organs of vision. Byulleten Nauchno Trudy Rya/anskogo 
Otdela Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno Obshchestva Anatomov, Gistologiv, i 
Embriologiv 6:75-78. 

A study of the anterior portions of scales situated in scale pouches of pike. 
Chromatophores in fish scales from different parts of the body were studied 
under the microscope. Fish possessing cycloid or ctenoid scales exhibited 
bipartition of the organ o\' vision — a feature characteristic of many inver- 
tebrates. 
SOKOLOV. L. I. 

1962 Litnee pitanie shchuki v srednem techenii Amura. [Summer diet of pike in 
the middle course of the Amur River.] Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta 
Seriya 6, Biologiya Pochvovedenie 3:44-48. 

1971 A morphoecological characteristic of Esox lucius in the middle reaches of the 

Lena River. Byulleten Moskovskogo Obshchestva Ispytatelei Priorody Otdel 

Biologicheskii 76:100-104. 
SOKOLOV. L. I. and E. A. TSEPKIN 

1969 Esox lucius from the neolithic stage of the Lena River basin. Byulleten 

Moskovskogo Obshchestva Ispytatelei Prirody Otdel Biologicheskii 

74:54-57. 
SOLJAN.T. 

1946 Fauna 1. Flora Jadrona, Knjiga I. Instituta za oceanografiju i Ribarstvo FNR 

Jugoslavije. 

Reports pike from E. Ninni 1912 Catalogo die pesci del Mare Adriotico 

(Venezia 1913) as occurring in brackish water lagoons of Venice, but says 

may have been barracuda. 
SOLMAN. V. E. F. 

1940 Pike study, 1940, lower Saskatchewan Delta, Manitoba. Unpublished MS. 

11pp. 
1945 The ecological relations of pike, Esox lucius L., and waterfowl. Ecology 

26:157-170. 

The consumption of waterfowl by adult pike in the Prairies was discussed. 

Data on growth of fry over summer, adult sex ratios, food habits, weight of 

food in stomachs, length-weight-sex ratio, and time and rate of digestion are 

given. Methods of controlling pike populations are also discussed. 
1950 History and use of fish poisons in the United States. Canadian Fish Culturist 

8:3-16. 

Describes treatment of a lake in Vermont, in 1913, with copper sulphate to 

kill unwanted pike. 
SOLONINOVA, L. N. 

1975 The fecundity of the pike of Bokhtarma Reservoir. /// Rybnye resursy vodoy- 
emov Kazakhstana i ikh ispoFzovaniye. [Fish resources oi the bodies of 
water of Kazakhstan and their utilization]. Kayna, Alma-Ata 9:109-1 13. 

1976 Growth of the pike of Bukharma Reservoir. Hydrobiological Journal 
12(6):47-54. 

The pike grew faster in Bukhtarma reservoir than in some other waters. 
Differences were established in the growth of fish in different parts of the 

287 



reservoir and in different years. There were no significant discrepancies in 
the growth of members of different year classes. Concludes that it is desir- 
able to rear pike in Bukhtarma reservoir. 
SOMMANI. E. 

1969 Variazioni apportate all'ittio fauna italiana dalFattivita delFuomo. Bollettino 
di Pesca Piscicoltura e Idrobiologia 22:149-166. [English summary] 

SONSTEGARD, R., K. NIELSEN and LA. MCDERMOTT 

1970 Epizootiological evidence for a viral etiology of lymphosarcoma in Eso.x. 
International Association of Aquatic Animal Medicine, Guelph. 

SONSTEGARD, R. A. 

1975 Studies of the etiology and epizootiology of lymphosarcoma in northern pike 
(Esox lucius) and rnuskellunge (Esox masquinongy). Bibliotheca Haematolo- 
gica 43:242-244. 

Describes the clinical course of lymphosarcoma from studies of tissues of 
tumour-bearing and normal specimens under the microscope and "transplan- 
tation trails" made by two routes of inoculation. 

1976 Studies of the etiology and epizootiology of lymphosarcoma in Esox (Esox 
lucius L. and Esox masquinongy). Progress in Experimental Tumor Research 
20:141-155. 

This comprehensive review of the disease includes the following: history, 
occurrence, modes of transmission, and experiments. 

SONSTEGARD, R. A. and J. G. HNATH 

1978 Lymphosarcoma in rnuskellunge and northern pike: guidelines for disease 
control. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 1 1:235-237. 
Epizootics of a malignant blood cancer affect feral populations of pike. 
Overall frequencies of occurrence of the disease in pike were found. Spon- 
taneous regressions are common. Pike should be stocked as eggs or fry, not 
as adults, if the spread of lymphosarcoma is to be restricted. 

SONSTEGARD, R. A. and J. F. LEATHERLAND 

Handbook for identification of tumors in Great Lakes fishes. Unpublished 
MS, 115 pp. 

Description of the gross pathology, histopathology, and etiologic agents of 
lymphosarcoma and epidermal hyperplasia in pike. Photographs of various 
lesions and growths are included. 

SONSTEGARD, R. A. and T. S. PAPAS 

1977 Descriptive and comparative studies of type C virus DNA polymerase of fish. 
Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research 18-202. 
[Abstract] 

Pike lymphosarcoma DNA polymerase was partially purified from particulate 
fractions banding at 1.15-1.16 gm/cc from homogenates prepared from 
frozen necropsies of tumor-bearing pike. The enzyme behaves as a typical 
reverse transcriptase in that it prefers ribotemplates to deoxytemplates. 

SOOT-RYEN,T. 

1926 Bidrag til kjendskaben om Finmarkens ferskvandsfisker. [Freshwater fishes 
from Finland.) Tromso Museums Skrifter 48(2): 1-48. [English summary] 

SORENSON, L., K. BUSS and A. D. BRADFORD 

1966 The artificial propagation of esocid fishes in Pennsylvania. Progressive Fish- 
Culturist 28:133-141. 
Spawning and egg incubation experiments included sperm collection 

288 



methods, spawning of females using blood-pressure instruments, and fungus 
prevention. 

SOROKIN. V. N. and A. A. SOROKINA 

1979 Morphometric description of the Baikal pike, Esox Indus lucius. Journal of 
Ichthyology 19:143-147. 

Assesses morphometric and meristic characters of sexually mature specimens 
collected in 1963—64 and 1975. Compares results from both sexes, the two 
sampling periods, and different water bodies. 

SOROKINA. A. A. 

1977 Pitanie molodi ryb Selenginskogo rajona Bajkala. [Feeding of young fishes 
from the Selenga River area of Lake Baikal.] Novosibirsk, Nauka. 1 12 pp. 
On the basis of data obtained in 1965-72 discusses qualitative and quantita- 
tive characteristics of feeding and food relationships in pike and other species 
in the period from hatching to the fry stage. 

SOUCHON. Y. 

1979 Cycle de developpement des gonades de brochet (Esox Indus L., 1758). Rap- 
port Conseil Sup. Peche, pp. 1-35. 

1980 Effet de la densite initiale du peuplement sur la survie et la croissance du bro- 
chet {Esox Indus L.) eleve jusqu'au stade de brocheton (45 jours). /// Billard, 
R., ed., La pisciculture en Etang. Paris, Institute National de la Recherche 
Agronomique, pp. 309-317. 

Survival rate and growth of young pike in three ponds were studied. The 
biomass of pike fingerlings was analysed in relation to the initial number of 
pike stocked and the food source. 
1983 La reproduction du brochet (Esox Indus L., 1758) dans le milieu nature!; 
revue bibliographique. In Billard, R., ed., Le brochet gestion dans la milieu 
naturel et elevage. Paris, Institute National de la Recherche Agronomique, 
pp. 21-37. 

Describes types of spawning habitat corresponding to three criteria: presence 
of substrates for adhesive eggs and prolarval fixation; presence of cover for 
postlarvae; adequate food. Reproductive success depends on a combination 
of external factors, such as temperature, light, and substrate. 

SPANOVSKAYA, V. D. 

• 1963 Pitanie shchuki-segoletka (Esox Indus L.). [Food of pike fingerlings (Esox 
Indus L.).] Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 42:1071-1079. 

SPANOVSKAYA. V. D. and L. N. SOLONINOVA 

1983a The fecundity of pike, Esox Indus (Esocidae). Journal of Ichthyology 
23(5):75-83. 

The reproductive capacity of pike, evaluated by the value of relative fecun- 
dity (RF) was studied. This index varies considerably in females from the 
same generation. The change in relative fecundity depends on physiological 
and ecological factors. The egg-producting capacity of females increases 
during ontogeny; once an RF of more than 30 eggs/g is reached, physiological 
aging and natural mortality are accelerated. The value of RF also changed, 
depending on foraging and spawning conditions. The dynamics of the values 
of absolute and relative fecundity and the distribution series of the latter can 
be used together with other biological indices as indicators of the state of pike 
populations. 



289 



1983b Fecundity of pike, Esox lucius (Esocidae), within its area of distribution. 
Voprosy Ikhtiologii 23:797-804. 

The reproductivity ability of the pike was evaluated using the value of its 
relative fecundity (RF). The change in RF depended on physiological and 
ecological factors. Dynamics of the values of relative and absolute fecundity 
and the distribution series of the latter can be used together with other biolog- 
ical indices as indicators of the state of pike populations. 
SPATARU, P. 

1968 Relatii trorice la pestiicomplexului de balti Crapina Jijila (Zona in undabila a 
Dunarii). Analele Universitatii Bucuresti Stiintele Naturii 17:77-88. [French 
summary] 

1969 Dynamics of nutrition in small fish from the Crapina-Jijila Fen Complex 
Danube floodplain. Comunicari de Zoologie 57-63. 

SPECKERT, W„ B. KENNEDY, S. L. DAISLEY and P. DAVIES 

1981 Primary structure of protamine from the northern pike Esox lucius. European 
Journal of Biochemistry 136:283-289. 
SPEIRS.J. M. 

1952 An outline of fisheries research on the Great Lakes. Summary of Lake Supe- 
rior fisheries literature. University of Toronto, Ontario Fisheries Research 
Laboratory, unpublished MS. 25 pp. 
SPENCE, E. F. 

1928 The pike fisher. London, A. & C. Black. 
SPENCER, P. J. 

1979 Fish that men gnawed upon. Interim 6:9-1 1. 

Preliminary report on fish remains from Coppergate, York, obtained by 
large-scale wet sieving and flotation of 30 contexts including pit- and trench- 
fills, floor levels, and dump layers of 10th- 13th centuries. 
SPEYER, M. R. 

1980 Mercury and selenium concentrations in fish, sediments and water of two 
northwestern Quebec lakes. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and 
Toxicoloty 24:427-432. 

SPOTS WOOD, L. 

1985 Go deep for summer water-wolves. Angler & Hunter 9( 10):34-35. 
SPRAGUE, J. W. 

1961 Report of fisheries investigations during the seventh year of impoundment of 
Fort Randall Reservoir, South Dakota, 1959. South Dakota Department of 
Game, Fish and Parks, Dingell-Johnson Report F-l-R-9(Jobs 5-8):l-49. 
SPRULES, W. M. 

1946 Food of jackfish in Saskatchewan River. Fisheries Research Board of 
Canada. 

1947 A management program for goldeye (Amphiodon alosoides in Manitoba's 
marsh regions. Canadian Fish Culturist 2:9-1 1. 

Describes a possible solution to the problem of winterkill in the marsh 
regions. 
SROCZYNSKI, S. 

1972 Elementy systemu naprowadzajacego ne ofiare w budowie glowy i funkcjach 
narzadu wzrpku szczupaka Esox lucius L.) [Elements of visual perception 
system of pike Esox lucius L.|. Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria 2:77-90. 
Studies carried out on pike 20-70 cm long. 

290 



1975 Die sph arise he Aberration der Augenlinse des Hechts (Esox lucius L.). 
Zoologische Jahrbuecher Abteilung fuer Allgemeine Zoologie und Physiolo- 
gic der Tiere 79:547-558. 

1976 Untersuchungen uber die Wachstumsgesetzmassigkeiten des Sehorgans beim 
Hechl (Esox lucius L.). [Investigations on the growth regularity of the organ 
of sight on pike (Esox lucius L.)J. Archiv fuer Fischereiwissenschaft 
26(2/3): 137-150. 

Several parameters of the dioptieal system, as well as of the whole eye, were 
measured for pike from 20 to 70 cm in length. The measurements were 
aimed at determining developmental tendencies of eyes as related to their 
functioning and structural proportions. Foeal length of the crystalline lens 
was the most important of all measured parameters. Distance of binocular 
vision increases during ontogeneses proportionally to body length and 
exceeds the growth of foeal length of the lens. 
STAFFORD. J. 

1904 Trematodes from Canadian fishes. Zoologiseher Anzeiger 27:481-496. 
STAINTON, M. P. 

1971 Syringe procedure for transfer of nanogram quantities of mercury vapor for 
rlameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Commercial Fisheries 
Abstracts 24(6): 15. [Abstract] 

Describes a method, using a syringe, for transferring nanogram quantities of 
mercury vapor (in equilibrium with reducing solution) for the cuvette in the 
determination of mercury by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 
The method was tested by analysing the mercury content of pike. 
STAMMER, A. 

1969 Comparative investigations on the ciliary ganglion of freshwater fishes. Acta 
Biologica Szeged. 15(1/4): 101-109. 
STAMMER. A., I. HORVATH, M. CSOKNYA and K. HALASY 

1978a Structural investigation into the oblong medulla of Tisza fishes. Tiscia 
13:183. 

1978b The differences between the structures of swimming bladder in Tisza fishes. 
Tiscia 13:206. 
STANGE. D. 

. 1986a Patience, persistence, and early-season northern pike. Part 1. In-Fisherman, 
Book 65:122-132. 
Hints on how to angle for pike, and a trip to Manitoba. 

1986b One, two, three — presentation pike. Part 2. In-Fisherman, Book 65: 137-156. 
Introduces European fishing tackle and techniques. 
STANGENBERG, M. 

1966 Coarse fish research in Poland. Proceedings of the 2nd British Coarse Fish 
Conference, Liverpool, 2:72-86. 
STARKS, E. C. 

1904 A synopsis of characters of some of the fishes belonging to the order 
Haplomi. Woods Hole Biological Bulletin 7:254-262. 

1916 The sesamoid articular, a bone in the mandible of fishes. Leland Stanford Jr. 
University Publication, University Series 

1930 The primary shoulder girdle of the bony fishes. Stanford University Publica- 
tions, University Series, Biological Sciences 6:147-239. 



291 



Description of the girdle of pike and the variations seen in these bones as the 
animal develops. 
STARMACH, K. 

1951a Zycie ryb slodkowodnych. Zarys morfologii, fizjologii i biologii ryb slod- 
kowodnych. [Life of freshwater fishes. An outline of the morphology, phy- 
siology and biology of freshwater fishes. J Warsaw, PWRiL. 305 pp. 
1951b Ilosc krwi u ryb wiaze sie z ich trybem zycia. (Amount of blood in fishes is 
connected with their life biology.] Swzechswiat 10:316-317. 
Variations in the amount of blood in various fishes, including pike, are con- 
nected with their ecological character. 
STEFFENS, W. 

1961 Flossenschadigungen beim Hecht {Esox lucius). [Fin damage in the pike 
{Esox lucius).] Biologisches Zentralblatt 80:79-84. 

A specimen deficient in fin structure serves as a basis for a general discussion 
of the influences that may produce such anomalies. 
1976 Hechtzucht. Zeitschrift fuer Binnenfischerei 23:327-343, 360-371. 
STEIN, H. 

1981 Light and electron optical studies of the spermatozoa of various teleost fish. 
Zeitschrift fuer Angewandte Zoologie 68:183-198. 
STEIN, H. and H. BAYRLE 

1978 Cryopreservation of the sperm of some freshwater teleosts. Annales de 
Biologie Animale Biochemie Biophysique 18:1073-1076. 

STEIN, H. and H. ENZLER 

1983 Beutelselektion und Futterverwertung beim Hecht. [Prey selection and food 
conversion of pike. ] Fischwirt 33(9):6 1 -62. 

Gives the species preferred by pike. Small pike (<150 g) consumed an aver- 
age of two fish per day, about 5% of their body weight. Food conversion rate 
was 3.15 to 3.38. 

STEIN. R. A. 

1979 Evaluation of stocking tiger muskies in Ohio lakes (1978 July to 1979 June). 
Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Project F-57-R-1, Study 4. [Abstract] 

STEIN, R. A., R. F. CARLINE and R. S. HAYWARD 

1981 Largemouth bass predation on stocked tiger muskellunge. Transactions of the 
American Fisheries Society 1 10:604-612. 

1982 Evaluation of fish management techniques: evaluation of stocking tiger 
muskies into Ohio lakes. Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Project F- 
47-R-4, Study 4:1-82. 

Michanisms influencing poor survival were investigated, and stocking pro- 
cedures tested, to reduce short-term mortality of stocked hybrids. Survival 
was related to type and availability of prey, hybrid size, time of stocking, and 
availability of vegetation. 

STELLA, E., L. FERRERO and F. G. MARGARITORA 

1978 Alterations of the plankton in a much polluted lake in central Italy latium the 
volcanic Lake Nemi. International Association of Theoretical and Applied 
Limnology Proceedings 20:1049-1054. 

STENSON, J. A. E. 

1982 Fish impact on rotifer community structure. Hydrobiologia 87( 1 ): 17-20. 



292 






STEPANEK, M. 

1968 Beitrage zur Bioakustik der Binnengewasser. I. Die Reaktionen der 
Susswasserorganismen auf die von der Wasseroberflache kommenden 
Gerausche. Archiv fuer Hydrobiologie 6(3/4): 397-422. 

STERBA.G. 

1963 Freshwater fishes of the world. New York, Viking Press. 878 pp. 
STERNFELD. A. 

1882 Uber die Struktur des Hechtzahnes. Archiv fuer Microbiologic Anal. 20. 
STEUCKE. W. 

1975 Survival of hatchery stocked fish in two North Dakota lakes. Proceedings 7th 
Interstate Musky Workshop, La Crosse. 1975, pp. 105-1 10. 
STEWART. D. 

1 969 Some native freshwater fish. Canadian Audubon 31:1 00- 1 03. 
STIGER. H. 

A new world record, a 52 lb. 4 oz. northern. In-Fisherman 35:95-96. 
An account of the angling of a 52 lb 4 oz pike in Germany in 1 97 1 . 
STIRLING, A. B. 

1863 Notice of a pike, Esox lucius Linn., in whose stomach a water hen and water 
ouzel were found. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 
1859-62(2):44-45. 
STOCKWELL. G. A. 

1875 Fishes and fishing of the Great Lakes. Maskinonge, pike, perch, gar pike and 
sturgeon. Forest and Stream 5:293, 327. 
STONE. P. 

1977 Huge pike breaks record. Oxford Mail, October 14, 1977, p. 12. 
STONE. U. B. 

1937 Growth habits and fecundity of the ciscoes of Irondequoit Bay, New York. 
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 67:234-245. 
STORER, D. H. 

1848 Notes on a specimen of Esox lucius from Bellows Falls, Vermont. Proceed- 
ings of the Boston Society of Natural History 2:105-106. 
STRATILS. A., V. TOMASEK, J. CLAMP and J. WILLIAMS 

1985 Partial characterization of transferins of catfish {Silurus glannis L.) and pike 
{Esox lucius L.) Comparative Biochemistry 80:909-91 1. 
STRAUB. M. 

1984 Abklaerungen und erste Betriebserfahrungen mit Netzgehegen im Greifenses. 
[Experiences with illuminated net cages in Lake Griefensee.) Schriftenreihe 
Fisch., Bundesamt Umweltschultz 43:35-42. 

Growth of pike in illuminated net cages was compared to growth in ponds. 
STRELTSOVA. S. V. 

1970 Adaptation of carp and rainbow trout to different oxygen contents of the 
water. Jerusalem, Israel Program for Scientific Translations, pp. 13-23. 

STRICKER. J. D. 

1969 Second start. Wisconsin Conservation Bulletin 34(3): 10-1 1 . 
STROGANOV. N. S. and O. P. DANILCHENKO 

1973 Effect of small concentration of antiseptics on embryonic fish development. 
Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta. Seriya VI, Biologiya Pochvovedenie 
28(4):33-38. 



293 



STROGANOV, N. S. and V. G. KHOBOTJIEV 

1968 Peculiar features of the hydrochemical regime in reservoirs and aqueous 
organisms. In Bogorov, B. G., and N. S. Stroganov, eds., Some problems of 
hydrobiology. Trudy Moskovskogy Obshchestva Ispytatelei Prirody, pp. 
139-152. 
STROGANOV, N. S. and 1. A. LASHMANOVA 

1968 Skin penetration in fresh water fishes. In Bogorov, B. G., and N. S. Stro- 
ganov, eds.. Some problems of Hydrobiology. Trudy Moskovskogo Obsh- 
chestva Ispytatelei Prirody, pp. 159-169. 
STROUD, R. H. 

1955 Fisheries report for some central, eastern and western Massachusetts lakes, 
ponds and reservoirs, 1951-52. Division of Fish and Game, Massachusetts 
Bureau of Wildlife Research Management. 
STROUD, R. H. and R. M. JENKINS 

1961 Midwest fish facts. Sport Fishery Institute Bulletin 1 10:6-7. 
STRZELECKI, J. 

1929 Wobronie szczupaka. [In favour of pike.] Przeglad Rybacki 2(4):240-242. 

Decrease in pike catches and propositions for protection periods. Comments 
on artificial pike breeding. 
STRZYZEWSKA, K. 

1957 Stado tracego sie szczupaka (Esox lucius L.) na Zalewie Wislanym w roku 
1953. [The stock of spawning pike (Esox lucius L.) in Firth of Vistula in 
1953.] Prace Morskiego Instytutu Rybactwa w Gdyni 9:247-257. 
Studies on age and size at which pike commence spawning. Numerical ratio 
of sexes in the spawning population. Assessment of maturation and rate of 
growth. 
STUCKY, N. P. 

1973 Collection and identification of fish parasites. Job Progress Report, Project 
F-4-R-18,Job 15-a:59-70. 

This study investigated the level of parasitism in major fishing waters of 
Nebraska and evaluated its impact on utilization of harvested fish. A total of 
881 from 24 localities had a 62% infection rate. 
STUDNICKA, F. K. 

1944 Die Entwicklung des Zahnbeins des Osteodentins. e Entwicklung des Hechtes. 
Internat. CI. Sci. Math., Nat. et Med. Acad. Tcheque Sci. Bull 45:1-16. 
Pike teeth are made up of canalized osteodentine, very similar to Haversian 
canals of bone. The embryologic development of these is traced, with 
numerous figures and plates. 
STUDNIKA, F. K. 

1927 Les cytodesmes et les plasmodesmes du tissu cordial de VEsox lucius. 
Comptes Rendus de la Societe de Biologie 96:1093-1906. 
STURTEVANT, E. L. 

1904 Was ein Hecht verzehrt. Blattchen Aquarien und Terrarien Kunde 
1916 Gewichts/unahme des Hechtes. Schweizersiche Zeitschrift fuer Fischerei 
Zeitung 
SUKHANOVA,G. I. 

1979 O nereste i pk)dovitosti shchuki Esox lucius L. Vilyujskogo vodokhranilish- 
cha. [On the spawning and fecundity of pike, Esox lucius L., in the 
Vilyujskoe Rese.voir.| Voprosy Ikhtiologii 19:278-283. 

294 



Observations on spawning in the USSR in 1976. Related weight-length, age, 
egg diameter, and weight of gonads with fecundity. 
SULLIVAN, M. G. 

1985 Population regulation of northern pike (Esox Indus L.) in an unexploited lake 
in northern Saskatchewan. M.S. thesis, University of Alberta. 106 pp. 
Since populations of pike in unexploited lakes exhibit stability in size and 
structure, four possible mechanisms for this regulation were investigated; 
food limitations, interspecific predation, spacing behaviour, and cannibalism. 
It was concluded that only cannibalism affected regulation in this population. 
SUMARI.O. 

1965 On the migration of northern pike (Esox lucius L.). Kalataloudellisen tut- 

kimustoimiston tiedonantoja 2:1-27. [in Finnish] 
1971 Structure of the perch populations of some ponds in Finland. Annales Zoolo- 
gici Fennici 8:406-421. 

One of the main factors affecting the perch population in the ponds studies 
was predation upon perch young by fish such as pike. 
SUMARI. O. and K. WESTMAN 

1969a Northern pike. Kalamies 4:1-4. [in Finnish] 

1969b The management of northern pike (Esox lucius) populations. Suomen Kala- 
talous Finlands Fiskerier 43: 1-24. [in Finnish, English summary] 
Concludes that there is little biological justification for stocking newly 
hatched pike. Suggests management techniques, including the enlargement of 
breeding areas, stocking bigger young pike (3+ cm), use of fishing regula- 
tions, and the reduction of other fish populations having a harmful effect on 
the pike population. 
SUNDARARAJ 

1958 The seminal vesicles and their seasonal changes in the Indian catfish, 
Heteropneustes. Copeia 1958:289-297. 

Notes that Disselhorst (1904) noticed seminal vesicles in large male pike dur- 
ing the spawning season. 
SUNDBACK, K. 

1971 Hauen suomu Ianmaaritykssessa. [Aging of northern pike from scales.] Ruo- 
men Kalastuslehti 1:9-10. [in Finnish] 
SUOMINEN. H. 

1980 The microflora of pike in relation to its environment. Lie. thesis, University 
of Helsinki. 
SUPRYAGA, V. G. and A. A. MOZGOVOI 

1974 Biological characteristics of Raphidascaris acus Anisakidae Ascaridata, a 
freshwater fish parasite. Parazitologiya 8:494-503. 
SURBER, E. E. 

1929 The utilization of sloughs in the upper Mississippi wildlife and fish refuge as 
fish ponds. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 59:106-1 13. 
SUSLOWSKA, W. 

1971 A comparative study on the muscles of the head of aspius aspius (Linnaeus, 
1758) and Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 
16:695-713. 

A description of the structure and topographic relations of the muscles used in 
the process of food ingestion in pike, a typical flesh-eater. 



295 



SUSLOWSKA. W. and K. URBANOWICZ 

1957 Badania porownaweze nad wybranymi elementami szkieletu szczupaka — 

Esox lucius L., bolenia — Aspiits aspius (L.) i karpia — Cyphnus carpio L. 

Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Lodz, ser. 2(3):7 1—93. 
SVARDSON.G. 

1944 Anordning for vard av gaddyngel i klackningsanstalt. Svensk Fiskerier 
Tidskrift 53(4):58-62. 

1945 En gaddler i siffror. Svensk Fiskeri Tidskrift 55: 187-192. 

1947 Gaddlekstudier. Skrifter Sodra Sveriges Fiskeriforening 2:34-59. 

1949a Note on spawning habits of Leuciscus erythrophthalmus (L.), Abramis brama 
(L.), and Esox lucius L. Institute of Freshwater Research Drottningholm, 
Report 29:102-107. 

In the spring of 1948, pike were trapped and put into aquaria to spawn under 
controlled conditions. Prespawning and spawning behaviour were noted and 
possible releasing mechanisms are described. 

1949b Natural selection and egg number in fish. Institute of Freshwater Research 
Drottningholm, Report 29:1 15-122. 

Discusses the relationship between the number and size of eggs, survival, and 
intraspecific competition. Factors considered are parental care, selection 
pressure, altitude, latitude, and population status. 

1964a Resultatlos gaddodling. Information fran Sotvattenslaboratoriet 
Drottningholm 5:2. 

1964b Resultatlos gaddodling. Svensk Fiskerier Tidskrift 73:1-8. 

1964c Gaddan. Fiske 1964:8-38. 

1966 P. M. angaends uppkomsten av rika arsklasser hos gaddan. Svensk Fiskerier 
Tidskrift 75 (5/6): 65-66. 

1976 Interspecific population dominance in fish communities of Scandinavian 
lakes. Institute of Freshwater Research Drottningholm, Report 55:144-171. 
The interactive relations of the best-known species are presented, with discus- 
sion of evolutionary trends, specific ecological niches, ecological subspecia- 
tion, and non-genetic "interactive segregation". The effects of stress, domi- 
nance phenomena, and "buffer species" are included, along with some 
management suggestions. 
SVARDSON, G. and G. MOLIN 

1968 Fiskets effekt pa gaddans storlek och numerar. Information fran Sotvattensla- 
boratoriet Drottningholm 1968(5): 1-20. 

1973 The impact of climate on Scandinavian populations of the sander, Stizos- 
tedion lucioperca (L.). Institute of Freshwater Research Drottningholm, 
Report 53:1 12-139. 

1981 The impact of eutrophication and climate on a warm water fish community. 
Institute of Freshwater Research, Drottningholm, Report 59:142-151. 
SVARDSON, G. and T. WICKBOM 

1939 Notes on the chromosomes of some teleosts, Esox lucius L., Lucioperca 
lucioperca L., and Perca fluviatilis L. Hereditas 25:472-476. 
The diploid number of chromosomes in pike was found to be 18. There were 
6 pairs of long chromosomes, among which 4 pairs were V-shaped. Somatic 
pairing was found. 



296 



SVETOVIDOV, A. N. 

1929 On the question o\ growth and age o\' the perch, roach and pike of Lake Kru- 
gloe. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 9(3): 
SVETOVIDOV A, A. A. 

I960 Material on the ichthyofauna age composition and growth rate of fishes in the 

Lake Dalai-Nor (Peoples Republic of China). Academy of Science USSR 

39(2). 

Pike is an important commercial species in the lake, and is more prevalent in 

the eastern portion. 
SVOBODOVA. Z. and M. HFJTMANEK 

1976 Total mercury content in the musculature of fishes from the River Ohre and 

its tributaries. Acta Veterinaria 45( l-2):45-49. 

Used rlameless atomic absorption to determine amount of mercury in muscle 

of 1 10 fishes, including pike. 
SWEETING. R. A. 

1976 Studies on Ligula intestinalis (L.) effects on a roach population in a gravel 
pit. Journal of Fish Biology 9:515. 

1977 Studies on Ligula intestinalis; some aspects of the pathology in the second 
intermediate host. Journal of Fish Biology 10:43-50. 

The effects of the plerocercoids of Ligula intestinalis were studied on a popu- 
lation of roach in a gravel pit. The incidence of the cestode fell from 92% in 
0+ roach in April to 25% in January of the succeeding year. The fall in the 
number of parasitized fish was due to predation, mainly by pike. 

SWIDERSKI. E. 

1908 Znad Wisloka. [From the Wislok River.] Okolnik Rybacki 100:178-180. 
Protection size and periods for pike. 

SWIFT. D. R. 

1965 Effect of temperature on mortality and rate of development of the eggs of the 
pike (Esox lucius L.) and the perch {Perca fluviatilis L.). Nature 
206(4983):528. 

Eggs were stripped from one female pike, fertilized, and placed in trays in 
constant environment aquaria at the same water temperature as that in which 
the fish were caught. Temperature controls were adjusted to various tempera- 
tures. Daily records were kept of the number of dead eggs or hatched alevins 
in each aquarium. 

SWIRSKI.G. 

1980 Untersuchungen uber die Entwickelung des Schultergurtels und des Skelets 
der Brustflosse des Hechts. Dorpat, Schnakenburg. 60 pp. 

SYCH. R. 

1971 Elementary teorii oznaczania wicku ryb wedlug lusek: problem wiarydog- 
nosci. [Elements of theory on age determination in fish by using scales: prob- 
lem of likelihood.) Roczniki Nauk Rolniczyck 93:5-73. 

SYCHEVA, V.N. 

1965 Reaktsiya polvykh zhelez shchuki Esox lucius L. na izmenenie ekologi- 
cheskikh Uslovii. [Sex gland reaction in pike Esox lucius L. to a change in 
the ecologic environment.! Voprosy Ikhtiologii 5:296-301. [in Russian] 

SYMINGTON, D. F. 

Fisheries resources of Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Department of Natural 
Resources, Conservation Bulletin 4:1-24. 

297 



1959 The fish of Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Department of Natural Resources, 
Conservation Bulletin 7:1-25. 
SYROVATSKAYA, M. J. 

1927 Materialy po plodovitosti ryb r. Dniepra. Trudy Gosudarstvennogo 3(1) 
SYTCHEVSKAYA, E. C. 

1974 The genus Esox from Tertiary deposits in USSR and Mongolia. In 
Kramarenko, N. N., ed., Transactions of the Joint Soviety-Mongolian Paleon- 
tological Expedition, Issue 1, Mesozoic and Cenozoic fauna and Bio- 
stratigraphy of the Mongolian People's Republic. 367 pp. [in Russian] 

1976 The fossil esocoid fishes of the USSR and Mongolia. Academy of Science, 
USSR 156:1-101. [in Russian] 
SZCZERBOWSKI, J. A. 

1963 Presja szczupaka na mlodziez troci (Salmo trutta m. lacustris L.) a jeziora 
Wdzydze w potoku Trzebiocha. [The pressure of pike on young trouts 
(Salmo trutta m. lacustris L.) from the Lake Wdzydze in the stream 
Trzebiocha.] Zeszyty Naukowe Wyzszej Szkoly Rolniczej w Olsztynie 
16(l):61-72. 

An attempt to estimate predation by pike on juvenile trout in new conditions. 
Relationship between predatory activities of pike and its size, age, and sex. 
Effectiveness of electric catches as a method of reducing pike density. 

1965 Proba stosowania nowych rozwiazan przy wyleganiu szczupaka. [Attempts 
to introduce new methods in artificial pike hatching.] Gospodarka Rybna 
17(5):7. 

1969 Smiertelnosc wylegu szczupaka. [Mortality of pike hatchlings.] Gospodarka 
rybna21(2):7. 

Time of stocking and condition of stocking material needed in order to 
increase the efficiency of pike stockings. 

1972 Fishes in the Lyna River system. Polskie Archiwum Hydrobiologii 
19:421-435. 

SZCZERBOWSKI, J. A., A. MARTYNIAK and J. TERLECKI 

1976 Wzrost szczupaka, krapia, jelca, klenia i ploci w rzebach zlewiska Lyny. 
[Growth of pike, white bream, dace, chub and roach in the Lyna River sys- 
tem.] Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych, Ser. H, 97(2):79-96. 

Rate of growth of most common river fish species in the catchment area of 
the Lyna River as a basis for estimating the size at which catches are most 
effective, both as regards stability of fish production and optical utilization of 
the existing production conditions. 

SZLAMINSKA, M. 

1980 A histochemical study of digestive enzymes in pike larvae. Fisheries 
Management 11 (3): 139- 140. 

The morphological development of the digestive organs and the amylolytic, 
trypsin-like, pepsin-like and lipolytic types of enzymatic activity were deter- 
mined in 18-day larvae and in adult pike. Larvae had fully functional diges- 
tive organs and with the exception of lipolytic activity, the presence and loca- 
tion of the enzymes were identical in larvae and adult. The results may indi- 
cate that pike larvae digest food in the initial period of development. 

SZMANIA, D. 

1973 Production oY northern pike in a winterkill lake. M.A. thesis. University of 
Wisconsin-Milwaukee. 

298 



SZTRAMKO. L. and PAINE, J. R. 

1982 Sport fishery data for the Canadian portion of Lake Erie and connecting 

waters. l c )48-80. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Lake Erie Fisheries 

Assessment Unit, Report 1982-3:1-88. 

Entire report consists of tabulated information, with data on pike found 

throughout. 
SZUBA. Z. 

1971 Wstepne badonia nad asymetria czaszki sczcupaka Esox lucius L. |An intro- 

duetory study of pike (Esox lucius (L.) skull asymetry.J Zeszyty Naukawe 

Wyzszej Szkoly Rolniczej w Olsztynie 2(35):3— 16. 

Studies were made on 35 skulls of pike of both sexes. 



299 



TACK, E. 

1972 The fish of the south Westphalian highland including the Moehne dam and 
Ruhr. Decheniana I25(l-2):63-77. 

TACK, S. L. 

1973 Distribution, abundance, and natural history of the Arctic grayling in the 
Tanana River drainage. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of 
Sport Fish, 14:1-34. 

TAGSTROM, B. 

1940 Om forstrackning av gaddyngel. Svensk Fiskerier Tidskrift 49:3 1-38. 
TAN, E. L. and T. WOOD 

1969 Enzymes of the pentose phosphate cycle in muscles of rat, ox, frog, lobster, 
chicken, northern pike and carp and Ehrlich ascites cells. Comparative 
Biochemistry and Physiology 31:635-643. 
TANDON, K. K. and O. OLIVA 

1978 Further notes on the growth of pike, Esox Indus from Czechoslovakia 
(Osteichthys: Clupeiformes). Vestnik Ceskoslovenske Spolecnosti Zoolo- 
gicke 42:69-76. 

Growth rate of pike collected during .1965-75 was studied from the scales of 
87 specimens. Pike of 11+ years were recorded. Back-calculation was used 
for lengths at the formation of respective annuli. 
TARNAVSKII, N. P. 

1967 Biologija scuki Verchnego Dnepra. Rybnoe Khozyaistvo 3:61-69. 
TAVERNER, E. and J. MOORE 

1935 The angler's weekend book. London, Seely, Service. 512 pp. 
TAYLOR, F. 

1962 Angling in earnest. London, MacGibbon & Kee. 
TEDLA, S. and C. H. FERNANDO 

1969 Changes in the parasite fauna of the white perch, Roccus americanus (Gme- 
lin), colonizing new habitats. Journal of Parasitology 55:1063-1066. 

TELLER, S. and D. BARDACK 

1974 New records of late Pleistocene vertebrates from the southern end of Lake 
Michigan. American Midland Naturalist 94( 1 ): 1 79- 1 89. 

Fossils from LaPort Co., Indiana, included Esox. The fossil beds were from 
5500 to 6300 years old. Evidence suggested that the fossils were deposited in 
a shallow lake or pond with a muddy bottom and weedy vegetation. Other 
Pleistocene vertebrate records from the Great Lakes drainage are discussed. 

TEN KATE, J. H. 

1973 Angular acceleration detection by the growing pike. Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 
19:110-119. 

TEN KATE, J. H. and J. W. KUIPER 

1970 The viscosity of the pike's endolymph. Journal of Experimental Biology 
53:495-500. 

TEODORESCU, A.-C. 

1970 Contribution to the study of the growth of the digestive tract in fish in relation 
to the diet. Studii si Cercetari de Biologic Seria Zoologie, 22:493-499. 
TEODORESCU-LEONTE, R. 

1969 Considerations upon the actual fish population structure inside the Danube 
delta. Buletinui Institutului de Cercetari si Proiectari Piscicole 28(3):29-37. 
| in Romanian, English summary] 

300 



TEPLOVA, V. N. and V. P. TEPLOV 

1953 The feeding of the pike in the upper Pechora basin. Voprosy Ikhtiologii 1. 
TERESHENKOV, I. I. 

1972 Replacement of teeth in the pike \Eso.\ lucius (L.)|. Journal oi Ichthyolog) 
12:807-812. 

TERLECKI,J. 

1973 Plodnosc szczupaka - Eso.x lucius (Linnaeus 1758) / jeziora Sniardwy. 
[Fecundity of pike - Eso.x lucius (Linnaeus 1758) from Lake Sniardwy. 1 
Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych 95(3): 161-176. 

Ninety-six gonads of female pike from Sniardwy Lake were taken in 1968-70 
and their absolute fecundity was determined. Dependence between absolute 
fecundity, body size, and age of the fish was traeed. Fecundity of the pike 
from Sniardwy Lake was compared with that of pike from other waters. 
TERSKOV, I. A.. E. A. VAGANOV and V. V. SPIROV 

1976 Microphotometric analysis of some freshwater fish scales. Izvestiya Sibir- 
skogo Otdeleniya Akademii Nauk SSR. Seriya Biologo-Meditsinskikh Nauk 
2:95-103. 
TESARCIK. J. and J. MARES 

1967 The ease of pox of brook pike. Buletin Vyzkumy Ustav Rybarsky a Hydro- 
biologieky Vodnany 3( 1 ): 1 8. 
THIENEMANN. A. 

1950 Verbreitungsgesehiehte der Susswasserwelt Europas. Versueh einer histor- 
ischen Tiergeographie der Europaisehen Binnengewasser. Schweizer- 
bart'sche Verlagsbuehhandlung. Stuttgart, Erwin Nagele. 
THOMPSON. D. 

1979 Aging pike and muskie. Outdoor Canada, March/April 1979, pp. 45-47. 
THOMPSON. E. S. 

1898 A list of the fishes known to occur in Manitoba. Forest and Stream 
51(11):214. 
THOMPSON. G. J. and H. C. GILSON 

1952 How to remove unwanted perch and pike. Journal of the British Waterworks 
Association 35:88-98. 
THOMPSON. G. T. and T. B. BAGENAL 

1973 Pike gill netting in Windermere. Fisheries Management 4:97-101. 
THOMPSON. J. S. 

1982 An epizootic of lymphoma in northern pike, Esox lucius L., from the Aland 
Islands of Finland. Journal of Fish Diseases 5:1-1 1 . 

Maeroseopie and microscopic inspection of 19 tumorous pike showed that 
this lymphoma was similar to those seen in North America, Ireland, and 
Sweden. It was classified as a stem cell lymphoma. Tumour cells cultured 
during several months at 4 C showed morphological features o\' differentia- 
tion and resembled plasma cells. No conclusive evidence of viruses in the 
lesion was obtained. 
THOMPSON. P.-A. and W. THRELFALL 

1978 The metazoan parasites of two species of fish from the Port-Cartier-Sept-IIes 
Park. Quebec. Natural iste Canadien 105:429-431. 
THOMPSON. W. 

1883 A trouting trip to St. Ignace Island. /// Orvis, C. I\. and Cheney, A. N., ed.. 
Fishing with the fly. pp. 97-1 17. 

301 



THOMPSON, Z. 

1850 Description and drawings of a new species of Esox. Proceedings of the Bos- 
ton Society of Natural History 3:55-163, 173, 305-306. 

1853 History of Vermont, natural, civil and statistical. Part I, Chapter 5, Fishes of 
Vermont. Burlington, published by the author, pp. 137-138. 
THORPE, A. 

1976 Studies on the role of insulin in teleost metabolism. In Grillo, T., et al., eds., 
The evolution of pancreatic islets. Symposium, Leningrad, 1975, pp. 
271-284. 
THORPE. A. and B. W. INCE 

1974a The effects of hormones, drugs and glucose loading on blood metabolites in 
the pike Esox Indus. General and Comparative Endocrinology 22:345-346. 
[Abstract] 

The levels of plasma glucose, amino acid nitrogen, and cholesterol were 
determined. A heart cannulation technique was used to permit serial blood 
sampling and the administration of hormones and drugs directly into the 
blood stream. 

1974b The effects of pancreatic hormones, catecholamines and glucose loading on 
blood metabolites in the northern pike (Esox lucius L.). General and Com- 
parative Endocrinology 23:29-44. 

1976 Plasma insulin levels in teleosts determined by a charcoal-separation radioim- 
munoassay technique. General and Comparative Endocrinology 30:332. 
THORPE, L. M. and D. A. WEBSTER 

A fishery survey of important Connecticut waters. Connecticut Geology and 
Natural History Survey, Bulletin 63. 
THREINEN, C.W. 

Impact of shore development on northern pike spawning. Wisconsin Depart- 
ment of Natural Resources. 

1969 An evaluation of the effect and extent of habitat loss on northern pike popula- 
tions and means of prevention of losses. Wisconsin Department of Natural 
Resources, Fish Management Bureau, Management Report 28:1-25. 
Attempts to assess whether recreational or other uses of inland surface fresh 
waters significantly affect the pike fishery, and what measures might alleviate 
the conflict. 

THREINEN. C. W. and A. OEHMCKE 

1950 The northern invades the musky's domain. Wisconsin Conservation Bulletin 

15(9): 10-1 2. 

Argues that fishery practices such as stocking the two species in the same 

water body favour pike survival due to its better start in life. Lists 

"invaded , "water bodies in Wisconsin. 
THREINEN. C. W., C. A. WIS TROM, B. APELGREN and H. E. SNOW 

1966 The northern pike: its life history, ecology, and management. Wisconsin 

Conservation Department Publication 235:1-16. 

Topics of discussion include classification, distribution, description, habits, 

reproduction, growth, population, angling, and economic value. 
THRELFALL, W. and G. HANEK 

1970 Helminths from northern pike (Esox lucius L.) in Labrador. Journal of 
Parasitology 56:662. 

A list of helminths found in four pike from two localities. 

302 



THUEMLER, T. G. 

1982 Winter creel census on Lake Noquebay, Marinette County. Wisconsin 
Department of Natural Resources, Fish Management Report 122:1-16. 
Between December 20, 1981, and April 15, 1982, 3,051 anglers were inter- 
viewed. They fished an estimated 32,142 hours. The harvest rate was 0.65 
fish/hour. Pike were the primary game tish taken. 
TIMMERMANS, G. A. 

1979 Culture of try and tingerlings of pike, Esox lucius. European Inland Fisheries 
Advisory Committee Technical Paper 35(Suppl. 1 ): 177-183. 
TIMOSHINA. L. A. 

1970 Changes brought about in the amino acid composition of fish muscles and 
blood by starvation. Journal of Ichthyology 10:342-347. 
Combined and free amino acids in pike muscle during the period of winter 
starvation were determined by paper chromatography. After winter starvation 
the concentration of most amino acids was reduced, with the exception of 
threonine. After a month of summer starvation combined amino acids were 
not significantly altered, but the concentration of free amino acids was per- 
ceptibly increased. 
TINBERGEN.N. 

1956 Spines, safe and advantages. Levende Natuur 59(2):25-33. 
TODD, A. 

1968 St. Lawrence River - Thousand Island Kemptville District, 1968 creel census 
report. Ontario Department of Lands and Forests. 

Information collected included the number of anglers, number of each species 
caught, total number of hours angled, residence of anglers, growth rates, and 
size range of angled fish, and other related data. 
TOMCKO, C. M. 

1982 Use of bluegill forage by tiger muskel lunge, effects of predator experience, 
vegetation, and prey density. M.S. thesis, Ohio State University. 
TOMCKO, C. M., R. A. STEIN and R. F. CARLINE 

1984 Predation by tiger muskellunge on bluegill: effects of predator experience, 
vegetation, and prey density. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 
113:588-594. 

Tested the effects of predator experience (using hybrids previously exposed 
to bluegill), vegetative cover, and bluegill density on the number of hybrids 
capturing prey. Few experienced or naive hybrids captured bluegills at low 
prey density, regardless of the presence or absence of vegetation. When blue- 
gill density was increased from 1 to 5 prey/sq.m. in ponds or to 40/sq.m. in 
aquaria, many hybrids captured bluegills. 
TOMLIN. W. D. 

1892 The pike. In American game fishes. Chicago, Rand, McNally, pp. 367-380. 
TONER. E. D. 

1959a Predation by pike in three Irish lakes. Irish Department of Lands. Report of 
Sea Inland Fisheries 1959(app. 25): 1-7. 

Predatory habits of pike have been known to seriously reduce trout and sal- 
mon stocks and the extent of this damage was estimated. Drastic thinning of 
pike stocks increased trout survival and improved trout angling. 

1959b Predator and prey relationships. Salmon and Trout Magazine May 1959. pp. 
104-1 10. 

303 



1966 Synopsis of biological data on the pike, Esax lucius Linnaeus 1758. Fish and 
Agricultural Organization Fisheries Synopsis 30:1-30. 
TONER. E. D. and G. H. LAWLER 

1969 Synopsis of biological data on the pike, Esax lucius Linnaeus 1758. Food and 
Agricultural Organization Fisheries Synopsis 30 (rev. 1 ): 1—37. 
TONER, G. C. 

1943 Ecological and geographical distribution of fishes in eastern Ontario. M.A. 
thesis. University of Toronto. 91 pp. 

Notes on numbers of pike taken at 36 sites. General information on habitat 
and spawning, 
n.d. Conservation and Canada's game fish. Carling Conservation Club, 8 pp. 
TONG, S. C, W. H. GUTENMANN, D. J. LISK. G. E. BURDICK and E. J. HARRIS 

1972 Trace metals in New York state fish. New York Fish and Game Journal 
19(2): 123—13 1. 

Analysis of barium, cadmium, cobalt, nickel, silver, tin, vanadium, and zinc 
was performed by spark source mass spectrometry following dry ashing of 
samples 
TONN, W. M. and J. J. MAGNUSON 

1982 Patterns in the species composition and richness offish assemblages in north- 
ern Wisconsin lakes. Ecology 63:1 149-1 166. 
TOWARNICKI, R. 

1962 O unaczynieniu przysadki mozgowej szczupaka (Eso.x lucius L.) i o znac- 
zeniu tego narzadu u ryb w ogole. [The vascularization of the pituitary body 
of the pike {Eso.x lucius L.) and on the role of this organ in fishes.] Folia 
Morphologica 13:1-20. 

The vascularization of the various lobes of the pituitary, as well as the blood 
supply, are described. 

1963 Anatomia rozpoznawcza kostnoszkieletowych ryb uzytkowych. Cz. I. Myo- 
logia makroskopowa szczupaka i karpia. [Basic anatomy of teleost fishes. 
Part I. Macroscopic myology of pike and carp. J Skrypty Wyzszej Szkoly 
Rolniczej w Olsztynie. 54 pp. 

TOWNSEND, A. H. and P. P. KEPLER 

1974 Population studies of northern pike and whitetish in the Minto Flats complex 
with emphasis on the Chatanika River. Alaska Department of Fish and 
Game, Project F-9-6(vol. 15):59-79. 
TOWNSEND, D. C. 

Game fishing devices. London, A. & C. Black 
TRAUTMAN, M. B. 

1957 The fishes of Ohio. Ohio State University Press. 683 pp. 
TRAUTMAN, M. B. and C. L. HUBBS 

1936 When do pike shed their teeth? Transactions of the American Fisheries 
Society 65:261-266. 

Tooth analysis of 188 Eso.x lucius, 1 E. masquinongy, and 6 E. niger did not 
support the theory that pike shed their teeth in late summer. 
1948 When do pike shed their teeth? Michigan Conservation 17(8):4, 5, 10. 
TRDAN,R.J. 

1981 Reproductive biology of Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea Pelecypoda, Unioni- 
dae. American Midland Naturalist 106:243-248. 



304 



TRESSLER, W. L.. L. H. TIFFANY and W. P. SPENCER 

1940 Limnological studies of Buckeye Lake. Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science 
40:261-290. 

TRETIAKOV, D. 

1936 Morfogenez zuba s/.czuki i sargana. Archives d'Anatomie d'Histologie et 
d'Embryologie 15 
TRETJAKOFF. D. K. VON 

1941 Gattungsunterschiede des Hechtes und der Umbra. Comptes Rendus de 
FAcademie des Sciences de I'URSS 30:86-89. 

TRIPLETT, J. R., D. A. CULVER and G. B. WATERFIELD 

1981 An annotated bibliography on the effects of water-level manipulation on lakes 
and reservoirs. Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Project F-57-R(Study 
8): 1-50. 

TROCHER1E. F. and C. BERCY 

1984 Ultrasonic tagging of pike {Esox Indus L.) and carp (Cyprians carpio L.) in 
the Seine River near the Montereau power station. Carriers de la Laboratorie 
Hydrobiologie Montereau 15:13-20. 

Transmitters were attached to six pike. All pike were tracked for 15 days 
after tagging and three for more than a month. The experiment indicated that 
the tagging technique used can provide useful information on movement of 
adult pike during the spawning period, but cannot be transposed to other 
species without testing. 

TROCHER1E. F. and B. MIGEON 

1984 Effects of repeated thermal shocks (+4 C and +8 C) on survival and hatching 
of pike eggs (Esox lucius L.). Carriers de la Laboratorie Hydrobiologie Mon- 
tereau 15:21-24. 

The highly significant results of this experiment indicated that the lack of 
reproduction success of pike on artificial spawning grounds placed in the 
discharge canal of the Montereau power station must be related to environ- 
mental factors other than the variations of thermal discharge of this plant. 

TROFIMENKO. V. Y. 

1969 On the question of genesis of the helminthofauna of freshwater fishes of the 
Asiatic subarctic. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Biologicheskikh. 
6:912-918. |in Russian, English summary] 

TRUMAN. E. B. 

1869 Observations on the development of the ovum of the pike. Monthly Micros- 
copy Journal 2:185-203. 

An account of collecting pike eggs, keeping them alive, and watching their 
development. 
TSCHORTNER. U. 

1956 Untersuchungen uber den Einfluss einiger Milieufaktoren auf die Entwick- 
lung des Hechtes {Esox lucius L.). Archiv fuer Hydrobiologie 24:123-152. 
TSEPKIN. E. A. 

1970 The history of the ichthyofauna of the Dniester. Byulleten Moskovskogo 
Obshchestva Ispytatelei Prirody Otdel Biologicheskii 75:127-132. 

1972 Fish from archaeological excavations of ancient Moscow. Byulleten 
Moskovskogo Obshchestva Ispytatelei Prirody Otdel Biolocheskii 77:80-84. 

1976 The history of the commercial ichthyofauna and fishing in the Lake Baikal 
basin. Byulleten Moskovoskogo Obshchestva Ispytatelei Prirody Otdel 

305 



Biologicheskii 81:65-73. 

1977 The history of commercial ichthyofauna of the Klyazma River basin. Biolo- 
gicheskie Nauki 20(8):53-55. [in Russian] 

1978 History of commercial ichthyofauna and fishing in the Irtysh Basin. Byul- 
leten Moskovskogo Obshchestva Ispytatelei Prirody Otdel Biologicheskii 
83(2):81-87. 

1980 History of commercial ichthyofauna and fishing in the middle course of the 
Angara River. Voprosy Ikhtiologii 20:543-545. 

1981 Changes in species composition of the ichthyofauna fishes in the Oka Basin 
during the late Holocene. Byulleten Moskovskogo Obshchestva Ispytatelei 
Prirody Otdel Biologicheskii 86:51-55. 

TSVETKOV, V. I. 

1969 The sensitivity of some freshwater fishes to rapid pressure change. Problems 
in Ichthyology 9:706-711. 
TUBB, R. A., F. A. COPES and C. JOHNSTON 

1965 Fishes of the Sheyenne River of North Dakota. Proceedings of the North 
Dakota Academy of Science 19:120-128. 
TURNER, L.J. 

1984 Space and prey use by northern pike (Esox lucius L.) in two Alberta lakes. 
M.S. thesis, University of Alberta. 177 pp. 

Factors affecting the distribution and foraging rate of pike were assessed in 
two small, deep, north temperate lakes. Activity of both juvenile and adult 
pike was primarily confined to daylight hours. Water temperature, dissolved 
oxygen concentration, and the presence of vegetation influenced depth distri- 
bution of pike in both populations. Within the selected depth stratum, ecolog- 
ical interactions appeared to have been responsible for the finer resolution of 
microhabitat use, intraspecific predation pressure in juveniles and foraging 
strategies in adult pike. 
TURNER, L. J. and W. C. MACKAY 

1985 Use of visual census for estimating population size in northern pike {Esox 
lucius). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 42:1835-1840. 
Detailed underwater observation within a specified area was used to assess 
depth distribution, sample independence, and reaction of pike to the presence 
of the observer. Pike selected depths of <1 m, constant throughout the sum- 
mer months. Samples were 92% independent: reaction of pike to a diver con- 
tributed an estimated 4% error to the estimate. 

TURNER, L. M. 

1886 Contributions to the natural history of Alaska, May 1874 -August 1881. 
Washington. 

TURNER, M. A. and A. L. SWICK 

1983 The English-Wabigoon River system. 4. Interaction between mercury and 
selenium accumulated from waterborne and dietary sources by northern pike. 
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 40:2241-2250. 
Although selenium is a pollutant released by several industries, it is also an 
essential nutrient that protects mammals against mercury intoxication. Pike 
were held in water containing trace or elevated concentrations of selenium. It 
is inferred that selenium added to aquatic ecosystems and incorporated subse- 
quently in the* food web would interfere with biomagnification of mercury. 



306 



TURRELL. W. J. 

1910 Ancient angling authors. London. 

Covers English angling literature in the 10th- 18th centuries. Plate o\ a man 
pike fishing with a float. Tale of pike tearing bait, tench taking it, pike learn- 
ing therefrom. 
TYMOWSKU. 

1939 Szczupak i jego rola w gospodarce jeziorowej. (Pike and its role in lake 
fisheries. | Przeglad Rybacki 1 2(4):205-2 10. 

Comments and observations on food conversion rate in pike. Profitability of 
pike production. 

1951 Jeszcze w sprawie szczupaka. [More comments on pike.] Wiadomosci Wed- 
karskie 1-2:19-14. 

Increase of pike stocks through artificial stockings. 
TYSZKIEWICZ. K. 

1969 Structure and vascularization of the skin of the pike {Esox Indus L.) Acta 
Biologica Cracoviensia, Series Zoologia, 12:68-79. 

Investigation of the structure and vascularization of the skin of pike was car- 
ried out on 10 specimens ranging in weight from 140 to 222 g. The epidermis 
was on the average 90 microns thick. The capillaries of the subepithelial net- 
work, expressed as the length per 1 sq.mm. of area, averaged 13.37 mm. The 
capillaries on the average were 9.4 microns in diameter. 



307 



UMINSKI. W. 

1917 O rybach w rzekach, jeziorach i morzach. [About fishes in rivers, lakes, and 
seas. | Wydawnictwa imeni M. Brzezinskiego. 91 pp. 
UNDERHILL,A. H. 

1939 Cross between Eso.x niger and E. Indus. Copeia 1939:237. 

Eggs of chain pickerel were artificially fertilized with the sperm of a pike. 
The resulting hybrids showed characteristics intermediate between the two 
species. 
UNDERHILL, J. C. and J. B. MOYLE 

196S The fishes of Minnesota's Lake Superior region. Conservation Volunteer 
31(177):29-53. 

The pike is common in many lakes of the Lake Superior basin. 
UNGUREANU. E. M., A. C. DRANGA and R. P. MARINOV 

1970 Diphyllobothriasis in the Danube Delta. Journal of Parasitology 56:477-478. 
UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER CONSERVATION COMMITTEE 

1959 Supplemental report, fish technical subcommittee, proceedings of the 13th 
annual meeting. Unpublished MS, 147 pp. 
URBANOWSKI, W. 

1937 Z kampanii szczupakowej. [ Pike campaign.) Przeglad Rybacki 10(8): 
320-323. 

Description of spring pike campaign, during which eyed eggs of pike were 
obtained. 
U.S. BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES 

1965 Missouri River reservoir commercial fishing investigations. A documentation 
of 1963-64 activities and findings. Unpublished MS, 74 pp. 

U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

1974 Report of the National Task Force for Public Fish Hatchery Policy. U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 295 pp. 

During 1973, 515 state and federal hatcheries produced and stocked 17 mil- 
lion pike. 

1976 Ecological studies for navigation season extension on the St. Lawrence 
River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Cortland, New York. 166 pp. 

1981 Standards for the development of habitat suitability index models. U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Division of Ecology Service. 
UTHE, J. F., E. ROBERTS, L. W. CLARKE and H. TSUYUKI 

1966 Comparative electropherograms of representatives of the families Pctro- 
myzontidae, Esocidae, Centrarchidae, and Percidae. Journal of the Fisheries 
Research Board of Canada 23:1663-1671. 

The starch gel electropherogram of muscle myogens and blood hemoglobins 
of representatives from the family Esocidae were found to be within the limits 
of species specificity, with some exceptions. 



308 



VALKEAJARVI, P. 

1983 On the migrations, growth and mortality of perch, pike, burbot, whitefish and 
roach according to the taggings in Lake Konnevesi, central Finland Tiedonan- 
toja 33:83—109. [in Finnish. English summary] 

VAN ENGEL,W. A 

1940 The rate of growth of the northern pike. Eso.x lucius Linnaeus, in Wisconsin 
waters. Copeia 1940:177-188. 

Analysis of size data and scales from 515 angled pike. Age groups II. III. IV 
comprised 62°/t of the specimens. The ratio of standard to total length was 
1:1-13. There was a positive correlation between rate of growth and range of 
latitude. Average length was IS inches (15.9 inches S.L.) by end of the 
second year. Coefficient of condition was 0.6+ , increasing with increase in 
age. 

VAN LEEUWEN. J. L. and M. MULLER 

1983 The recording and interpretations of pressures in prey-sucking fish. Nether- 
lands Journal of Zoology 33:425-475. 

VAN LOON. J. C. and R. J. BEAMISH 

1977 Heavy-metal contamination by atmospheric fallout of several Flin Flon area 
lakes and the relation of fish populations. Journal of the Fisheries Research 
Board of Canada 34:899-906. 

High concentrations of zinc, copper, and cadmium were found in 31 lakes in 
the vicinity of the Flin Flon smelter. Pike populations did not appear to be 
adversely affected by the heavy metal concentrations. 
VAN NOORDEN. S. and G. J. PATENT 

1978 Localization of pancreatic polypeptides (PP)-like immunoreactivity in the 
pancreatic islet of some teleost fishes. Cell Tissue Research 188:521. 

VAN OOSTEN. J. 

1937 The age, growth, and sex ratio of the Lake Superior longjaw, Lcucichthys 
zenithicus (Jordan and Evermann). Papers of the Michigan Academy of Sci- 
ence, Arts and Letters 22:691-71 1. 
1946 The pikes. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fishery Leaflet 166:1-6. 
1957 Exotics and hybrids in fish management. Proceedings 24th Annual Meeting, 
Association of Midwest Game and Fish Commissioners, 24: 17-22. 
. I960 The true pikes. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Fishery Leaflet 496:1-9. 

Information on morphological characteristics, habitat, reproduction, and 
growth. 
VARLEY. M.E. 

1967 British freshwater fishes. London, Fishing News (Books). 148 pp. 
VASEY, F. W. 

1968 Fisheries management planning and research. Special fisheries and methods 
of management of impoundments. Introduction of northern pike. Missouri 
Conservation Commission, Dingell-Johnson Report F-l-R-17/Wk.Pl. 05/Job 
10:1-7. 

1974 Life history of introduced northern pike in Thomas Hill Reservoir. Missouri 
Conservation Commission, Dingell-Johnson Project F-l-R-23. Study 1-5. Job 
2:1-14. 

Survival, growth rate, reproduction, feeding habits, and contribution to creel 
were investigated for stocked fish from 1967 through 1971. 



309 



VASHCHENKO, D. M. 

1958a Value of the pike in regulation of the composition of the ichthyofauna in 
Kakhovskoe Reservoir. Trudy Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Ryb- 
nogo Khozyaistva 2. 

1958b Toward the question on the role of the pike in suppression of the number of 
low-value and trash fish in reservoirs. Trudy Nauchno-IssledovateLskogo 
Instituta Rybnogo Khozyaistva 1 1 

1958c The carp as food of pike during the first year after the filling of Kakhov reser- 
voir. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 37:1745-1748. 

1962a Vliyanie shchuki na zapasy sazana v Kremenchugskom vodokhranilishche. 
[The effect of pike on the carp stock of the Kremenchug Reservoir.] Zoologi- 
cheskii Zhurnal 4 1 : 1 749- 1 75 1 . 

In Kremenchug water reservoir, at the sites of concentration of the sazan 
young, the pike is a dangerous predator. In other areas of the reservoir the 
pike is a beneficial predator which consumes fishes of little value and coarse 
fish. 

1962b Sravnitel 'naya otsenka roli khishchnykh ryb: shchuka, sudaka i okunya 
vodokhranishch. [Comparative appraisal of the role of predatory fish: Esox, 
Lucioperca and Perca in the formation of the fish fauna in the Dnieper reser- 
voirs.] Voprosy Ekologii 5:22-23. 

An analysis of the feeding of Esox in the Dnieper and its reservoirs showed 
that these fish fed on little-valued and waste fish. The Esox are valuable food 
fish, which in suitable numbers played a useful role in the formation of the 
fish fauna of the Dneiper and its reservoirs. 
VASILIU, G. D. and C. SOCA 

1968 Fauna vertebratica Romaniae. Romania, Muzeul Judetean Bacau. 296 pp. 
[in Romanian] 
VASILYEV, V. P. 

1980 Chromosome numbers in fish-like vertebrates and fish. Journal of Ichthyol- 
ogy 20:1-38. 

Data for 1076 species, including pike. Presents data obtained by old and new 
methods separately. 
VAUGHAN, G. E. and D. W. COBLE 

1975 Sublethal effects of three ectoparasites on fish. Journal of Fish Biology 
7:283-294. 

Laboratory experiments were carried out in which fish with and without the 
parasites and with light or heavy infestations of the parasites were exposed to 
predation by pike. 
VEILLEUX, C. M. and R. L. SEGUIN 

1968 Transformations a la frayere de brochet (Esox lucius) au ruisseau Pelisser, 
comte de Papineau, et observations sur les brochetons. Annales de 
L Association Canadienne Francaise pour LAvancement des Sciences 
35:91-92. 
VELAZ DE MEDRANO, L. 

1949 Nota informativa sobre el lucio. Montes 25: 1 1-22. 

Literature review on the life history of pike previous to introduction to the 
Iberian Peninsula. 



310 



VENDRELY, R. and C. VENDRELY 

1950 On the absolute concentration of deoxyribose nucleic acid in the cell nuclei of 
several species of birds and fish. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des 

Seances de I'Academie des Sciences 120:788-790. 
VERHEIJENLF. J. 

1963 Alarm substance in some North American cyprinid fishes. Copeia 

1963:174-176. 
1969 Some aspects of the reactivity of fish to visual stimuli in the natural and in a 
controlled environment. Food and Agriculture Organization Fish Report 
2(62):4 17-429. 
VERHEIJEN, F. J. and H. J. REUTER 

1969 The effect of alarm substance on predation among cyprinids. Animal 
Behaviour 17:551-554. 
VERZHBINSKAYA. N. A., L. I. PERSHINA and V. G. LEONT'EV 

1977 Proteins of mitochondrial membranes in lower vertebrates. Journal of Evolu- 
tionary Biochemistry and Physiology 13:1 18-124. [in Russian] 
VESEY-FITZGERALD, B. and F. LAMONT, eds. 

n.d. Game fish of the world. New York, Harper and Brothers. 446 pp. 
VESSEL. M. F. and S. EDDY 

1941 A preliminary study of the egg production of certain Minnesota fishes. Min- 
nesota Bureau of Fishery Research, Investigational Report 26:1-26. 
VIBERT. R., ed. 

1967 Fishing with electricity; its applications to biology and management. London, 
Fishing News (Books). 276 pp. 

Pike is mentioned briefly as an easy fish to catch using an electroshocker. 
The use of electricity to control unwanted pike populations during the spawn- 
ing season is described. 
VIENNA: ARCHIV 

1965 Archivalien aus acht Jahrhunderten. Ausstellung des Archivs der Stadt Wien. 
Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien. 15. Sonderausstellung. Dec. 1964- 
Feb. 1965. Wien. 

Exhibition guidebook and catalogue; no text, but a plate - 1507 Feb. 24 
fishery ordinance of Maximilian I, including coloured picture of pike. 
VILHANEN, M., H. KOKKO and V.-M. KAIJOMAA 

1982 Fishing, fishes and factors influencing them in Lake Pyhaselka. University of 
Joensuu, Publication of Karelian Institute 48:1-120. 
VINCENT OF BEAUVAIS 

1624 Speculum naturale. Vol. 1 of his Speculum quadruplex sive speculum maius. 
4 vols. Duaci, Baltazaris Belleri. Reprinted Graz, Akademische, 1964-1965. 
VINNIKOV, Y. A., V. I. GOVARDOVSKII and I. V. OSIPOVA 

1965 Electron-microscopical study of the organ of gravitation, the utriculus, of the 
pike (£mv ///r///.s). Biofizika 10:1003-1006. 

The utriculus contains a single type of receptor cell of a cylindrical form. 
The neurological supply is described. The peculiarities of the substructure of 
the organization of the utriculus of pike are characterized by retention of a 
series of primitive features that are characteristic of lateral line organs. 
VIRBICKASJ. 

1972 Osobennosti razvitija molodi scuki v prudach. Voprosy razvedenija ryb i 
rakobraznych v vodojemach Litvy, Vil'njus, Mintis, pp. 167-182. 

311 



VLADYKOV. V. D. 

1958 Liste des families de poissons cTeau salee du Quebec, suivie d'une liste des 
especes capturees et leurs endroits de capture. Quebec Departement 
Pecheries, pp. 1-66. 
VLADYKOV, V. D. and D. E. MCALLISTER 

1961 Preliminary list of marine fishes of Quebec. Naturaliste Canadien 
88(3):53-78. 
VOIGT. V. E. 

1935 Die fische aus der mitteleozanen Braunkohle des Geiseltales. Mit besonderer 
berucksichtigung der erhaltenen Weichteile. Nova Acta Leopoldina 
2:21-146. 
VOINO-YASENETSKII. A. V. 

1958 Otrazhenie evolyutsionnoi zakonomernosti v epileptiformnoi reaktsii zhivot- 
nykh na deistvie vysokogo partsialnogo davleniya kisloroda. [Reflection of 
the evolutionary pattern in the epileptiform reaction of animals to the effect of 
a high partial pressure of oxygen.] Moscow. 

Investigated the effect of increased oxygen content on pike and found that the 
fish develop chaotic movements, which were ascribed to a breakdown in the 
upper levels of the central nervous system. 
VOLCHUK, H.L. 

1976 Distribution of radioactive materials in aquatic environments, with considera- 
tion of their carcinogenic potential in aquatic animals. Progress in Experi- 
mental Tumor Research 20:35-43. 

In the open ocean, naturally occurring radioisotopes are the predominant 
source of exposure to animals. In coastal areas, where releases of radioac- 
tivity have occurred due to operations of the nuclear power industry, fission 
or activation products predominate. 
VOLKOVA, L. A. 

1973 The effect of light intensity on the availability of food organisms to some 
fishes of Lake Baikal. Journal of Ichthyology 13:591-602. 
Determined threshold values of light intensity, the lowest values of light 
intensity for the commencement of active feeding and the maximum feeding 
rate. The role of vision in feeding was established. 
VOLODIN. V. M. 

1960 Effect of temperature on the embryonic development of the pike, the blue 
bream (Abramis ballerus L.) and the white bream {Blicca bjoerkna L.). 
Trudy Instituta Biologii Vodokhran. 3(6):23 1-237. 
VONK.H.J. 

1927 Die Verdauung bei den Fischen. Zeitschrift fur Vergleichende Physiologie 

5:445-546. 
1939 Die biologische Bedeutung des pH - optimums der Verdauungsenzyme bei 
den Vertebraten. Ergebnisse der Enzymforschung 8:55. 
VOOREN,C M. 

1972 Ecological aspects of the introduction of fish species into natural habitats in 
Europe, with special reference to the Netherlands. A literature survey. Jour- 
nal of Fish Biology 4:565-583. 

Revises the information existent on the 39 species of fishes that have been 
introduced into European waters during the last two centuries. Discusses the 
abiotic and biotic factors in relation to each species and the problems created 

312 



h\ the introductions, especially of piscivorous species. 
VORONIN. F. N. and V. V. KRYLOV 

1971 Fish of Lake Vygonovskoe and fishery. Part 2. Vestnik Zoologii 5(3):40-44. 
VORONONKOVA. L. D. 

1 964 On fishing in the Tripol settlements (III — 1st milennium B.C.). Problems in 
Ichthyology 4:599-602. 
VOSTRADOVSKA, M. 

1978 K potravni biologic stiky ceeche vodarenskhch nadrzice Zelivka a Hubenov. 
| On the trophic biology of pike in the water-supply reservoirs Zelivka and 
Hubenov.] Vertebratologicke Zpravy, pp. 74-80. [in Czechoslovakian, 
English summary] 

The food consumed by various sizes of pike in each reservoir and the dietary 
changes that have occurred since the filling of the Zelivka reservoir are dis- 
cussed. 
VOSTRADOVSKY.J. 

1968a Dynamika populace stiky obecne (Esox lucius L.) v udoltelem na hospodar- 
skou tezby ryb. Zapiski Zpravy, pp. 39-68. 

1968b Dynamika populace stiky obecne (Esox lucius L.) v udolni nadrzi Lipno. 
Kand. disert. prace Hydrob. Laborator., pp. 1-1 10. 

1969a Znackovani, migrace a rust znackovanych stik v udolni nadrzi Lipno. [Tag- 
ging, migration, and growth of tagged pikes in the Lipno Dam Lake. Buletin 
Vyzkumy Ustav Rybarsky a Hydrobiologicky Vodnany 5(3):9— 18. [English 
summary] 

Study of 459 pike marked with monofilament threads and acetate cellulose 
tags, including times and distances of recapture. 

1969b Vyvoj ulovku a pomer pohlavi stiky obecne (Esox lucius L.) v udolni nadrzi 
Lipno. [The development of catches and the sex ratio of pike in the Lipno 
dam lake.] Buletin Vyzkumy Ustav Rybarsky a Hydrobiologicky Vodnany 
5(4):7-17. 

Compares catches of nets and anglers from 1958 in Czechoslovakia. Discus- 
sion of size selection by nets, effectiveness of angling, sex ratio o\' 2,465 pike, 
and change in harvest rate by nets and angling. 

1969c The mortality rate, survival, the biomass, and the abundance o\' the pike (Esox 
lucius L.) in the Lipno Valley Dam. Zivocisna vyroba 14(42):799-812. 
[English summary] 

Study of 2,522 Czechoslovakian specimens caught 1960 to 1967. Involved 
the application of Jackson's method and calculations of the recaptures of tags. 

1970a Vypocet delkoveho rustu ryb podle Sentjakove na prikoadu stiky obecne 
(Esox lucius) z Lipna. [The calculation of the growth nomogram according to 
Shentyuakova, using the example of pike (Esox lucius L.) from the Lipno 
Dam Lake.) Buletin Vyzkumy Ustav Rybarsky a Hydrobiologicky Vodnany 
6(3):26-32. 

Considers the allometric relation between radius of the scale and length of the 
body. Compares calculated values with empirical values, showing high con- 
sistency in 257 pike. 

1970b Vztah delky a vahy, coeficient kondice a \ /talis delek u stiky (Eso.\ lucius L.) 
z Lipna. [Length and weight relationship, coefficient of condition and the 
relation of lengths in pike {Esox lucius L.) of the Lipno Dam.] Zivocisna 
Vyroba l6(43):497-508. 

313 



Determined the constant of the length-weight relationship by empirical or cal- 
culated weight values of 3,107 specimens. 

1971 Potrava stiky obecne (Esox lucius L.) v udolni nadrzi Lipno. [The food of 
pike {Esox lucius L.) in the Lipno Reservoir.] Buletin Vyzkumy Ustav 
Rybarsky a Hydrobiologicky Vodnany 9:159-189. 

Data on 941 specimens including: length of pike in relation to food types, 
lengths, and numbers of prey species, seasonal food variation, and economic 
value of prey. 

1973 Rust stiky (Esox lucius L.) v udolni nadrzi Lipno. Buletin Vyzkumy Ustav 
Rybarsky a Hydrobiologicky Vodnany 10. 

1975 Horizontal distribution of individually tagged fish in the Lipno Reservoir. 
European Inland Fisheries Advisory Committee, Technical Paper 23(Suppl. 
1):65 1-655. 

1977 The age and growth of pike (Esox lucius L.) in the artificial reservoir Lipno. 
Buletin Vyzkumy Ustav Rybarsky a Hydrobiologicky Vodnany 10:21-46. 
Growth of pike was studied during the first 9 years of the existence of the 
lake. Age and growth were studied using scales and opercula. Growth rate 
was extremely rapid. Back-calculated size at age determined from scales was 
greater than from opercula. 

1980 The biology (size, growth, food) of pike in three Czech reservoirs. In Slade- 
cek, V., ed., Congress in Japan 1980; Proceedings. Stuttgart, Schweizer- 
bartsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, pp. 1264-1269. - 

Study found that growth rates for males and females differed, food spectrum 
depended on species composition of most abundant species, and pike had 
bio-ameliorative function in these reservoirs. 

1983 Techniques et methodes d'amenagement et d'elevage du brochet en 
Tchecoslovaquie. In Billard, R., ed., Le brochet gestion dans le milieu 
naturel et elevage. Paris, Institute National de la Recherche Agronomique. 
pp. 271-281. 

Information on management, rearing, age, growth, food. 
VOSTRADOVSKY, J. and M. VOSTRADOVSKA 

1973 K uloze stiky (Esox lucius L.) v uvodni periode vyvoje ichthyofauny 
Lipenske udolni nadrze. [On the role of pike (Esox lucius L.) during the ini- 
tial period of ichthyofauna development in the Lipno artificial lake.] Vysoka 
Skola Zemedelska v Brne Symposium, pp. 195-204. 

Study indicates the effect of fishing methods on numbers and reproduction, 
age and growth, food, length-weight, sex ratio, and mortality. Gives recom- 
mendations for methods of increasing pike numbers. 
VOTH, D. R. and O. R. LARSON 

1968 Metazoan parasites of some fishes from Goose River, North Dakota. Ameri- 
can Midland Naturalist 79:216-224. 

During the summer and autumn of 1964, 105 fishes representing 10 species 
were collected from two sites along the Goose River in eastern North Dakota. 
Thirty genera or species of parasites were identified and all fish were affected. 
VOUGA, M. 

1939 Le role du brochet dans Teconomie piscicole des lacs et des rivieres. 
L'esociculture. Bulletin Suisse Peche et Pisciculture 7:123-126. 



314 



VROLIK. A. J. 

1873 Studien uber die Verknocherung und die Knochen des Schadels der Teleos- 
tier. Archives de Zoologie 1:219-290. 

VUORINEN. P. and M. B. AXELL 

1980 Effect of the water soluble fraction of crude oil on herring eggs and pike fry. 
International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 30:1-10. 
Growth of pike fry was significantly poorer in high oil concentrations than in 
the control. In the gills of pike fry exposed to oil. the secondary lamellae 
were bent and changes were observed in the lamella epithelium. The 
epithelium of the intestine was also damaged. 



315 



WACHS. B. 

1982 Concentration of heavy metals in fishes from the river Danube. Zeitschrift 
fuer Wasser-Abwasser-Forschung l5(2):43-48. [in German. English 
abstract] 

From 1977 to 1980 the heavy metal content of fishes from the Bavarian 
Danube area was determined. The accumulation in fish comes from the 
water, not from the food. 

WAGNER. W.C. 

1972 Utilization of alewives by inshore piscivorous fishes in Lake Michigan. Tran- 
sactions of the American Fisheries Society 101:55-63. 

Examined stomach contents of 405 pike during April-October of 1966-68 to 
determine their food habits when alewives were abundant and scarce. When 
alewives were abundant they provided 669f of the total weight of foods taken. 

WAHL. D. H. and R. A. STEIN 

1985 Evaluation of stocking northern pike, muskellunge, and tiger muskellunge 
into Ohio lakes: a comparative approach. Ohio Department of Natural 
Resources, Project F-57-R-7: 1-38. 

Describes experiments in hatchery ponds, borrow pits, and reservoir systems 
to compare differences in survival, growth, and good habits. Growth and 
food habits were similar among all three; muskellunge survival was higher 
than for the other two species. 

WAINIO, A. 

1966a Age assessment of pike scales. Ontario Department of Lands and Forests 
Report, 6 pp. 

Problems of aging Lake Huron pike from scales, including information of 
Michigan pike derived from Ph.D. thesis of J. E. Williams. 
1966b A study of pike (Esox Indus, Linnaeus) in two areas of Lake Huron. M.S. 
thesis, University of Toronto. 72 pp. 

Information on length and weight, lamprey predation, food, age at maturity, 
age composition. 
1978 An obvious difference. Angler and Hunter in Ontario 3(5):26— 27. 

Brief summary of morphological distinctions between pike and masquinongy. 
Notes on appetite and angling records. 

WAJDOWICZ, Z. 

1958 Zbiornik Goczalkowicki jako obiekt gospodarki rybackiej. Cz. II. For- 
mowanie sie stada ryb w poczatkowym okresie istnienia zbiornika. [Goczal- 
kowice dam reservoir as an object of fishery management. Part II. Formation 
of fish populations in the initial period after reservoir construction.] Biul. 
Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Zaklad Biologii Stawow 7:67-86. 
Changes taking place in fish stock of the Vistula River two years after con- 
struction of a dam in Goczalkowice. 

1964 The development of ichthyofauna in dam reservoirs with small variations in 
water level. Acta Hydrobiologica 6:61-79. 

1965 Szczupak w zbierniku Goczalkewickim. [Pike in Goczalkowice dam reser- 
voir]. Acta Hydrobiologica 7:179-195. 

General characteristics and conditions of the development of pike in Goczal- 
kowice dam reservoir. 



316 



WALECKI, A. 

1864 Systematyczny przeglad ryb krajowych. Material) do Fanny Ichtyologicznej 
Polski. [Systematic review of local fishes. Materials to the Ichthyological 
Fauna of Poland.] I 15 pp. 
1889 Przyczynek do naszej fauny ichtyjologicznej. [Comments on our ichthyologi- 
cal fauna. | Pamietn. Fizjogr.: 3-23. 
Addendum to the list of loeal fish species. 
WALKER. C. E.. R. F. BROWN and D. A. KATO 

1974 Catalogue of fish and stream resources of Carmaeks area. Environment 
Canada, Fisheries and Marine Serviee Report PAC/T-74-8: 1-55. 
WALKER. K. W. 

1968 Temperature control in northern pike and muskellunge egg hatehing. 
Proeeedings o\' the North Central Warmwater Fish Culture Workshop, Ames, 
1968. Mimeographed report. 5 pp. 
WALKER. R. 

1953 Still water angling. London, MaeGibbon and Kee. 232 pp. 
Mentions pike as a winter sport fish. 
WALKER. S.J. 

1931 Biological and oceanographic conditions in Hudson Bay. 2. Report on the 
Hudson Bay fisheries expedition of 1930. B. Investigations at Churchill, 
Manitoba. Contributions to Canadian Biology and Fisheries 6(23):472-474. 
WALLS. G. L. 

1942 The vertebrate eye. Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin. 785 pp. 
WALTER. C. M.. F. C. JUNE and H. G. BROWN 

1973 Mercury in fish, sediments, and water in Lake Oahe, South Dakota. Journal 
of Water Pollution Control Federation 45:2203-2210. 

Analyses for total mercury content were made of fish, sediment, and water 
samples eollected in several locations in Lake Oahe and its tailwaters. Mer- 
cury concentrations equal to or exceeding 0.5 mg/kg occurred in 30 of 225 
fish samples tested. Higher concentrations were found most frequently in 
predatory game fishes such as pike. 
WALTER. H. 

1912 Unser Hecht (Esox lucius) in Aquarium. Blattchen Aquarien und Terrarien 
Kunde 23:40-41. 
WALTERS. V. 

1953 The fishes collected by the Canadian Arctic Expedition, 1913-1918, with 
additional notes on the ichthyofauna of western arctic Canada. National 
Museum of Canada Bulletin 128:257-274. 
1955 Fishes of western arctic America and eastern Siberia. Taxonomy and 
zoogeography. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 
106(6):259-368. 
WALTHER.J. 

1882 Die Entwicklung der Deckknochen am Kopfskelett des Hechtes {Esox lucius). 
Zeitschrift fuer Naturwissenschaftlich 16:59-87. 
WALTON. I. and C. COTTEN 

1835 Observations of the luce or pike, with directions how to fish for him. [Fac- 
simile reprint of the first edition published in 1653.] /// The Compleat Angler. 
London, J. Major, pp. 142-156. 
Observations on feeding habits and instructions on bait and cooking. 

317 



WARD, A. L. 

1979 So fangt man Hechte. Hamburg, Paul Parey. 99 pp. 
WARREN, C. E. and G. E. DAVIS 

1967 Laboratory studies on the feeding, bioenergetics, and growth of fish. /// Gerk- 
ing, S. D., ed., The biological basis of freshwater fish production. IBP Sym- 
posium, Reading, 1966. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications, pp. 
175-214. 

WASHBURN, F. L. 

1886 Mortality of fish at Lake Mille Lac, Minnesota. American Naturalist 
20:896-897. 

Unexplained mortality in June and July of many species, including pike, attri- 
tubed to an external parasite. 

WATSON, R. A. and T. A. DICK 

1980 Metazoan parasites of pike, Esox Indus Linnaeus, from Southern Indian 
Lake, Manitoba, Canada. Journal of Fish Biology 17(3):255— 261 . 
Parasites were studied to reveal species composition, differences with host 
age, sex, and location and season of capture. Pike hosted 18 species of meta- 
zoan parasites, two of which made up over 84% of parasite numbers. 
Impoundments could greatly change pike parasite levels. 

WEBB, P. W. 

1978a Fast-start performance and body form in seven species of teleost fish. Journal 
of Experimental Biology 74:21 1-226. 

Normal three-stage kinematic patterns were observed. Duration of kinetic 
stages, maximum acceleration rates, maximum velocity and distance were 
recorded. Performance was determined at an acclimation and test tempera- 
ture of 15 C. 

1978b Hydrodynamics: nonscrombroid fish. In Hoar, W. S., and D. J. Randall, eds., 
Fish physiology, vol. 7, Locomotion, pp. 190-239. 

1980 Does schooling reduce fast-start response latencies in teleosts? Comparative 
Biochemistry and Physiology 65A(2):23 1-234. 

1982 Avoidance responses of fathead minnow to strikes by four teleost predators. 
Journal of Comparative Physiology 147A(3):37 1-378. 

Predator avoidance behaviour was analysed using stop-action video-tape 
recordings of predator-prey interactions. Response patterns, response thres- 
holds, and the apparent looming thresholds of the minnows were recorded for 
attacks by the pike-muskellunge hybrid. 

1983 Speed acceleration and manoevrability of two teleost fish. Journal of Experi- 
mental Biology 102:1 15-122. 

1984a Body and fin form and strike tactics of four teleost predators attacking fathead 
minnow (Pimephalus promelas) prey. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and 
Aquatic Sciences 41:157-165. 

Piscivore locomotor tactics varied with body/fin morphology. Pike- 
muskellunge hybrids always used S-start fast starts, and sometimes overshot 
their prey. Speed and strike were greatest in the esocid than in the other three 
species studied. The esocid attacked at maximum speed. 

1984b Chase response latencies of some teleostean piscivores. Comparative and 
Biochemical Physiology 79A:45-48. 
WEBB, P. W. and J. M. SKADSEN 

1980 Strike tactics of Esox. Canadian Journal of Zoology 58:1462-1469. 

318 



Strike patterns of cultured pike-muskellunge hybrids on fathead minnow 
{Pimephales promelas) in an aquarium were observed on videotape. These 
taeties were expected it' the predator is to maximize the probability of catch- 
ing prey. 
WEBB. R. and B. RICKARDS 

1976 Fishing for big pike, 2nd ed. London, A. & C. Blaek. 
WEBSTER. D. A. 

1942 The life histories of some Conneetieut fishes. A fishery survey of important 
Conneetieut lakes. Geology and Natural History Survey of Conneetieut, Bul- 
letin 63: 122-227. 
WEBSTER. J.. A. TRANDAHL and J. LEONARD 

1978 Historical perspective of propagation and management of coolwater fishes in 
the United States. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 
11:161-166. 

Of 40 responding state agencies, 14 had pike production programs. Suggests 
money and personnel be allocated to management programs such as the use 
of pike in non-native areas as a predator to control overabundant forage fish, 
and producing the pike-muskellunge hybrid in a put-grow-and-take trophy 
fishery. 
WEED. A. C. 

1922 The distribution of pickerels. Copeia 1 15:21-23. 

1927 Pike, pickerel and muskalonge. Field Museum of Natural History, Zoology 
Leaflet 9: 153-204. 
WEINFURTER. E. 

1950 Die Oberpannonsiche Fischfauna vom Eichkogel bei Modling. Sitzungsber- 
ichte der Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften 159:37-50. 
WEISEL. G. F. 

1949 The seminal vesicles and testes of Gillichthys, a marine teleost. Copeia 
1949:101-109. 
WEISS. D. G. 

1980 Rapid axonal transport of amino acids and peptides in the olfactory nerve of 
the pike Esox lucius. European Journal of Cell Biology 22:349. 

1982 3-0 methyl-D glucose and beta alanine rapid axoplasmic transport of meta- 
bolically inert low molecular weight substances. Neuroscience Letters 
31:241-246. 
WEISS, D. G., G. W. GROSS and G. W. KREUTZBERG 

1978a Experiments concerning the mechanism of axoplasmic transport. Neurosci- 
ence Letters, Suppl. 1 :S 1 3. 

1978b Subcellular distribution of rapidly transported material in the olfactory nerve 
of the pike Esox lucius. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fuer Physiologische 
Chemie 359:336. 
WEISS, D. G.. V. KRYGIER-BREVART, G. W. GROSS and G. W. KREUTZBERG 

1978 Rapid axoplasmic transport of the olfactory nerve of the pike. II. Analysis of 
transported proteins by SDS gel electrophoresis. Brain Research 139:77-87. 
In order to ascertain the balance of synthesis, transport, and turnover, an 
analysis of different regions of the olfactory system as well as of the peak and 
plateau regions from the characteristic isotope distribution profile was per 
formed. 



319 



WEISS. J. 

1979 Uber Vorkommen and ultrastruktur von Mastzellen im Hypothalamus der 
Knochentische. [The occurrence and ultrastructure of the mast cells of the 
hypothalamus of bony fish.] Zeitschrift fuer Mikroskopisch-Anatomische 
Forschung 93: 147-160. 

WEITHMAN, A. S. 

1975 Survival, growth, efficiency, preference and vulnerability to angling of Esoci- 
dae. M.S. thesis, University of Missouri. 97 pp. 

Growth and survival were assessed by stocking ponds with pike, muskel- 
lunge, and pike-muskellunge hybrids separately and together, then draining 
the ponds several months later. Studied feeding and growth in tanks and vul- 
nerability by offering uniform sizes and numbers of selected species. 
WEITHMAN. A. S. and R. O. ANDERSON 

1976 Angling vulnerability of Esocidae. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of 
the Southeast Association of Game and Fish Commissioners 30:99-102. 
Five yearling pike, muskellunge, or their hybrid were stocked in duplicate 
0.2-ha ponds. Two additional ponds were stocked with a combination of five 
fish of each of the three forms. In 58 hours of angling from April to Sep- 
tember, pike were 3.1 and 4.2 times more vulnerable than the hybrid and 
muskellunge, respectively. No fish were caught in 19 hours of fishing from 
June 15 to August 13. Repeat catches accounted for 35.6% of the total catch; 
hooking mortality was 1.7%). 

1977 Survival, growth, and prey of Esocidae in experimental systems. Transac- 
tions of the American Fisheries Society 106:424-430. 

Data for pike, muskellunge, and their hybrid (including maintenance diets) 
suggest the hybrid is the most desirable form because of rapid growth rate, 
intermediate angling vulnerability, and ease of rearing in a hatchery com- 
pared to either parent species. 

WELCH, H. E. 

1968 Relationships between assimilation efficiencies and growth efficiencies for 
aquatic consumers. Ecology 49:755-759. 
Energy budgets compiled from the literature. 

WELCOMME, R. L. 

1979 Preliminary record of international transfers of fish species. Food and Agri- 
culture Organization Fisheries Circular 715: 1-37. 

Pike have been transferred from Ireland to the U.K., Spain to France, 

Madagascar to France, and Uganda to Israel. 
WENT, A. E. J. 

1957 The pike in Ireland. Irish Naturalists 1 Journal 12(7): 1-5. 

History of distribution through accounts in literature dating from the end of 

the 12th century. 
1966 The status of various species of coarse fish in Irish waters. /// Jones, J. W., 

and P. H. Tombleson, eds., Proceedings of the 2nd British Coarse Fish 

Conference, Liverpool, 1965, pp. 102-108. 
WERNER, R. G. and N. H. RINGLER 

1980 Population biology of esocids in the St. Lawrence River. Research proposal 
submitted to New York Sea Grant Institute. 

A decline in the quality of the pike fishery was reported. This research pro- 
posed to help fill the need for information on esocids in the St. Lawrence 

320 



River and to relate that know ledge to future management of the fishery. 

WESLOH, M. L. and D. E. OLSON 

1962 The growth and harvest of stocked yearling northern pike. Esox lucius Lin- 
naeus, in a Minnesota walleye lake. Minnesota Department of Conservation, 
Investigational Report 242:1-9. 

The contribution of stocked yearling pike to the sport fishery of an 885-acre 
walleye lake was evaluated through the return of marked fish in a census of 
the anglers' catch. Of 5.133 pike stocked in December 1958, 44. 1 ^ were 
harvested in the course of two complete angling seasons. 

WESSLER. E. and I. WERNER 

1957 On the chemical composition of some mucous substances in fish. Acta 
Chemica Scandinavica 11:1 240-1 247. 

WESTERS. H. 

1978 Biological considerations in hatchery design for coolwater fishes. American 
Fisheries Society Special Publication 1 1:246-253. 

A summary of oxygen consumption and ammonia production of the pike- 
muskellunge hybrid. 

1979 Controlled fry and fingerling production in hatcheries. European Inland 
Fisheries Advisory Committee Technical Paper 35(suppl. l):32-52. 
Advantages of the intensive flow-through rearing method over the extensive 
pond method are described. Design and biological principles of the intensive 
method are discussed, considering water consumption and various fish culture 
management practices. Economic implications are not covered. A method 
for successful intensive rearing of pike-muskellunge hybrids is described with 
problem areas identified. 

WESTMAN.J. 

1961 Why fish bite and why they don't. Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall. 211pp. 
WHANG-PENG. J.. R. A. SONSTEGARD and C. J. DAWE 

1976 Chromosomal characteristics of malignant lymphoma in northern pike (Esox 
lucius) from the United States. Cancer Research 36:3554-3560. 
Chromosome analyses were performed on tumour cells and normal hemato- 
poietic cells of specimens bearing malignant lymphomas. 

WHEELER. A. 

1969 Fish-life and pollution in the lower Thames: a review and preliminary report. 
Biological Conservation 2:25-30. 

1977 The origin and distribution of the freshwater fishes of the British Isles. Jour- 
nal of Biogeography 4: 1-24. 

1978 Why were there no fish remains at Star-Carr. Journal of Archaeological Sci- 
ence 5:85-90. 

WHITE. W. J. and R. J. BEAMISH 

1972 A simple fish tag suitable for long-term marking experiments. Journal of the 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada 29:339-341. 
WHITEHOUSE, F. C. 

1948 Sport fishing in Canada. Vancouver, published by the author. 188 pp. 
WHITNEY. A.N. 

1953 Southern Montana fisheries study. Sampling fish populations in reservoirs. 
Montana Fish and Game Department. Dingell-Johnson Report F-6-R-2/Job 
01/B:l-4. 



321 



WHITWORTH, W. R., P. L. BERRIEN and W. T. KELLER 

1968 Freshwater fishes of Connecticut. Connecticut Geological and Natural His- 
tory Survey, Bulletin 101:1-134. 
WICH, K. and J. W. MULLAN 

1958 A compendium of the life history and ecology of the chain pickerel Esox 
niger (LeSueur). Massachusetts Division of Fish and Game, Fish Bulletin 
22:1-27. 

WICKLUND, R. B. and S. DIANGELO 

1959 Watershed surveys and management plans. Surveys and plans — northern 
pike spawning surveys and development plans. Michigan Department of 
Conservation, Dingel-Johnson Report F-4-R-5/Job 02/H:l-7. 

WIEBE, A. H. 

1931 Notes in the exposure of several species of fish to sudden changes in the 
hydrogen-ion concentration of the water and to an atmosphere of pure oxy- 
gen. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 61:216-224. 
WIKTOR, J. and C. ZUKOWSKI 

1962 Szczupak w gospodarce zalewu Szczecinskiego a latach 1948-1957. [The 
pike in Szczecin first husbandry in the years 1948-1957.] Prace MIR 1 1/A, 
421-441. 

Size of pike stock in Szczecinski Bay. Role of pike in biocenosis in the pres- 
ence of another predator, pike-perch. 
WILBER, C. G. 

1955 Lipids in the northern pike. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 
84:150-154. 

Blood and liver were analysed for fatty acids, sterols, and phospholipids. The 
pike is distinctive in having a rather high liver cholesterol — 0.89% of fresh 
tissue. The other lipids are not unique; however, pike in general have con- 
sistently less fat in the liver than do marine fish. 
WILDING, J. L. 

1939 The oxygen threshold for three species of fish. Ecology 20:253-263. 
WILIMOVSKY, N. J. 

1 954 List of fishes of Alaska. Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin 4:279-294. 
WILKENS, H. and A. KOEHLER 

1977 The fish fauna of the lower and middle Elbe River, West Germany, the 
species used 1950-1975. ABH Verhandlungen Naturwiss ver Hamb. 
20:185-222. [in German] 
WILKONSKA, H. and H. ZUROMSKA 

1967 Obserwacje nad rozrodem szczupaka (Esox lucius L.) i ploci (Rutilus rutilus 
L.) w jeziorach Pojezierza Mazurskiego. [Observations of the spawning of 
pike (Esox lucius L.) and roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) in Mazury Lake district.] 
Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych 90:477-502. 

Utilization of spawning grounds by fishes; division of spawning areas into 
types; factors affecting terms of spawning. 
WILLEMSE, J. J. 

1968 Helminth and sporozoan parasites of fishes in the Netherlands. Bulletin 
Zoologisch Museum Universiteit van Amsterdam 1 (8):83— 87. 

1969 The genus Proteocephalus in the Netherlands. Journal of Helminthology 
43:207-222. 



322 



WILLEMSEN.J. 

1955 De waarde van pool snoekjes voor uitzetting. |Thc biological value of pike 
fingerlings for stocking.] Visserij-Nieuws 7:150-151. 

Between fingerlings of 5 and 10 cm, no difference could be shown concern- 
ing viability (survival in ponds without predators), predator resistance (sur- 
vival in presence of predators) and in size after one growing season. 

1958 Onderzoek ten behoeve van de pootsnoekproduktie. (Research on behalf of 
the production of pike-fingerlings.| Organisatie ter Verbetering van de Bin- 
nenvisserij, Utrecht, Jaarverslag 1958:58-65. 

1965 Het voedsel van de snoek. (Food of pike. J Visserij-Nieuws 18:298-305. 

The mean length of prey fish is small, even for large pike. Food conversion 
of pike was determined in concrete basins. Food conversion appeared not to 
be size dependent. With abundant feeding of prey, the conversion amounted 
to 3-5.5. 

1967a Research on the feeding of pike. Proceedings 3rd British Coarse Fish Confer- 
ence 1967:33-36. 

A summary of research in the Netherlands on food of pike and frequency of 
cannibalism. 

1967b Voedsel en groei van snoek. (Food and growth of pike.] Visserij-Nieuws 
20:72-75. 

A comparison of growth rate determined from scales collected at time of tag- 
ging and recapture. Gives growth rate of pike from two waters. 

1978 Voedsel en groei van zoetwater-roofvis. [Food and growth of a freshwater 
predator.] Visserij-Nieuws 31:192-200. (in Dutch] 

1979 Relatie tussen de lengte van paaisnoek en het voortplantingsresultaat. [Rela- 
tion between length of pike and the spawning success.] RIVO-rapport ZS 
79-2:1-12. 

Within the range of 50-100 cm no relation could be shown regarding egg 
quality and size of the female. Not clearly dependent upon the length of the 
female was the size of the larvae, the mortality during the embryonic and lar- 
val period, and the growth rate of juveniles up to a length of about 4 cm. 
WILLIAMS, J. E. 

1952 Northern pike management. Michigan Conservation 21 (2):5-7. 

Brief history of pike fishing regulations in Michigan from 1875, outlining the 
changes in attitude from an extermination policy to one of conservation. 

1955 Determination of age from the scales of northern pike {Esox lucius L.). Ph.D. 
thesis, University of Michigan. 185 pp. 

1959a Techniques for management of warm-water fish. Sampling of lake fish popu- 
lations with seines and toxicants. Michigan Department of Conservation, 
Dingell-Johnson Report F-15-R-l/Job 3. 

1959b Techniques for management of warm-water fish. Evaluation of mortality of 
northern pike from hooking and natural mortality. Michigan Department of 
Conservation, Dingell-Johnson Report F-15-R-l/Job 7. 

1959c Techniques for management of warm-water fish. Evaluation of reproduction 
of northern pike in controlled marshes. Michigan Department of Conserva- 
tion, Dingell-Johnson Report F-15-R-l/Job 8. 

1960a Techniques for management of warm-water fish. Evaluation of mortality of 
northern pike from hooking and natural causes. Michigan Department of 
Conservation, Dingell-Johnson Report F-15-R-2/Job 6. 

323 



1960b Techniques for management of warm-water fish. Evaluation of reproduction 
of northern pike in controlled marshes. Michigan Department of Conserva- 
tion, Dingell-Johnson Report F-15-R-2/Job 7. 

1960c Techniques for management of warm-water fish. Preparation of a monograph 
on northern pike and muskellunge. Michigan Department of Conservation, 
Dingell-Johnson Project F-15-R-2, Job 14:1 1-16. 

1961a Techniques for management of warm-water fish. Sampling of lake fish popu- 
lations with seines and toxicants. Michigan Department of Conservation, 
Dingell-Johnson Report F-15-R-3/Job 2:1-5. 

1961b Techniques for management of warm-water fish. Creel census of population 
control lakes. Michigan Department of Conservation. Dingell-Johngon 
Report F-15-R-3/Job 5. 

1961c Techniques for management of warm-water fish. Evaluation of mortality of 
northern pike from hooking and natural causes. Michigan Department of 
Conservation, Dingell-Johnson Report F-15-R-3/Job 6. 

196 Id Techniques for management of warm-water fish. Evaluation of reproduction 
of northern pike in controlled marshes. Michigan Department of Conserva- 
tion, Dingell-Johnson Report F-15-R-3/Job 7. 

1962a Techniques for management of warm-water fish. Evaluation of reproduction 
of northern pike in controlled marshes. Michigan Department of Conserva- 
tion, Dingell-Johnson Report F-15-R-4/Job 7. 

1962b Techniques for management of warm-water fish. Sampling of lake fish popu- 
lations with seines and toxicants. Michigan Department of Conservation, 
Dingell-Johnson Report F-15-R-4/Job 2:1-6. 

1962c Techniques for management of warm-water fish. Analysis of predatory fish 
food and feeding habits as observed in the laboratory. Michigan Department 
of Conservation, Dingell-Johnson Report F-15-R-4/Job 9. 

1963a Research and management of sport fisheries of Michigan. Development and 
evaluation of techniques for management of warm-water fishes. Evaluation 
of reproduction of northern pike in controlled marshes. Michigan Department 
of Conservation, Dingell-Johnson Report F-27-R-l/Wk.Pl. 3/Job 7. 

1963b Research and management of sport fisheries of Michigan. Development and 
evaluation of techniques for management of warm-water fishes. Evaluation 
of reproduction of northern pike in controlled marshes. Michigan Department 
of Conservation, Dingell-Johnson Report F-27-R-l/Wk.Pl. 3/Job 9. 

1963c Research and management of sport fisheries of Michigan. Development and 
evaluation of techniques for management of warm-water fishes. Preparation 
of a monograph on northern pike and muskellunge. Michigan Department of 
Conservation, Dingell-Johnson Report F-27-R-l/Wk.Pl. 3/Job 13. 

1965a Research and management of sport fisheries of Michigan. Evaluation of fish 
management procedures. Test of the effects of protective regulations for 
northern pike. Michigan Department of Conservation, Dingell-Johnson 
Report F-27-R-2/WLPI. 2/Job 1. 

1965b Research and management of sport fisheries of Michigan. Development and 
evaluation of techniques for management of warm-water fishes. Analysis of 
predatory fish food habits in lakes. Michigan Department of Conservation, 
Dingell-Johnson Report F-27-R-2/Wk.PI. 3/Job 6. 

1965c Research and management of sport fisheries of Michigan. Development and 
evaluation of techniques for management of warm-water fishes. Management 






324 



of impoundments containing populations of slow -growing northern pike. 
Michigan Department of Conservation, Dingell-Johnson Report F-27-R- 
2/Wk.Pl. 3/Job 13. 

1966a Research and management of sport fisheries of Michigan. Development and 
evaluation of techniques for management of warm-water fishes. Determina- 
tion o\' the growth of northern pike on various diets in ponds and lakes. 
Michigan Department of Conservation, Dingell-Johnson Report F-27-R- 
4/Wk.Pl. 3/Job8:l-3. 

1 966b Research and management of sport fisheries of Michigan. Development and 
evaluation of techniques for management of warm-water fishes. Analysis of 
predatory fish food habits in lakes. Michigan Department of Conservation, 
Dingell-Johnson Report F-27-R-3/Wk.PI. 3/Job 6:1. 

1966c Research and management of sport fisheries of Michigan. Development and 
evaluation of techniques for management of warm-water fishes. Management 
of impoundments containing populations of slow-growing northern pike. 
Michigan Department oi' Conservation, Dingell-Johnson Report F-27-R- 
3/Wk.Pl. 3/Job 13:1-4. 

1967 Research and management of sport fisheries of Michigan. Development and 
evaluation of techniques for management of impoundments containing popu- 
lations of slow-growing northern pike. Michigan Department of Conserva- 
tion, Dingell-Johnson Report F-27-R-4/Wk.Pl. 3/Job 13:1-5. 

1968 Warmwater fish biology and population ecology. Management of an 
impoundment containing a population of slow-growing northern pike. Michi- 
gan Department of Conservation, Dingell-Johnson Report F-29-R-l/Job 
6:1-5. 

WILLIAMS. J. E. and B. L. JACOB 

1971 Management of spawning marshes for northern pike. Michigan Department 
of Natural Resources, Research and Development, Report 242:1-22. 
Management involved maintaining high water levels, controlling stocking 
rate, eliminating fish predators and competitors, and getting better growth and 
survival through fertilization. Discusses problems of variable fingerling pro- 
duction and high loss of spawners. 
WILLIAMS. M. Y. 

1922 Biological notes along 1400 miles of the MacKenzie River system. Canadian 
Field-Naturalist 36:61. 
WILLIAMSON. L. O. 

1940 Length-weight relationship of rish. Wisconsin Conservation Bulletin 5(9): 

37-39. 
1942 Spawning habits of muskellunge, northern pike. Wisconsin Conservation 
Bulletin 7(5): 10-11. 

Observations pertain to season, grounds, behaviour, age at sexual maturity, 
fecundity, and natural hybridization. 
WILLIS. D. W.. J. E. SMELTZER and S. A. FLICKINGER 

1984 Characteristics of a crappie population in an un fished small impoundment 
containing northern pike. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 
4:385-389. 
WILLOCK, T. A. 

1969 Distributional list of fishes in the Missouri drainage of Canada. Journal of the 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada 26:1439-1449. 

325 



WILSON, C B. 

1916 Copepod parasites of freshwater fishes and their economic relations to mussel 

Glochidia. U.S. Bureau of Fisheries Bulletin 34:333-374. 
1920 Food and parasites of the fishes of Lake Maxinkuckee. Lake Maxinkuckee: a 
physical and biological survey. Indiana Department of Conservation, pp. 
291-305. 
WILSON, J. 

1977 A specimen fishing year. London, A. & C. Black. 
WILSON, M. V. H. 

1980 Oldest known Esox (Pisces: Esocidae), part of a new Paleocene teleost fauna 
from western Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 17:307-312. 

1981 Eocene freshwater fishes from the Coalmont Formation, Colorado. Journal of 
Paleontology 55:671-674. 

Early Eocene freshwater fish bones and scales from the upper member of the 
Coalmont Formation, northern Colorado, include remains of Esocidae. 
Includes the first Eocene record of the pikes. The relatively narrow dimen- 
sions of the scales resemble those of the modern E. lucius more than E. 
masquinongy. 
WILSON, M. V. H. and P. VEILLEUX 

1982 Comparative osteology and relationships of the Umbridae (Pisces: Salmoni- 
formes). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 76:321-352. 

WINBERCG.G. 

1956 Rate of metabolism and food requirements of fishes. Nauchnye Trudy 
Belorusskovo Gosudarstvennovo Universiteta imeni. V. I. Lenina, Minsk. 
(Trans, from Russian by Fisheries Research Board of Canada Translation 
Series 194:1-253.) 
WINKELMAN, B. 

1977 Hammerhandles or lunkers. Which will it be? Fins and Feathers, June 1977. 

1978a Strategy for cold water pike. Fishing Facts, October 1978, pp. 42-45. 

Hints on angling for pike in cold waters, including different movement pat- 
terns of pike in lakes with different prey. 

1978b Where to find northern pike throughout the year. Fins and Feathers Fishing 
Annual, 1978, pp. 4-8, 10-11. 

Locations of pike depends upon: 1) lake type, 2) time of year, 3) predator- 
prey relationships, and 4) forage fish base (predators adapt feeding habits to 
environment). Information to aid anglers. 
WINNICKI, A. and J. DOMURAT 

1964 Wytrzymalosc oslonek jajowych niektorych ryb rozwijajacych sie w roznych 
srodowiskach. [Resistance of egg membranes of some fishes reproducing in 
various environments.) Zeszyty Naukowe Wyzszej Szkoly Rolniczej w 
Olsztynie 18(3):3 15-324. 

Studies on the durability of egg shells of rainbow trout, brook trout, vendace 
and pike during the whole embryonal period. 
WINQUIST, G., O. LJUNGBERG and B. HELLSTROM 

1968 Skin tumors of northern pike (Esox lucius L.). II. Viral particles in epidermal 
proliferations. Bulletin de 1'Office International des Epizooties 69/7-8: 
1023-1031., 

Describes the light and electron microscopy of sarcoma-like skin tumours and 
epidermal swellings found in pike from a brackish archipelago of the Baltic. 

326 



WINQUIST. G.. O. LJUNGBERG and B. IVARSSON 

1973 Electron microscopy of sarcoma of the northern pike Esox litems. In Dutcher, 
R. M., and L. Chieco-Blanchi, eds., Unifying concepts of leukemia. Basel, 
Karger. 

WINTEMBERG. W. J. 

1936 Roebuck prehistoric village site Grenville, Co., Ontario. National Museum of 
Canada. Bulletin 83, Anthropological Series, 19:1-178. 

1946 The Sidey-Mackay village site. American Antiquities 11:154-184. 
WIRTH. T. L. 

I960 Exploitation of fish populations by anglers in Wisconsin lakes. Wisconsin 
Conservation, December I960, 4 pp. 
WISTROM. C. A., B. APELGREN and C. W. THREINEN 

1957 Northern pike Esox lucius. Data for Handbook of Biological Data. 7 pp. 
WITA. I. 

1971 Naupliicola ergasili new species parasite of Ergasilus sieboldi larvae from 
Poland. Bulletin de TAcademie Polonaise des Sciences, Serie des Sciences 
Biologiques 19:351-353. 

1972 Parastasiella ergasili new species parasite of Ergasilus sieboldi eggs in 
Poland. Bulletin de LAcademie Polonaise des Sciences, Serie des Sciences 
Biologiques 20:133-137. 

1974 Three new speciesof Paradistigma new genus euglenoidina parasitica parasi- 
tizing Ergasilus sieboldi copepoda from Esox lucius of Mazurian lakes in 
Poland. Acta Parasitologica Polonica 22(35-44):365-39 1 . 

WITCOMB. D. 

1966 The importance of aquatic weeds in the general economy of freshwater habi- 
tats. In Jones, J. W., and P. H. Tombleson, eds.. Proceedings of the 2nd Brit- 
ish Coarse Fish Conference, Liverpool, 1965, pp. 49-56. 
WITHLER, I. L. 

1956 A limnological survey of Atlin and southern Tagish lakes. British Columbia 
Game Commission, Management Publication 5:1-36. 
WIZIGMANN, G., C. BAATH and R. HOFFMAN 

1980 Isolation of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus from fry of rainbow trout, 
pike and grayling. Zentralblatt fuer Veterinaermedizin 27:79-81. 
During a natural outbreak of disease, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus was 
isolated from fry of pike. 
WOHLSCHLAG. D. E. 

1953 Some characteristics of the fish populations in an Arctic Alaskan lake. 
Current Biological Research in the Alaskan Arctic 1 1:19-29. 

1954 Growth peculiarities of the cisco, Coregonus sardinella (Valenciennes), in the 
vicinity of Point Barrow, Alaska. Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin 
4(3): 189-209. 

WOJDA, S. 

1972 Szczupak. [The pike.] Wiadomosci Wedkarskie 279: 12-13. 
Fishing gear and methods of pike catches. 
WOLF. K. 

1972 Advances in fish virology: a review 1966-1971. /// Mawdesley Thomas, L. 
E., ed.. Diseases of fish. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London (30). 
London, Academic Press, pp. 305-327. 



327 



1974 Rhabdovirus disease of northern pike fry. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
FDL-37:l-4. 
WOLFERT. D. F. and T. J. MILLER 

1978 Age, growth and food of northern pike in eastern Lake Ontario. Transactions 
of the American Fisheries Society 107:696-702. 

Results of pike sampled by gill nets and trap nets in 1972-73. Electivity 
indices for three most common species in diet. 
WONDARK, P. 

1974 Morphologische Untersuchungen am Hoden des Hechtes (Esox Indus L.). 
Ph.D, thesis, Gartenbau Technological University. 23 pp. 
WONDRA, K. 

1981 Die Hechterbruetung. [Pike breeding.] Fischerei Teichwirt 32(4):98— 101 . 

Pike stocks are endangered by angling and by changes in the environment. 
Through embankment spawning grounds are lost. Eutrophication and pollu- 
tion disturb development of eggs and larvae so that stocking operations are 
necessary. Artificial reproduction, breeding and rearing are described. 
WONG. B. and T. WHILLANS 

1973 Limnological and biological survey of Hottah Lake, Northwest Territories 
Environment Canada Technical Report Series CENT-73-6: 1-69 
Assessment of length, weight, age, and stomach contents of pike caught by 
gill nets during summer of 1972. General notes on angling. 
WOODBURY, L. A. 

1942 A sudden mortality of fishes accompanying a supersaturation of oxygen in 
Lake Waubesa, Wisconsin. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 
71:112-117. 

A heavy algal bloom and surface oxygen values of 30-32 ppm were associ- 
ated with mortality of pike. Death of fish was attributed to blocking of circu- 
lation through gills by gas bubbles with consequent respiratory failure. 
WOODING, F. H. 

1959 The angler's book of Canadian fishes. Don Mills, Collins. 303 pp. 
WOODLING, J. 

1984 Game fish of Colorado; an identification guide for sport fish commonly 
caught in Colorado. Denver, Colorado Division of Wildlife. 
WOODS, C. E. 

1971 Helminth parasites of fishes from the Forest River, North Dakota. American 
Midland Naturalist 86:212-215. 
WOOLMAN, A. J. 

1896 Report upon ichthyological investigations in western Minnesota and eastern 
North Dakota. Report of the U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries for 1893, 
app. 3, pp. 343-373. 
WORLEY, D. E. and R. V. BANGHAM 

1952 Some parasites of fishes of the upper Gatineau River Valley. Ohio Journal of 
Science 25:210-212. 
WORTHINGTON, E B. 

1949 An experiment with populations of fish in Windermere 1939-48. Proceed- 
ings of the Zoological Society of London 1 20: 1 1 3-149. 
WOYNAROVICH, E. 

1955 Biological observation in relation to artificial propagation of fish. Acta Biolo- 
gica Academiac Scientiarum Hungaricae 6(1/2): 149-169. 

328 



I960 Oxygen consumption of the larvae o\' pike {Eso.x lucius L.) and sheat-fish 

(Silurus glanis L.) at temperatures of 0.5 to 28 C. Ann. Biol. Tihany 
27:183-191. 

1962 Erfolgreiche kunstliche Befruchtung vom Hechtrogen. Allgemeine 
Fischerei-Zeitung 87:346-348. 

1963 Artificial fertilization of pike eggs. Halaszat 9(2):58. [in Hungarian] 
WRIGHT, A. H. and A. A. ALLEN 

1913 The fauna of Ithaca, N.Y. Fishes. /// Field note-book of fishes, amphibians, 
reptiles and mammals. Ithaca, pp. 4-6. 
WRIGHT. E. P. 

1 878 Die Entwicklung des Knochenhechts und der Schollen. Kosmos 4:3 1 2-3 1 5. 
WRIGHT. K.J. 

1971 Mississippi River special tailwater sport fishing creel census in pool 7, March 
1. 1969 - April 30. 1969. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 
Management Report 45. 

WRIGHT. R. 

1892 Preliminary report on the fish and fisheries of Ontario. Ontario Game and 

Fish Commission Report for 1892, pp. 419-476. 
WRZESZCZ. J. 

1960 Ryby drapiezne potoku Trzebiocha i charakter ich presji na mlodziez troci 

{Salmo trutta morpha lacustris L.) z jeziora Wdzydze. (Predatory fishes of 

Trzebiocha Stream and their impact on juvenile trout {Salmo trutta morpha 

lacustris L.) in Lake Wdzydze.] M.S. thesis. 44 pp. 

Characteristics of the food of pike and the impact of predatory fishes on 

juvenile lake trout. 
WUNDER. W. 

1927a Wie findet der Hecht seine Beute. Fischerei-Zeitung 

1927b Sinnesphysiologische Untersuchungen uber die Nahrungsaufnahme ver- 

schiedener Knochenfischarten. Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Physiologie 

6:67-98. 
1936 Physiology of the fresh-water fishes of central Europe. Handbuch der 

Binnenfischerei Mitteleuropas, vol. 2B. Stuttgart, E. Schweizerbart. (Trans. 

from German by Stanford University, WPA Project 50-1 1861, 1941. } 
1949 Ein Fall von Wirbelsaulenverkurzung beim Hecht {Eso.x lucius). Archiv fur 

Hydrobiologie 42:470-473. 

1960 Missbildungen bei kleinen Hechten. Fischwirt 10(2):35-40. 

1961 Massenhaftes Auftreten von Missbildungen bei kleinen Hechten (Eso.x lucius 
L.). Zoologischer Anzeiger 166:42-55. 

1972 Sinnesphysiologische Untersuchungen uber die Nahrungsaufnahme ver- 
schiedener Knochenfischarten. Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Physiologie 
6:67-98 

1976 Curvature of the spine and shortening of the fins in the zander Lucioperca 
sandra caused by waste water from the households in the Eder Valley Dam 
Reservoir. Zoologischer Anzeiger 197:356-376. 

1978 Ein Hecht (Eso.x luciusL.) mit vollkommenem Bruch der Wirbelsaeule und 
Querschnittslaehmung des Rueckenmarks. |A pike {Esox lucius L.) with a 
total fracture of the spine and a severing of the spinal cord with resulting 
paralysis.] Archiv fuer Hydrobiologie 84:247-255. [in German. English 
summary | 

329 



Description of a pike with a broken spine. Photos of the behaviour of the fish 
and of the vertebrae. Discussion of the literature. 
1982 Wundheilung, Regeneration und Missbildungen bei Fischen. Versuche bei 
kleine Hechten uber die Regeneration des Schwanzes. Fischer u. Teichwirt 
35(5): 135-136. 
WUNDSCH, H. H. 

1929 Untersuchungen uber die Kiemenfaule bei Fischen (XII). (Eine besondere 
Art der "Kiemenfaule" bei Hechten und Schleien (II)). [Investigations on gill 
rot in fish (XII). A special kind of "gill rot" in northern pike and tench (II).] 
Zeitschrift fuer Fischerei und deren Hilfswissenschaften 27:287-293. 

1930 XV. Untersuchungen uber die diemenfaule bei fischen. III. Weitere 
beobachtungen an Branchiomyces demigrans als erreger der kiemenfaule 
beim Hecht. Zeitschrift fuer Fischerei und deren Hilfswissenschaften 
28:391-402. 

WUNSCHE, J. and W. STEFFENS 

1968 Der Gehalt an eesentiellen Aminosauren im Protein von Karpfen {Cyprinus 
carpio), Regenbogenforelle {Salmo gairdneri), Kleiner Marane (Coregonus 
albula), Hecht (Esox lucius) und Aal {Anguilla anguilla). Zeitschrift fuer 
Fischerei und deren Hilfswissenschaften 16(3/4):30 1-304. 
WURTZ, A. 

1945 Developpement, biologie et nutrition des jeunes alevins de brochet {Esox 
lucius L.). Bulletin Francais de Pisciculture 135:57-69. 
WURTZ-ARLET,J. 

1952 Le black-bass en France: Esquisse Monographique. Annales de la Station 
Centrale d'Hydrobiologie Aphiquee 4:203-286. 
WYDALLIS, E. A. 

1960 Observations on the scale development patterns of the eastern chain pickerel, 
northern pike, Great Lakes muskellunge, Ohio muskellunge, and yellow wal- 
leye with respect to age and length. Ohio State University, Fisheries 
Research Report 1959-60:1-142. 
WYDOSKI, R. S. 

1977 Relation of hooking mortality and sublethal hooking stress to quality fishery 
management. In Barhart, R. A., and T. D. Roelofs, eds., National symposium 
on catch and release fishing. Humboldt State University, pp. 43-87. 
WYDOSKI, R. S. and D. H. BENNETT 

1981 Forage species in lakes and reservoirs of the western United States. Transac- 
tions of the American Fisheries Society 1 10:764-771. 

Brief discussion of how pike introductions affected forage species popula- 
tions. 
WYGANOWSKI, J. 

1957 Wedkarstwo. [Angling.] Warsaw, PWRiL. 487 pp. 
1974 Poradnik wedkarski. [Angler's manual.] Warsaw, PWRiL. 161pp. 
WYNNE-EDWARDS, V. C. 

1947 Northwest Canadian fisheries survey. Chapter 3, The Mackenzie River. 

Fisheries Research Board of Canada Bulletin 72:21-30. 
1952 Freshwater vertebrates of the arctic and subarctic. Fisheries Research Board 
of Canada Bulletin 94:1-28. 



330 



YAMAMOTO, T., R. K. KELLY and (). NIELSEN 

19S4 Epidermal hyperplasias of northern pike (Esox Indus) associated with herpes 
virus and C-type particles. Archives of Virology 79:255-272. 
YEFIMOVA. A. I. 

1949 The pike of the ObMrtysh basin. I. I/vestiya Gosudarstvennogo Nauchno- 
Ulssledovatel'skogo Instituta Ozernogo i Rechnogo Rybnogo Khozvaistva 
28:114-117. 
YUSUPOV. O. Y. and A. N. URAZBAEV 

1980 Parasitic ciliates Peritricha Ureeolariidae of fishes from the Aral Sea. Para/i- 
tologiya 14:504-510. 



^^\ 



ZABA. B. N. and E. J. HARRIS 

1978 Accumulation and effects of trace metal ions in tish liver mitochondria. 
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 61C:89-94. 
ZADUL'SKAYA, E. A. 

I960 Feeding and food relationships of predatory fishes in the northern part of 
Rybinsk reservoir. Translated from Russian by U.S. Department of Com- 
merce, Technical Service. 
ZAITZEV. A. V. 

1955a The annual cycle of testes in pike. Comptes Rendus de TAcademie des Sci- 
ences 101:185-187. 

1955b A histological investigation of the annual changes of the thyroid gland of the 
pike and the neuro-secretory activity of the hypothalamic nuclei in the sea- 
sonal change of the thyreotropic function of the hypophysis. Doklady Aka- 
demii Nauk SSSR 104:315-318. 
ZALACHOWSKI, W. 

1965a Wzrost szczupalka z Jezior Leginskich. [The growth of pike (Esox lucius L.) 
in Leginskie Lakes.] Zeszyty Naukowe Wyzszej Szkoly Rolniczej w 
Olsztynie 20:181-193. 
Rate of pike growth as compared to data from lakes in other regions. 

1965b Odzywianie sie szczupaka z Jezior Leginskich. [The feeding of pike from 
Leginskie Lakes.] Zeszyty Naukowe Wyzszej Szkoly Rolniczej w Olsztynie 
20(2): 195-2 12. 
Feeding behaviour of pike and its effect upon prey fishes. 

1970 Biologie rozwoju larw szczupaka w grupie jezior Leginskich. [Biology of 
pike larval development.] Roczniki Nauk Rolniczyck 92H(3):93-1 19. 
Changes in pike biology connected with its morphological development; the 
effect of different ecological conditions upon the course of these changes. 

1973 Szczupak. [The pike.] Warszawa, PYVRiL. 251pp. 
ZAMOJSKA, B. 

1967 Struktury wielkosci ofiar szczupaka i okonia w kilku rozniacych sie limnolo- 
gicznie i rybacko jeziorach. [Size structure of pike and perch prey in some 
lakes differing as regards limnology and fishery type.] Ph.D. thesis, 61 pp. 
Species composition of the food of predatory fishes. Size structure of roach 
and perch; i.e., of species most frequently consumed by adult pike and perch. 
ZARNECKI, S. 

1928 Szczupak. [The pike.] Przeglad Rybacki 1(9):349-351. 

Some comments on general morphology of pike body and on its biology. 

1964 Z biologii szczupaka (Esox lucius L.). ]On pike biology (Esox lucius L.).| 
Wszechswiat 3:64-66. 

Description of some unknown facts on the behaviour of pike. 
ZAROV, A. I. 

1964 Zametki o pitanii scuki i ariskogo zerecha v Farchadskom vodochranilisce. 
Izvestiya Akacemii Nauk Tadzhikskoi SSR Otdelenie Biologicheskikh Nauk 
3(17):89-90. 
ZARYANOVA, Y. B. 

1962 The reproduction of the pike in the first years of the establishment of Volgo- 
grad Reservoir. Trudy Saratovskogo Otdeleniya Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno- 
Issledovatel-skogo Instituta Ozernogo i Rechnogo Rybnogo Khozyaistva 
7:243-259. 

332 



ZAWADOWSKA. B. and W. KILARSKI 

1984a Histochemical adaptation of an eye muscle system to the type of behaviour of 
the two teleost species Cyprinus varpio and Esox lucius. Journal of Muscle 
Research and Cell Motility 5:212. [Summary] 

The fundamental organization of the extrinsic eye muscles of the teleosts is 
alike. Histochemical analysis showed the obvious diversity of the muscle 
fibre population among both investigated species. It is thought this is an 
adaptation to the different mode of life o\' these two species. 

1984b Histochemical characterization o\' the muscle liber types o\' the teleost {Eso.\ 
lucius L.). Acta Histochemica 75:91-100. 

Four types of muscle fibres are described in pike body musculature on the 
base of the actomyosin ATP-ase activity and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) 
activity. 
ZAWISZA.J. 

1953 Wzrost ryb w jeziorze Tajty. (The growth of fish in Lake Tajty.) Roczniki 
Nauk Rolniczych, Ser. D, 67:221-255. 

Analysis of the rate of growth of economically important fish species made in 
order to serve as a basis for proper planning of lake management. 

1961 The growth of fishes in lakes of Wegorzewo district. Roczniki Nauk Rol- 
niczyck 77B:73 1-748. [in Polish, English summary | 
ZBIKOWSKA. L. 

1980a Cechy merystyczne szczupaka (Esox lucius L.) z jeziora Sniardwy. [Meristic 
features of the pike {Eso.x lucius L.) from Lake Sniardwy.] Zeszyty Nau- 
kowe Akademii Rolniczo-Technicznej w Olsztynie, Ser. Ochrona Wod i 
Rybactwo Srodladowe 10:105-1 16. 

Meristic features and their statistical analysis. Calculations are given of the 
arithmetic mean, standard deviation of coefficients of variability. 

1980b Cechy biometryczne szczupaka (Esox lucius L.) z jeziora Sniardwy. 
[Biometric features of the pike (Esox lucius L.) from Lake Sniardwy.] 
Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Rolniczkj Technicznej w Olsztynie 11:89-99. 
[in Polish, English summary] 
ZDANKO, A. 

1969 Szczupak. [The pike.] Wiadomosci Wedkarskie 238:4. 

Pike biology. Methods of angling in various seasons of the year. 
ZENKIN, G. M. and I. N. P. PIGAREV 

1970 Specific elements in retina and level of ganglionic cells of pike. Biologiya 
Vnutrennykh Vod Informatsionii Byulleten 5:45-48. 

ZHITENEVA. L. D. 

1969 Fishes of the settlement of Mayaki (end of 3000 years B.C.). Zoologicheskii 
Zhurnal 48:93-98. [in Russian, English summary] 
ZHUKOV. P. I. 

1968 The routes of penetration of Ponto-Caspian ichthyofauna into the rivers of the 
Baltic Sea basin. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 47:1417-1419. [in Russian. 
English summary] 
ZIEBA.J. 

1956 Die Blutgefasse des Dottersackes des Hechtes [Eso.\ hums l.j. Odbitka ze- 
go numeru Biuletynu, Zakladu Biologii Stawow Poiskiej Akademii Nauk. pp. 
17-18. 



333 



ZIEBARTH.G. 

1983 Ein Versuch zum Vorstrecken von Hechtbrut in Kleinsilos. Zeitschrift fuer 
Binnenhscherei 30(5): 168-169. 
ZIELINSKA. K. 

1975 The Golgi apparatus in cells of the olfactory epithelium in the pike. Folia 
Morphologica 34:485-492. 

This study of the Golgi apparatus used classical impregnation methods, the 
refractometric method, and histochemical test forTPPase. 

1976 Mitochondria and respiratory and hydrolytic enzymes in the cells of the olfac- 
tory epithelium in the pike. Folia Morphologica 35:21-29. 
Mitochondria in the cells of the olfactory epithelium of the pike were studied 
by the use of the classical staining method, by the refractometric method, and 
by histochemical tests for the respiratory enzymes, cytochrome oxidase, and 
succinate dehydrogenase. 

ZIMAKOV, I. E. 

1978 A radiochemical method of analysis for study of trace quantities of mercury 
in food products. Voprosy Pitaniya 3:64-69. 
ZINOVYEVA. S. N. and V. P. KOTOV 

1969 The pike of Votkinsk Reservoir. Uchenya Zapisko Permskii Gosudarstvennyi 
Universitet Imeni A. M. Gor'kogo 217:77-88. 
ZITNAN. R. 

1971 Rafidaskaroza - zavazna parazitarna choroba nasich pstruhov. [Raphidas- 
carosis - a severe parasitary disease of trouts in Czechoslovakia.] Polov. a 
Ryb. 22(6):4. 

Describes the life cycle of Raphidascahs ocus which parasitizes pike. The 
parasite was fairly widespread in the locality of the Dobsina Dam. 
ZOTOV, A. F. 

1958 Antibakterialnye svoistva organov i tkanei presnovodnykh. [Antibacterial 
properties of the organs and tissues of freshwater fish.] Voprosy Ikhtiologii 
10:157-161. 

Antibacterial properties were found in pike. Organs and tissues showed anti- 
bacterial influence of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antibac- 
terial principles were not found in gills, muscles, or intestines. No seasonal 
pattern could be established. 
ZUBENKO 

1975 The role of the perch in the food of the pike and the pike-perch of Kremen- 
chug Reservoir. Rybnoe Khozyaistvo Respublikankii Mezhvedomstvennyi 
Tematicheskii Nauchnyk Sbornik 20:101-105. 
ZUROMSKA, H. and W. KORZYNEK 

1958 Zroznicowanie miejsca i czasu tarla szczupaka. [Differentiation of place and 
timing of pike spawning.] Gospodarka Rybna 10(5):20— 21. 
Analysis of fyke-net catches in Masurian lakes. Conclusions for managers. 
ZWIRZ. B. 

1975 Proven methods for walleye, pike and muskie. Fishing Guide, pp. 56-61, 
121. 
ZYLINSKI, R. 

1958 O ochronie s/c/.upaka slow kilka. [Some comments on the protection of 
pike.] Wiadomosci Wedkarskie 19:1 1-12. 
Changes of angling rules. Shortening of protective period by two weeks. 

334 



Subject Index 



ACCOUNTS BY GEOGRAPHICAL AND 
POLITICAL AREAS 

ABBASOV.G. S. 1980, USSR 
ACKERMAN, B. 1955. USA 
ADAMS. C. C. and T. L. HANKINSON 

[928, New York 
ALESSIO. G. 1975a. Italy 
ALESSIO.G. 1983, Italy 
ALT. K. 1977. Alaska 
BALON. E. K. 1965, Czechoslovakia 
BANENENE, Y. K. 1978. USSR 
BAMONIENE.J. 1979. USSR 
BANKS. J. 1965. England 
BEAN.T. H. 1 902, New York 
BEAN. T. H. 1903a. New York 
BEAN.T. H. 1903b. New York 
BENECKE. B. 1880. Germany 
BENSLEY. B. A. 1915, Great Lakes 
BERG. L. S. 1932, USSR 
BERG. L. S. 1933. USSR 
BERG. L. S. 1948. USSR 
BERG. L. S. 1962. USSR 
BERG, L. S. 1965, USSR 
BODNIEK. V. M. 1976, USSR 
BOUCHER. R. and E. MAGNIN 1977, Que- 
bec 
BREGAZZI. P. R. and C. R. KENNEDY 

1980. England 
BROWN. C. J. D. 1 97 I . Montana 
BRUCE. W. J. and R. F. PARSONS 1979, 

Labrador 
BRUYENKO. V. P. 1976. USSR 
BUBINAS. A. D. 1976, USSR 
BUBINAS. A. P. 1976, USSR 
BUDZYNSKA. H. 1956 
BUSNITA.T. 1969. Romania 
CALDERON-ANDREU. E.G. 1955, Spain 
CALDERONI, P. 1965. Italy 
CALDERONI, P., G. GIOVINAZZO, M. 

MEARELLI and L. VOLPI 1980. Italy 
CARBINE. W. F. 1941. Michigan 
CARBINE. W. F. 1942a. Michigan 
CARLANDER. K. D. 1942, Minnesota 
&ARLANDER, K. D. and G. SPRUGEL 

1955. Iowa 
CIIIHl LY. M B. 1979. Alaska 
( OAD, B. W. 1978. Iran 
COOPER, J. L. 1971. Montana 
DECKER, D.J., R. A. HOWARD, JR. and 

W. H. EVERHART 1978. Neu York 



DOAN, K. H. 1948, Manitoba 
DOMANEVSKII, L. N. 1958. USSR 
DOMANEVSKY, L. N. 1959. USSR 
EDDY,S., R. C. TASKER and J. C. 

UNDERHILL 1972. Minnesota 
EVERHART, W. H. 1950, Maine 
EVERMANN. B. W. and F. L. GOLDSBOR 

OUGH 1907. Alaska 
EVSIN. V. N. 1969. USSR 
FALK, M. R. and L. W. DAHLKE 1974. 

Northwest Territories 
FALK. M. R. and D. V. GILLMAN 1975b. 

Northwest Territories 
FEDYAKHINA. R. F. 1980. USSR 
FITZMAURICE. P. 1983. Ireland 
FOWLER. H. W. 1935. South Carolina 
FOWLER, H. W. 1945, USA 
GUTIERREZ-CALDERON. E. 1952. Spam 
GUTIERREZ-CALDERON, E. 1954. Spain 
GUTIERREZ-CALDERON. E. 1955. Spain 
HARRISON. A. C. 1959, Iowa 
HASSLER. T. J. 1969. South Dakota 
HATFIELD, C. T., J. N. STEIN. M. R. 

FALK, C.S.JESSOP and D. N. 

SHEPHERD 1972. Yukon 
HAZZARD, A. S. , Pennsylvania 
HEALY. A. 1956a. Ireland 
HEAL Y, A. 1956b, Ireland 
HEGEMANN. M. 1958a. Germany 
HILE. R. 1931. Indiana 
HINKS, D. 1943, Manitoba 
HINKS. D. 1957. Manitoba 
HOLCIK. J. 1968. Czechoslovakia 
JENKINS, J. T. 1954. British Isles 
JOHNSON. R. P. 1971, Saskatchewan 
KAMYSHNAYA. M. S. and F. A. TSEPHIN 

1973 
KAUKORANTA. F. and E. A. FIND 1975. 

Finland 
KEAST. A. 1978. Ontario 
KENNEDY. W. A. 1946. Northwest Terri- 
tories 
KEPLFR. P. 1973. Alaska 
KIPLING, C. 1965, England 
KOSHINSKY,G. I). 1979. Saskatchewan 
KOZMIN, A. K. 1952. USSR 
KOZMIN, A. K. 1980, I SSR 
KUPCHINSKAYA, E. S loss. USSR 
LAGOM, I. I ( >62. Finland 
I \kSFV K. 1962. Denmark 



V35 



LEONARD. V.J. 1963 

LIND. E. A. and E. KAUKORANTA 1975a. 

Finland 
LIND. E. A. and E. KAUKORANTA 1975b, 

Finland 
L1PSIT. J. H. 1977, Great Lakes 
LUGOVAYA, T. V. 1967, USSR 
LUGOVAYA, T. V. 1973, USSR 
MACAN, T. T. , England 
NIACINS, V. 1972, Ontario 
MAFTEI.D. V. 1963 
MAKSUNOV, V. A. 1956, USSR 
MAKSUNOV, V. A. 1972, USSR 
MANN, R. H. K. 1971b, England 
MANN, R. H. K. 1975b, England 
MANN, R. H. K. 1976. England 
MARSHALL, W. S. and N. C. GILBERT 

1905, Wiseonsin 
MCCARRAHER, B. 1960, Nebraska H 
MCCARRAHER, D. B. 1957a, Nebraska 
MCCORMACK,J. 1965, England 
MENDIS, A. S. 1956, Saskatchewan 
MILLER, J. and K. BUSS n.d., Pennsylvania 
MILLER, R. B. and W. A. KENNEDY 1948 
MONTPETIT. A. N. 1897, Canada 
MORRIS, J., L. MORRIS and L. WITT 1972, 

Nebraska 
MORROW, J. E. 1964, Alaska 
MOSINDY,T. 1980, Ontario 
MUENCH, B. 1964. Illinois 
MUNRO, W. R. 1957, Scotland 
NAWRATIL, O. 1954, Austria 
NELSON, M. N. and A. D. HASLER 1942, 

Wisconsin 
NEW YORK DEPARTMENT OF CONSER- 
VATION 1969, New York 
NIKITINA, A. G. 1958, USSR 
NITSKANSKII, S. G. 1961, USSR 
NOLAND, W. E. 1951, Wisconsin 
NYBELIN, O. 1943, Sweden 
OATIS, P. H. and J. G. LINDENBERG 1979, 

Massachusetts 
OSBURN, R. C. 1901, Ohio 
PARAGAMIAN, V. L. 1976, Wisconsin 
PATERSON, R. J. 1968, Alberta 
PEARSE, A. S. 1922, Wisconsin 
PIHU, E. 1961 

POPOVA, O. A. 1960, USSR 
POPOV A, O. A. 1962, USSR 
POPOVA. O. A. 1965, USSR 
POWELL, T. G. 1972b, Colorado 
RAWSON, D. S. 1932, Saskatchewan 
RAWSON, D. S. 1951, Northwest Territories 



RAWSON, D. S. 1957, Saskatchewan 
RAWSON, D. S. 1959, Saskatchewan 
RIDENHOUR, R. L. 1955, Iowa 
RIDENHOUR, R. L. 1957, Iowa 
RIDENHOUR, R. L. 1960, Iowa 
SCHMITZ, W. R. 1953. Wisconsin 
SEDLAR. J. 1971 
SHAFI, M. 1974, England 
SHAFI, M. and P. S. MAITLAND 1971, 

Scotland 
SHILENKOVA, A. K. 1956., USSR 
SNOW, H. E. 1969a, Wisconsin 
SOLMAN, V. E. F. 1940, Manitoba 
SVETOVIDOVA, A. A. 1960, China 
TARNAVSKII, N. P. 1967, USSR 
VALKEAJARVI, P. 1983. Finland 
VAN ENGEL. W. A. 1940, Wisconsin 
VAN OOSTEN, J. 1937, Great Lakes 
VASHCHENKO, D. M. 1958a, USSR 
VORONIN, F. N. and V. V. KRYLOV 1971, 

USSR 
VOSTRADOVSKA, M. 1978, Czechoslo- 
vakia 
VOSTRADOVSKY, J. 1983, Czechoslovakia 
WAINIO, A. 1966b, Great Lakes 
WESLOH, M. L. and D. E. OLSON 1962, 

Minnesota 
WONG, B. and T. WHILLANS 1973, 

Northwest Territories 
YEFIMOVA, A. I. 1949, USSR 
ZALACHOWSKI, W. 1965a, Poland 
ZAWISZA,J. 1961, Poland 
ZINOVYEVA, S. N. and V. P. KOTOV 
1969, USSR 



AGE AND GROWTH DETERMINATION 

ANWAND, K. 1969 
ASTANIN, L. P. 1947 
BACKIEL, T. 1968, Poland 
CARLANDER, K. D. and L. L. SMITH, Jr. 

1945, Minnesota 
CASSELMAN, J. M. 1967, Ontario 
CASSELMAN, J. M. 1974b, Ontario 
CASSELMAN, J. M. 1978a, Ontario 
CASSELMAN, J. M. 1979, Ontario 
CASSELMAN, J. M. 1983a, Ontario 
CASSELMAN, J. M. 1983b, Ontario 
CRAGG-HINE, D. 1966. England 
GROSSMAN, E. J. 1979b, Ontario 
DEBONT, A. F. 1967 
DRAIGHIN, P. A. 1958, USSR 



336 



FROST, W. E. and C. KIPLING 1959, Eng- 
land 

FROST. W. E. and C. KIPLING 1961, Eng- 
land 

HARRISON. E. J. and W. F. HADLEY 1979, 
New York 

INLAND FISHERIES TRUST . Ireland 

MASSE. G. 1979, Quebec 

PHILLIPS. R. 1974 

POUPE. J. 1973. Czechoslovakia 

S1I1NTYAKOVA. L. F. 1966. USSR 

SHENTYAKOVA. L. F. 1969. USSR 

SUNDBACK. K. 1971. Finland 

SYCH. R. 1971 

TERSKOV, I. A.. E. A. VAGANOV and V. 
V.SPIROV 1976. USSR 

VOSTRADOVSKY, J. 1970a. Czechoslo- 
vakia 

VOSTRADOVSKY, J. 1977. Czechoslovakia 

WAINIO. A. 1966a. Great Lakes 

WILLIAMS. J. E. 1955, Michigan 



AGE AND GROWTH STUDIES 

AKOS. H. 1981. Hungary 
ALM.G. 1959, Sweden 
ANONYMOUS 1933, Poland 
ANWAND, K. 1971, East Germany 
ARKHIPTSEVA, N. T. 1974, USSR 
AUSTIN, P. 1954a, Ireland 
AUSTIN. P. 1954b. Ireland 
AUSTIN, P. 1958. Ireland 
AUTKO, B. F. 1964. USSR 
BASHMAKOVA. A. Y. 1930, USSR 
BEYERLE. G. B. 1973a. Michigan 
BRACKEN. J. J. 1973. Ireland 
BRACKEN. J. J. and W. S. T. CHAMP 1968, 

Ireland 
BRACKEN. J. J. and W. S. T. CHAMP 1971, 

Ireland 
BRETT. J. R. 1979 

BUSS. K. and J. MILLER 1961, Pennsylvania 
BUSS, K. and J. MILLER 1962, Pennsylvania 
CALDERONI.P. 1965. Italy 
CARBINE. W. F. and V. C. APPLEGATE 

1948. Michigan 
CASSELMAN. J. M. 1967. Ontario 
CASSELMAN. J. M. 1972. Ontario 
CASSELMAN. J. M. 1974b. Ontario 
CASSELMAN, J. M. 1978a. Ontario 
CASSELMAN, J. M. 1983a, Ontario 
CASSELMAN, J. M. 1983b. Ontario 



C \SSFLMAN. J. M. and E. J. CROSSMAN 
1986, Ontario H 

CASSELMAN, J. M. and 11 II. HARVEY 
1975, Ontario 

CHRISTIANSEN, D. G. 1976. Northwesl 
Territories 

CIEPIELEWSKI, W. 1970. Poland 

CLARK. C. F. 1957. Ohio 

CLARK, C. F. and I . STEINBACH 1959. 
Ohio 

(TERRIER. J. L. and A. COUR- 
TEMANCHE 1954. Quebec 

DIANA. J. S. 1979a. Alberta 

DIANA. J. S. 1981. Michigan 

DIANA. J. S. 1983b. Michigan 

DOMANEVSKY, L. N. 1963. USSR 

ECOLE, R. A. 1979, France 

EDDY, S. and K. CARLANDER 1939, Min- 
nesota 

EDDY, S. and K. CARLANDER 1942, Min- 
nesota 

EDDY. S. and K. D. CARLANDER 1940. 
Minnesota 

FILIPSSON.O. 1972, Sweden 

FROST, W. E. 1963, England 

FROST, W. E. and C. KIPLING 1965. Eng- 
land 

FROST, W. E. and C. KIPLING 1967. Eng- 
land 

FROST. W. E. and C. KIPLING 1968a, Eng- 
land 

FUHRMANN.O. 1934a 

GABEL, J. A. 1974, South Dakota 

GEE, A. S. 1978, England 

GOTTBERG, G. 1917a. Finland 

HALNON. L. 1960, Vermont 

HART, P. J. B. and T. J. PITCHER 1969b. 
England 

HARTMANN. J. 1978. West Germany 

HASSLER, T. J. 1969. South Dakota 

HELSTROM. N. 1978. Finland 

HICKLEY. P. and A. SUTTON 1984. Eng- 
land 

HILE. R. 1931. Indiana 

INSKIP, P. D. 1980. Wisconsin 

IOWA CONSERVATION COMMISSION 
1961, Iowa 

JOHAL. M. S. 1978. Czechoslovakia 

JOHNSON, L. D. 1961b. Wisconsin 

JUDAY.C. andC. L. SCHLOEMER 1936, 
Wisconsin 

JUDAY.C. and C. L. SCHLOEMER 1938, 
Wisconsin 



337 



KAJAVA. R. n.d.. Finland 
KAPCZYNSKA. A. and T. PENCZAK 1969. 

Poland 
KARZINKIN.G.S. 1939. USSR 
KENNEDY. M. and P. FITZMAURICE 

1969. Ireland 
KIPLING, C 1983a. England 
KIPLING. C. and W. E. FROST 1970. Eng- 
land 
KORWIN-KOSSAKOWSKI, M. 1976. 

Poland 
KREUZER. R. O. and J. G. SIVAK 1984. 

Ontario 
KULEMIN, A. A.. I. I. MAKKOVEYEVE 

and M. I. SOLOPOVA 1971, USSR 
KUPCHINSKAYA, E. S. 1985. USSR 
LAARMAN. P. W. 1964a. Michigan 
LUX, F. E. I960, Minnesota 
MACDONALD. P. D. M. and PITCHER, T. 

J. 1979, Ontario 
MACKENTHUN. K. M. 1948, Wisconsin 
MAFTEI, D. V. 1963 
MAGNIN, E., E. MURAWSKA and V. 

LEGENDRE 1973, Quebec 
MAKOWECKI, R. 1973a. Alberta 
MAKOWECKI. R. 1973b, Alberta 
MAKSUNOV, V. A. 1972, USSR 
MANN.R. H. K. 1971a, England 
MANN, R. H. K. 1971b, England 
MANN,R. H. K. 1976, England 
MASSE, G. 1979, Quebec 
MCCAULEY. R. W. and J. M. CASSEL- 

MAN 1981. Ontario 
MEIEN. V. A. 1926, USSR 
MILLER. J. and K. BUSS n.d., 

Pennsylvania 
MONGEAIU.-R. 1960, Quebec 
NELSON, W. R. 1974. South Dakota 
NIKITINA, A. G. 1958, USSR 
OCVIRK, J. 1984, Czechoslovakia 
OLIVA, O. 1956, Czechoslovakia 
OLIVA, O. and A. S. NAIKSATAM 1979, 

Czechoslovakia 
OLSSON, M. 1976, Sweden 
ONTARIO DEPARTMENT OF LANDS 

AND FORESTS 1953, Ontario 
ORLOVA, E. L. and G. K. AZHIGALIYEVA 

1984, USSR 
PERMITINJ. E. 1959, USSR 
PETERS, J. C, ed. 1964, Montana 
PUPYRNIKOVA, A. VM953, USSR 
QADRI, S. U. and P. J. RUBEC 1977, 

Ontario 



RIDENHOUR. R. L. 1960. Iowa 
ROSEBOROUGH. D. 1957. Great Lakes 
SCHULTZ, F. H. 1955. Saskatchewan 
SEABURG. K. G. and J. B. MOYLE 1964, 

Minnesota 
SEDLAR.J. 1971 
SNOW. H. E. 1969a. Wisconsin 
SNOW. H. E. and T. D. BEARD 1972. 

Wisconsin 
SOLONINOVA, L. N. 1976. USSR 
SVETOVIDOV. A. N. 1929, USSR 
SVETOVIDOVA, A. A. 1960. China 
TANDON, K. K. and O. OLIVA 1978, 

Czechoslovakia 
THOMPSON, D. 1979 
VAN ENGEL, W. A. 1940, Wisconsin 
VAN OOSTEN, J. 1937, Great Lakes 
VOSTRADOVSKY, J. 1977, Czechoslovakia 
VOSTRADOVSKY, J. 1980, Czechoslovakia 
WAINIO. A. 1966b, Great Lakes 
WILLEMSEN, J. 1967b. Netherlands 
WILLEMSEN, J. 1978, Netherlands 
WOLFERT, D. F. and T. J. MILLER 1978, 

Great Lakes 
ZALACHOWSKI, W. 1965a, Poland 
ZAWISZAJ. 1961, Poland 



ANATOMY, MORPHOLOGY, AND HIS 
TOLOGY 

ABASHIDZE, VS. 1969 

ADELMAN, I. 1969, Minnesota 

ALEEV, Y. G. 1969 

ALLIS, E. P., JR. 1905 

AMBROSINUS, B. 1642 

ANDREW, W. 1959 

ARENDT, E. 1822 

BACHOP, W. E. 1958, Ohio 

BAKHTIN, Y. K. 1976. USSR 

BARAUSKAS. R. 1978. USSR 

BAUMGARTEN. H. G.. B. FALCK and H. 
WARTENBERG 1970 

BAUMGARTEN. H. G. and H. WARTEN- 
BERG 1970 

BERG. L. S. 1899, USSR 

BERG, L. S. 1936, USSR 

BERNATOWICZ, S. 1948, Poland 

BESRUKOW, E. A. 1928. USSR 

BEZRUKOVA, E. A. 1928, USSR 

BIELEK, E. 1974. Austria 

BIELEK. E. 1976. Austria 



338 



BLASIUS.G. 1692 
BLOT, J. 1968 

BOGOSLOVSKAIA, E. I. I960, USSR 
BOLDYREFF, E. B. 1935 
BOYTSOV. M. P. 1974, USSR 
BRAEKEVELT, C. R. 1973, Manitoba 
BRAEKEVELT, C. R. 1974, Manitoba 
BRAEKEVELT, C. R. 1975. Manitoba 
BRIDGES, C. D. B. 1969 
BRINLEY,F.J. 1940 
BUCKE, D. 1971 

BYCZKOWAKA-SMYK, W. 1959 
BYZOV, A. L.. Y. A. TRIFONOV, L. M. 

CHAILAHIAN and K. \V. GOLUBTZOV 

1977 
BYZOV. A. L.. Y. A. TRIFONOV and L. M. 

CHAILAKHYAN 1973, USSR 
CAMERON. J.N. 1974. Alaska 
CAMERON, J.N. 1975. Alaska 
CASSELMAN. J. M. 1974a. Ontario 
CASSELMAN.J. M. 1979. Ontario 
CASSELMAN. J. M. 1980, Ontario 
CASSELMAN, J. M.. E. J. CROSSMAN, 

P. E. IHSSEN. J. D. REIST and H. E. 

BOOKE 1986. Ontario H 
CASSER1US.J. 1552 
C1HAR. J. 1955. Czechoslovakia 
COCKERELL. T. D. A. 1913. Ohio 
CROSSMAN. E. J. and J. M. CASSELMAN 

1969. Ontario 
CSENGO. N. 1914 
DABROWSKI.J. 1961. Poland 
DEBEER.G.R. 1937. England 
DEMCHENKO. I. F. 1963. USSR 
DEVILLERS, C. and J. CORSIN 1968. 

France 
DEVITSINA. G. V. and T. A. BELOUSOVA 

1978. USSR 
DEVITSINA. G. V. and G. A. MALYUKINA 

1977. USSR 
DEVITSYNA. G. V. 1973. USSR 
DEVITSYNA. G. V. 1977. USSR 
DISLER. N.N. 1967. USSR 
DISSELHORST. R. 1904. Germany 
DORNESCU. G. T. and D. MISCALENCU 

1 968a 
DORNESCU. G. T. and D. MISCALENCU 

1968b 
DOVING, K. B.. M. DUBOIS-DAUPHIN. A. 

HOLLEY and F. JOURDAN 1977 
D/.Hl MALIYEV. M. K. 1977 
FALCON. J. 1979a 
FALCON. J. 1979b 



FALCON, J., M.T.JUILLARDandJ. P. 

COLLIN 1980a 
FALCON, J., M.T.JUILLARDandJ. P. 

COLLIN 1980b 
I \l CON.. I. and II. MEISSL 1980 
FALCON, J. and II. MEISSL 1981 
FALCON. J. and J. P. MOCQUARD 1979 
FRANCOIS. Y. 1966 
FROST, G. A. 1926 
GEORGES. D. 1964. Fiance 
GILTAY.C. M. 1832 
GILTAY.C. M. 1833 
GOROVAIA.S. L. 1969 
GRASSE. P. P. 1958 
GREGORY. W. K. 1933 
GRODZINSKLZ. 1971. Poland 
GROSS. G. W. and G. W. KREUTZBERG 

1978. West Germany 
HARRIS. J. E. 1938 
HEROLD, R.C. 1971a 
HEROLD. R.C. 1971b 
HEROLD. R. C. and L. LANDINO 1970 
HEROLD, R. C. B. 1974. Pennsylvania 
HEROLD, R. C. B. 1975. Pennsylvania 
HILGENDORF, F. M. 1872 
HILGENDORF, F. M. 1880 
HOFER, B. 1901 
HOFFMANN. R., P. WONDRAK and W. 

GROTH 1980. Germany 
HUBBS. CARLL. 1920 
HUBBS.CARLL. 1921 
HUBBS. CARL L. 1922. Michigan 
IVANOV. M.E. 1956. USSR 
IVANOV. N. M. 1978. USSR 
IVANOVA. M. N. 
JAKUBOWSKI, M. 1965 
JAKUBOWSKI. M., W. BYCZKOWSKA- 

SMYK and Y. MIKHALEV 1969 
JANEC-SUSLOWSKA, W. 1957. 

Poland 
JASINSKI. A. 1965. Poland 
JASINSKI. A. 1977a. Poland 
JASINSKI. A. 1977b. Poland 
JOLLIE, M. 1975. Illinois 
JUSZCZYK. D. 1975 
KALGANOV. V. M. 1949 
KALLIO. D. M.. P. R. GAR AN I and C. 

MINKIN 1971 
KARAMIAN. A. I. 1949. USSR 
KEAST. A. and I). WEBB 1906. Ontario 
KILARSKI. W. 1966. Poland 
KLEERKOPIk. H 1969 
KOLGANOV, I). I. 1968. USSR 



539 



KOROVINA. V. M., A. I. LYUBITSKAYA 

and E. A. DOROFEEVA 1965. USSR 
KOROVINA, V. M. and N. E. VASIL'EVA 

1976. USSR 
KOSHELEV. B. W. 1961. USSR 
KOURIL. J. and J. HAMACKOVA 1977. 

Czechoslovakia 
KRAUSE. R. 1923, Germany 
KREUTZBERG. G. W. and G. W. GROSS 

1977. West Germany 
KRUTZBERG. G. W. and G. W. GROSS 

1977 
KUPERMAN. B. I. and V. V. KUZ'MINA 

19X4 
LAWLER.G. H. 1960b. Manitoba 
LAWLER. G. H. 1961b. Manitoba 
LAWLER.G. H. 1961c, Manitoba 
LAWLER, G. H. 1964b. Manitoba 
LAWLER, G. H. 1966a. Manitoba 
LAWLER.G. H. 1966b, Manitoba 
LEHTONEN, H., P. BOHL1NG and M. HIL- 

DEN 1983 
LEKANDER, B. 1949 

LEVINE, J. S. and E. F. MACNICHOL 1982 
LINSS, W. 1969a 
LINSS, W. 1969b 
LINSS, W. 1969c 
LINSS, W. 1969d 
LINSS. W. and G. GEYER 1968 
MAFTEI.D. V. 1963 
MAKSIMOVA, E. M. 1969 
MAKSIMOVA, E. M. and V. V. MAKSI- 

MOV 1972 
MAKSUNOV, V. A. 1956, USSR 
MALCOLM, J. 1975 
MARKIEWICZ, F. I960 
MARS-VALLETT, A. E. 1968 
MAVRINSKAYA, L. F. 1956 
M'DONNELL, R. 1864, Ireland 
MECKLENBURG, C. VON 1974, Sweden 
MERRILEES, M. J. 1972, Ontario 
MERRILEES, M. J. and E. J. CROSSMAN 

1973, Ontario 

MERRILEES, M. J. and E. J. CROSSMAN 

1974, Ontario 
MIDTTUN, B. 1980, Norway 
MIDTTUN, B. 1981, Norway 
MIDTTUN. B. 1983, Norway 
MINOR. J. D. 1976, Canada 
MISRA, P. M. 1966 
MONOD. T. 1968 
NECRASOV.O. 1968 
NELSON, G.J. 1969 



NELSON. G.J. 1972 

NYSTROM, M. 1979, Finland 

OBERSZTYN, A. 1953 

OLIVA.O. 1965. Czechoslovakia 

ORSKA.J. 

OWMAN, C. and C. RUDEBERG 1970 

PEACH, U. A. and V. A. REMOROV, eds. 

1977 
PEHRSON,T. 1944 
RAMANUJAM, S. G. M. 1966 
REIFEL, C. W. and A. A. TRAVILL 1978a. 

Ontario 
REIFEL, C. W. and A. A. TRAVILL 1978b. 

Ontario 
REIST. J.C. 1978, Alberta 
REIST, J. D. 1985, Ontario 
RIEHL, R. and E. SCHULTE 1977, West 

Germany 
RUDEBERG, C. 1969 
RUDEBERG, C. 1971 
SAVAGE, A. G. 1983, Ireland 
SBIKIN, Y. N. 1974, USSR 
SCHAUINSLAND 1906, Germany 
SCHMIDT, B. 1913 
SCHNAKENBECK, W. 1936 
SCHOOTS, A. F. M., J. J. M. STIKKEL- 

BROECK, J. F. BEKHUIS and J. 

MANUEL DENUCE 1982, Netherlands 
SCHWARZ. S. S., V. G. ISTSCHENKO, L. 

A. DOBRINSKAYA, A. Z. 

AMSTISLAVSKII, I. N. BURSYNINA, I. 

A. PARAKETZOV and A. S. YAKOLEVA 

1968 
SHAMARDINA, I. P. 1957, USSR 
SHCHERBUKHA, A. Y. 1974, USSR 
SHKOLNIK-YARROWS, E. G. 1975. USSR 
SKURDAL, J. 1981 
SOKOLOV, B. M. 1961, USSR 
SOKOLOV, L. I. 1971, USSR 
SOROKIN, V. N. and A. A. SOROKINA 

1979, USSR 
SROCZYNSKI, S. 1972, Poland 
SROCZYNSKI, S. 1976, Poland 
STAMMER, A. 1969, Hungary 
STAMMER, A., I. HORVATH, M. CSOK- 

NYA and K. HALASY 1978a, Hungary 
STAMMER, A., I. HORVATH, M. CSOK- 

NYA and K. HALASY 1978b, Hungary 
STARKS, E. C. 1916, California 
STARKS, E. C. 1930, California 
STERNFELD, A. 1882 
STUDNICKA, F. K. 1944 
SUNDARARAJ 1958 



340 



SUSLOWSK A. W. 1 97 1 . Czechoslov akia 

N/l AMINSKA. M. 1 WO. Poland 

SZUBA,Z. 1971, Poland 

TEN KATE. J. H. 1973, Ontario 

TEN KATE, J. H. and J. W. KUIPER 1970 

TEODORESCU. A -C. 1970 

TERESHENKOV, 1. I. 1972. USSR 

TOWARNICKI, R. 1962. Poland 

TOWARNICKI. R. 1963, Poland 

TRAUTMAN, M. B. and C. E. HUBBS 1936. 

Michigan 
TRAUTMAN, M. B. and C. L. HUBBS 1948. 

Michigan 
TYSZKIEWICZ. K. 1969. Czechoslovakia 
VINNIKOV, Y. A., V. 1. GOVARDOVSKII 

and I. V.OSIPOVA 1965 
WAINIO, A. 1978. Ontario 
WALLS. G. L. 1942, Michigan 
WEISS. J. 1979, East Germany 
WILSON. M. V. H. and P. VE1LLEUX 1982 
WONDARK. P. 1974. Germany 
ZARNECK1.S. 1928, Poland 
ZBIKOWSKA, L. 1980a, Poland 
ZBIKOWSKA, L. 1980b, Poland 
ZENK1N, G. M. and I. N. P. PIGAREV 1970. 

USSR 
ZIELINSKA, K. 1975, Poland 
ZIEL1NSKA, K. 1976, Poland 



ANGLING AND RECORD CATCHES 

ANDRZEJCZYK, T. 1972, Poland 
ANON, W. T. 1884, Ontario 
ANONYMOUS 1888, England, Ireland 
ANONYMOUS 1906, Poland 
ANONYMOUS 1908, Poland 
ANONYMOUS 1937. Poland 
ANONYMOUS 1938, Poland 
ANONYMOUS 1957, Poland 
ANONYMOUS 1960a, North Dakota 
ANONYMOUS 1973a, Saskatchewan 
ANONYMOUS 1976b 
ANONYMOUS 1976e 
ANONYMOUS 1977 
BAILEY. J. and M. PAGE 1 985. England 
BAJKOV. A. 1932, Manitoba 
BARTA, A. 1877, Poland 
BARTLES. B. 1973. England 
BERGH. K. 1977 
BEUKEMA.J. J. 1970 
BLACK, R. D. C. 1981. Ireland 
BROWN. J. J. 1876, USA 
BULLER, F. 1979, England 



BULLER, F. 1981, England II 
CAINE, 1 . S. 1949a 

CAINE, L. S. 1949b 

CAMP, R. R. 1951 

CARI WDI R. K. 1). 1950. Iowa 

CARLSON, R. M.and R. CAPLE l^so. 

Great Lakes 
CARPENTER, R. G. and H. R. SIEGLER 

1947. New Hampshire 
CASSELMAN, J. M. and E. J. GROSSMAN 

1986. Ontario II 
CECILIA. A. 1973. Spam 
CHABAN. R. 1973. Morocco 
CHOYNOWSKI. J. 1936. Poland 
CHURCHILL, W. and H. SNOW 1964. 

Wisconsin 
COOPER, G. P. and W. C. LATTA 1954. 

Michigan 
CROSSMAN. E. J. 1979a, Ontario 
CSANDA, D. 1981, Great Lakes 
(SAN DA, D. and T. PORTINCASO 1981, 

Canada 
CZAPLICKLJ. 1964, Poland 
DAVIS, J. 1983, Ontario 
DEAN. T. 1982, South Dakota 
DICONSTANZO, C. J. and R. L. 

RIDENHOUR 1957. Iowa 
EGGERSJ. 1983, Netherlands 
ELSER, H. J. 1961. Maryland 
ERICKSON,G. 1978 
ERIKSON.G. 1978 
FALK, M. R. and D. V. GILLMAN 1980. 

Northwest Territories 
FALKUS, H. and F. BULLER 1975. England 
FELLEGY.J. 1975. Minnesota 
FERNANDEZ ROMAN, E. 1982 
FICKLING, N. 1982a, England 
FITZMAURICE, P. 1978, Ireland 
GABELHOUSE, D. W.,Jr. 1981 
GASBARINO, P. 1985, Ontario 
GAY, M. 1975, England 
HAMER, C. 1975, Minnesota 
HAMPTON. J. F. 1948, Europe 
HANSEN, J. P. 1983 
HENEGAR, D. 1960a, North Dakota 
HUGGLER.T. 1975 
HURUM, H.J. .England 
HUTCHINSON, H. G. 1904 
JAMSON.G.C. 1973. Michigan 
JANISZEWSKI. M. 1934. Poland 
JANISZEWSKI, M. 1 938a. Poland 
JANISZEWSKI. M 1938b, Poland 
JENKINS. R. M. and I). I. MORAIS 1971 



341 



JONES, R. H. 1982, Ontario 

KACZYNSKI.C. 1976. Poland 

KELEHER, I. J. 1961, Northwest Territories 

KENDALL. W. C. 191 S.Maine 

KNOWELDEN. M. 1984 

KOBES, R. 1982. USA 

KORULCZYK, T. and L. KOZLOWSKA 
1970. Poland 

KORZYNEK, W. I960. Poland 

KORZYNEK. W. 1962. Poland 

LEHTONEN, H. and K. SALOJARV1 1981, 
Finland 

LEONARD. N. A. 1952. Ontario 

LINDNER. A. 1976 

LINDNER. B. 1978 

LINDNER. R. and J. ZERNOV 1975 

LUCAS. J. 1953 

LUCAS. J. I960 

MADIGAN.P. 1978, Ontario 

MAKOWSKI. M. L. 1966, Poland 

MANN.K. 1982 

MARION. R. 1976 

MARLBOROUGH, D. 1969, England 

MARSHALL, S. 1950, Poland 

MATHER, F. 1898 

MCCARRAHER, D. B. 1955, North America 

MCCLANE, A.J. 1954. USA 

MCCLANE, A. J. 1976 

MEAD, C. W. 1915, New York 

MIGDALSKI, E. C. 1962, North America 

MOYLE, J. B. 1955, Minnesota 

MYERS. B.J. 1979, Ontario 

NEW YORK DEPARTMENT OF CONSER- 
VATION 1969, New York 

NICHOLS, J. T. and V. HEILNER 1920, 
North America 

NORRIS,T. 1864, USA 

NORTH. E. 1980 

OCVIRK, J. 1982, Czechoslovakia 

O'NEILL, R. H. 1932, Canada 

ORGAN, W. 1960, Manitoba 

PAGEAU, G., Y. GRAVEL and V. LEGEN- 
DRE 1979, Quebec 

PEARCE, W. A. 1961, New York 

PENNEL, H. C. 1863, England 

PROROK. P. 1983 

QUIGLEY, D. T. 1982. Ireland 

RAHN.M. 1975 

RICKARDS. B. 1976, England 

RICKARDS, B. 1978, Scotland 

RICKARDS, B. 1980. Ireland 

RICKARDS. B. and R. WEBB 1971. Eng- 
land 



RICKARDS. B. and K. WHITEHEAD 1976. 
England 

RICKARDS. B. and K. WHITEHEAD 1977, 
England 

RIEMENS. R. G. 1977. Netherlands 

RIEMENS. R. G. 1978. Netherlands 

RIPLEY. O. 1932 

ROACH. L. S. 1948 

ROBINSON. G. 1941 

RULEWICZ. M. 1974. Poland 

SCHMIDTT, H. 1980. Germany 

SCHUPP, D. H. 1974. Minnesota 

SCHWARTZ, F. J. and H. J. ELSER 1962. 
Maryland 

SMITH. O. W. 1922 

SPENCE, E. F. 1928. England 

SPOTS WOOD, L. 1985, Ontario 

STANGE, D. 1986a, Manitoba 

STANGE, D. 1986b 

STIGER. H. .Germany 

STOCK WELL, G. A. 1875, Great Lakes 

STONE. P. 1977, England 

SZTRAMKO, L. and PAINE, J. R. 1982, 
Great Lakes. 

TAVERNER. E. and MOORE, J. 1935, Eng- 
land 

TAYLOR, F. 1962, England 

THOMPSON, W. 1883, Great Lakes 

TOWNSEND. D. C. 

TURRELL, W. J. 1910, England 

WALKER, R. 1953, England 

WALTON, I. and C. COTTEN 1835 

WEBB, R. and B. RICKARDS 1976, England 

WEITHMAN, A. S. and R. O. ANDERSON 
1976, Missouri 

WESTMAN.J. 1961 

WHITEHOUSE, F. C. 1948, Canada 

WILSON, J. 1977. England 

WINKELMAN, B. 1977 

WINKELMAN, B. 1978a 

WINKELMAN, B. 1978b 

WIRTH, T. L. 1960, Wisconsin 

WOJDA, S. 1972. Poland 

WOODING. F. H. 1959, Canada 

WYDOSKI. R. S. 1977, California 

WYGANOWSKLJ. 1957, Poland 

WYGANOWSKI, J. 1974. Poland 

ZDANKO. A. 1969, Poland 

ZWIRZ. B. 1975 



BEHAVIOUR 

ABROSIMOVA, A. M. 1975 



342 



BAERENDS.G. P. l c >37 
BALAYCO. L. A. 1981 

BEl KEM \.J. J. 1970 
BRAUM, E. 1963. West German) 
CHRISTIANSEN, 1). G. 1976. Northwesl 

Territories 
CHUMAKOVrK. A. 1963, USSR 
CLARK. J. (2) 1972a. Colorado 
DOMBECK, M. P. I c )79. Wisconsin 
FARABEE,G. B. 1970. Missouri 
GRAFF, D. R. 1972. Pennsylvania 
HELFMAN.G. S. 1979 
HOOCH AND. R.. D. MORRIS and N. I IN 

BERGEN 1957 
HOWARD, H. C. and R. E. THOMAS 1970, 

Nebraska 
HUCHSON, D. R. and J. M. SHEPPARD 

1963. Ontario 
IVANOVA. M.N. 1969, USSR 
IVANOVA, M. N. and A. N. LOPATKO 

1983, USSR 
JOHNSON. L. I960. England 
JOHNSON. L. D. 1962a. Wisconsin 
JONES. F. R.H. 1963. England 
KASHIN. G. M„ L. K. MALIN1N and G. N. 

OREOVSKY 1976. USSR 
KASHIN. S. M.. L. K. MAL1NIN. G. N. 
OREOVSKY and A. G. PODDUBNY 
1977. USSR 
KONOBEEVA. V. K.. A. G. KONOBEEV 

and A. G. PODDUBNY! 1980. USSR 
LAWLER. G. H. 1953. Manitoba 
LAWLER. G. H. 1969b. Manitoba 
LEWINGTON. J. 1973a, Northwest Terri- 
tories 
MAGNUSON. J. J. and D. J. KARLEN 1970, 

Wisconsin 
MAGNUSON. J. J. and B. PETROSKY 1973. 

Wisconsin 
MALININ.L. K. 1969. USSR 
MAL1NIN.L. K. 1970. USSR 
MALININ.L. K. 1971a. USSR 
MALININ.L. K. 1971b. USSR 
MALYUKINA. G. A., N. G. DMITRIEVA. 
E. A. MARUSOV and G. V. YURKEVICH 
1977 
MANTEIFEL. B. P.. I. I. GIRSA. T. S. 
LESHCHEVA and D. S. PAVLOV 1965. 
I SSR 
MARS-VALLETT. A. E. 196X 
MCNAMARA. F. 1937. Michigan 
MOODY. R. C, J. M. HELLAND and R. A. 
STEIN 19X3. Ohio 



NEILl . S R. SI. I. and I. M. CULLEN 1974 
NEI SON. L. R. 1983, Alberta 
NURSALL, I. R. 1973. Alberta 
OHLMER.W. and I. SCHWARTZKOPFF 

I 9S9 
PETROSKY, B. R. and I. I. MAGNl SON 

1973. Wisconsin 
PODDUBNYI, A. C... L. K. MALININ and V. 

V.GAIDUK 1970 
Kl DAKOVSKIY. E.G.. L. N.SOLODI 

LOV. V. R. PROTAXOV and V. M. KRU- 

MIN 1970. USSR 
VERHEIJEN, F.J. 1969 
WEBB. P. W. 1984a, Michigan II 
ZARNECKI, S. 1964. Poland 



COMMERCIAL FISHING 

ALM.G. 1957, Sweden 

ANDERSON, A. W. and C. E. PETERSON . 

USA 
ANLSHCHENKO, V. 1965 
ANONYMOUS 1983, Netherlands 
AN WAND. K. 1971. East Germany 
ANWAND. K. 1972 
BAJKOV, A. 1930. Canada 
BALDWIN. N. S.. R. W. SAALEELD, M. A. 
ROSS and H. J. BUETTNER 1979. Cheat 
Lakes 
BERK A, R. 1980, Czechoslovakia 
CARLANDER. K. D. 1942. Minnesota 
CARLANDER. K. D. 1947, Minnesota 
CARLSON. R. M. and R. CAPLE 1980, 

Great Lakes 
CLEMENS. W. A., J. R. DYMOND and N. 

K. BIGELOW 1924. Ontario 
DERKSEN, A. J. 1978, Manitoba 
DOMANEVSKII. L. N. 1958, USSR 
DYMOND. J. R. 1922. Great Lakes 
DYMOND. J. R. 1939. Ontario 
DYMOND. J. R. and J. L. HART 1927. 

Ontario 
DYMOND. J. R., J. L. HART and A. L. 

PRITCHARD 1929. Great Lakes 
EL-BASTAVIZI, A. M. and G. A. SMIR 

NOVA 1972 
EVERMANN.B. W. 1905 
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE < )R< I \NIZA- 
TION OF THE UNITED NATIONS 1977 

GFNGFRKE. T. 1977. Iowa 
HALME, E. and S. HURME 1952. Finland 
HARKNESS, W.J. K. 1 936a, Ontario 
HARK NESS. W. J. K. 1936b, Ontario 



343 



HARKNESS, W. J. K. 1936c, Ontario 

HELMS, D. 1976, Iowa 

HELMS, D. R. 1975, Iowa 

KACZYNSKI.C. 1976, Poland 

KARDASHEV, A. V. and A. R. SHAMUN 
1984, USSR 

KARPOVICH, I. Y. 1968 

KENNEDY, W. A. 1954, Northwest Terri- 
tories 

KIPLING, C. 1972, England 

KOZMIN, A. K. 1952, USSR 

KUZNETSOV, V. A. 1980, USSR 

LANTZ, A. W. and D. G. IREDALE 1966, 
Ontario 

LANTZ, A. W. and D. G. IREDALE 1 97 1 , 
Manitoba 

LAPITSKII, I. I. 1958, USSR 

LEBEDEV, V. D. 1961, USSR 

LEHNHERR, H. R. 1981, Switzerland 

LEHTONEN, H. and M. HILDEN 1980, Fin- 
land 

LEHTONEN, H. and K. SALOJARVI 1981, 
Finland 

LJUNGBERG, O. 1963, Sweden 

M ALLEY, M. W. and S. M. BROWN 1983, 
Ireland 

MILLER, R. B. and M. J. PAETZ 1959, 
Alberta 

NIKANOROV, Y. I. 1962, USSR 

PAGEAU, G., Y. GRAVEL and V. LEGEN- 
DRE 1979, Quebec 

PERVOZVANSKIJ, V. Y. 1984, USSR 

PETERKA, J. J. and L. L. SMITH, JR. 1970, 
Minnesota 

REICHENBACH-KLINKE, H. H. 1970, Aus- 
tria 

ROZANSKI, M. 1913a, Poland 

RUDNICKI, A., J. WALUGA and T. 
WALUS 1971, Poland 

SMITH, H. M. and M.-M. SNELL 1891, 
Great Lakes 

TSEPKIN, E. A. 1976, USSR 

TSEPKIN, E. A. 1977, USSR 

TSEPKIN, E. A. 1978, USSR 

TSEPKIN, E. A. 1980, USSR 

U.S. BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL 
FISHERIES 1965 



CREEL CENSUS AND ANGLING 
STATISTICS 

ANDERSON, A. W. and C.'E. PETERSON 

USA 



ANONYMOUS 1966, Wisconsin 
BABALUK, J. A., B. M. BELCHER and J. S. 

CAMPBELL 1984, Manitoba 
BRUEDERLIN, B. and B. H. WRIGHT 1981. 

Manitoba 
BRUEDERLIN, B. B. 1982. Manitoba 
BRYNILDSON, C, D. B. IVES and H. S. 
DRUCKENMILLER 1970, Wisconsin 
CUERRIER, J. P. and J. C. WARD 1952 
CUERRIER, J. P. and J. C. WARD 1953 
CUERRIER, J. P. and J. C. WARD 1954 
DUNNING, D. J., J. T. EVANS and M. J. 

TARBY , New York 
ESCHMEYER, R. W. 1935, Michigan 
ESCHMEYER, R. W. 1936, Michigan 
ESCHMEYER, R. W. 1938, Michigan 
FALK, M. R. and L. W. DAHLKE 1974, 

Northwest Territories 
FALK, M. R., D. V. GILLMAN and L. W. 

DAHLKE 1974, Northwest Territories 
GIANOTTI, F. S. and G. GIOVINAZZO 

1975, Italy 
GIANOTTI, F. S., G. GIOVINAZZO and L. 

GORI 1975, Italy 
GREENBANK,J. 1957 
GROEBNER, J. F. 1960, Minnesota 
HAZZARD, A. S. and R. W. ESCHMEYER 

1936, Michigan 
HORLER, A., M. E. JARVIS and R. A. C. 

JOHNSTON 1985, Yukon 
HUBER, E. H. and H. R. KITTEL 1961, Min- 
nesota 
JOHNSON, M. W., W. J. SCIDMORE. J. H. 
KUEHN and C. R. BURROWS 1957, Min- 
nesota 
KOSHINSKY, G. D. 1969, Saskatchewan 
LANDHURST, R. S. 1978, Wisconsin 
LOEFFLER, H. 1977, West Germany 
LUX, F. E. and L. L. SMITH, Jr. 1960, Min- 
nesota 
MILLER, J. G. 1954, New York 
MITZNER, L. 1971, Iowa 
MOYLE, J. B. and D. R. FRANKLIN 1955, 

Minnesota 
MUIR, B. S. 1957, Great Lakes 
PEARCE, W. A. 1961, New York 
REID, D. J. 1977, Ontario 
SNOW, H. E. 1978a, Wisconsin 
SNOW, H. E. 1978b, Wisconsin 
SNOW, H. E. 1982, Wisconsin 
THUEMLER, T. G. 1982, Wisconsin 
TODD, A. 1968, Ontario 
WILLIAMS, J. E. 1961b, Michigan 



344 



WRIGHT. K.J. 1971, Wisconsin 



CULTURE AND ARTIFICIAL PROPA- 
GATION 

AG APOV, J. D. and V. N. ABROSOV 1967, 

USSR 
ALESSIO.G. 1983. Italy 
ANONYMOUS 1892, Poland 
ANONYMOUS 1908, Poland 
ANONYMOUS 1965b, Poland 
ANONYMOUS 1969, Poland 
ANONYMOUS n.d.b 
ANWAND. K. 1963 
AN WAND. K. 1965a 
ANWAND. K. 1966a 
ANWAND. K. 1967b 
ARRIGNON.J. 1972. France 
BALVAY.G. 1983 
BELINA.T. 1956. Poland 
BENECKE. B. 1885 
BENNETT. L. H. 1947, Minnesota 
BENNETT. L. H. 1948. Minnesota 
BENOIT. D. S. R. and J. G. HALE 1969, 

Minnesota 
BERKA. R. 1980, Czechoslovakia 
B1LLARD. R. 1983. France 
BILLARD. R.. M. DEBRUILLE, J. P. 

GERARD and G. DE MONTALEMBERT 

1976. France 
BILLARD. R. and J. MARCEL 1980. 

France 
BILLARD. R.. J. MARCEL and G. DE 

MONTALEMBERT 1983. France 
BILLARD. R.. ed. 1980b, France 
BILLARD. R.. ed. 1983a, France 
BLACK. J. D. and L. O. WILLIAMSON 

" 1947. H 
BOOTSMA. R. 1971, Netherlands 
BOOTSMA. R. 1973. Netherlands 
BOOTSMA. R. and C. J. A. H. V. VAN 

VORSTENBOSCH 1973, Netherlands 
BOOTSMA. R.. P. DE KINKELIN and 

M. LEBERRE 1975, Netherlands 
BORDES. G. 1979 

BRY. C. R. BILLARD and G. DE MON- 
TALEMBERT. 1978. France 
BRY. C. and C. GILLET 1980a, France 
BRY. C. and C. GILLET 1980b. France 
BRY. C. Y. SOUCHON and G. NEVEU 

1984. France 
BUSS. K. 1968 
CARBINE. W. F. 1942b. Michigan 



CATAUDALLE, S. and P. MI-LOTH n.d„ 

Ital) 
CHABAN, R. 1973. Morocco 
CHAUVEHEID, A. and R. BILLARD 1983. 

France 
CHIKOVA, V. M. 1966. USSR 
CI II Mil S. P. 1947. France 
CHIMITS, P. 1951, France 
( IIIMITS. P. 1956, France 
CHODOROWSKI, A. 1973a 
CHODOROWSKI, A. 1973b 
CHODOROWSKI, A. 1975 
CLARK. C. F. and F. D. NOW 1954. Ohio 
CLARK. C. F. and E. D. NOW 1955. Ohio 
CLARK. J. (2) 1972b. Colorado 
CLARK. J. H. 1974. Colorado 
CLARK. J. H. 1975. Colorado 
CLARK. T. L. 1975, Pennsylvania H 
CONSEIL SUPERIEUR DE LA PECHE 

1 976, France 
CZAPIK, A. 1961, Poland 
DAUPHIN, R. 1983, France 
DAVIS, H. S. 1953, California 
DAWSON, L. 1959, Nebraska 
DEL CAMPILLO, C. and P. A. PELLITERO 

1973, Spain 
DEMCHENKO, I. 1959. USSR 
DEXTER, R. W. and D. B. MCCARRAHER 

1967, Nebraska 
DOMURAT,J. 1958, Poland 
DRIMMELEN, D. E. VAN 1969. 

Netherlands 
DUBRAVIUSJ. 1547 
EISLER, R. 1957, Washington 
FAGO, D. 1971a. Wisconsin 
FAGO. D. 1971b, Wisconsin 
FAGO, D. M. 1977, Wisconsin 
FORNEY, J. L. 1968, New York 
GALINA, N. V.. E. F. MARTINSON and V. 

I. REDIKSON 1958, USSR 
GAMMON, J. R. 1965, Indiana 
GENINA. N. V., E. F. MARTINSEN and V. 

Y. REDIKSON 1958. USSR 
GENSCH. R. 1979, West Germany 
GOTTWALD, S. 1956, Poland 
GOTTWALD, S. 1958a. Poland 
GOTTWALD. S. 1958b. Poland 
GOTTWALD. S. I960. Poland 
GOTTWALD. S. 1966a. Poland 
GOTTWALD. S. 1966b. Poland 
GOTTWALD. S. 1970. Poland 
GOTTWALD. S.. Z. KLEBUKOWSK A and 

A. WINNICKI 1965. Poland 



345 



GOTTWALD. S. and Z. PLACZKOWSKI 

1958, Poland 
GOUBIER, J- and Y. SOUCHON 1982, 

France 
GRAFF. D. R. 1968, Pennsylvania 
GRAFF, D. R. 1978, Pennsylvania H 
GRAFF 7 . D. R. and L. SORENSON 1969, 

Pennsylvania H 
GRAFF. D. R. and L. SORENSON 1970. 

Pennsylvania II 
GROCHOWALSKI, J. 1954, Poland 
GUERIN.F. 1984. France 
GUEST. W.C 1977. Texas 
GULIDOV, M. V. 1969a, USSR 
GUTIERREZ-CALDERON. E. 1955, Spain 
HAIME. J. 1874, Europe 
HAMACKOVA. J.. J. KOURIL and S. CHA- 

BERA 1977. Czechoslovakia 
HASSEER. T. J. 1982. South Dakota 
HAWDY. P. W. . Arizona 
HENEGAR. D. 1969. North Dakota 
HINER. L. E. 1961. North Dakota 
HORVATH, L. 1983, Hungary 
HOWARD. H. C. and R. E^ THOMAS 1970, 

Nebraska 
HUET, M. 1948. France 
HUET, M. 1960. France 
HUET. M. 1970. France 
HUET, M. 1972a. France 
HUET, M. 1972b. France 
HUET. M. 1976. France 
HUET, M. and J. A. TIMMERMANS 1958. 

France 
HUET. M. and J. A. TIMMERMANS 1959. 

France 
HUISMAN.E. A. 1975 
JACOB. B. 1969. Michigan 
JAEGAR. T.. H. DAUSTER and A. KIWUS 

1980 
JARVENPA. O. M. and W. KIRSCH 1969. 

Minnesota 
JOHNSON. L. D. 1958, Wisconsin 
JORDAN. M. and Z. SREBRO 1956. Poland 
KENDALL. W. C. 1918. Maine 
KISTELSKI, B. 1933, Poland 
KLEINERT, S. J. and D. F. MRAZ 1965b. 

Wisconsin 
KLEINERT. S. J. and D. F. MRAZ 1965d, 

Wisconsin 
KONOVALOV. P. M. and T. V. LUGA- 

VAYA 1968. USSR 
KOURIL, J. and J. HAMACKOVA 1978. 

Czechoslovakia 



LANGLOIS.T. H. 1927 

LANOISELEE. B. 1984. Fiance 

LASSLEBEN I960 

LAYCOCK.G. 1966 

LEACH. G.C. 1927 

LIEPOLT. R. and E. PESCHECK 1958 

LILLELUND, K. 1958. Germany 

LUCCHETTA. J. C. 1983. France 

LUKOWICZ. M. VON 1983. West Germany 

MANN.R. H. K. 1971a. England 

MARCEL. J.. G. DE MONTALEMBERT and 

R. B1LLARD 1983 
MATVEEVA. R. P. 1955, USSR 
MCCARRAHER. B. 1958b. Nebraska 
MCCARRAHER. D. B. 1957c. Nebraska 
MCCARRAHER. D. B. 1963. Nebraska 
MEADE. J. W.. W. F. KRLSE and T. ORT 

1983. Pennsylvania H 
MICHAELIS. A. 1911 
MOEN.T. and M. LINDQU1ST 1954. 

Iowa 
MOEN.T. E. 1953. Iowa 
MOEN.T. E. 1955. Iowa 
MORRIS. J. W..1974. Nebraska 
MRAZ, D. F. 1961, Wisconsin 
MRAZ, D. F. 1962a, Wisconsin 
MULLER. H. 1954. Germany 
NEVEU, G. and C. BRY 1983, France 
OEHMCKE, A. and K. WALKER 1969. 

Wisconsin 
OEHMCKE. A. A. 1949, Wisconsin 
ORME. L. E. 1978. South Dakota H 
PECHA, O. 1983, Czechoslovakia 
PECKHAM, R. 1968, Nebraska 
PECOR, C. H. 1978, Michigan H 
PECOR. C. H. 1979. Michigan H 
PETLINA, A. P. 1980. USSR 
PIENING.H. 1970. Wisconsin 
PRATT. K. 1975. Michigan. 
PREISSER.E. 1976 
PRIVOLNEV.T. I. 1951. USSR 
PROTAL.J. 1947 
RADCLIFFE. W. 1921 
RAHN.J. 1978. Germany 
REZNICHENKO. P. N.. N. V. KOT- 

LYAREVSKAYA and M. V. GULIDOV 

1966, USSR 
REZNICHENKO, P. N., N. V. KOT- 

LYAREVSKAYA and M. V. GULIDOV 

1967. USSR 
ROGALSKI.J. 1937. Poland 
ROTH.H. 1960 

ROYER, L. M. 1971, Saskatchewan 









346 



ROZANSKI, M. 1913b, Poland 
ROZNIAKOWSKI, J. 1957, Poland 
SAKOWICZ, L. and W. URBANOWSKI 

1933, Poland 
SANDERSON, C. II. and/. BEAN 1974. II 
SCHINDLER 1946 
SCHOETTGER, R. A. and E. W. STEUCKE, 

Jr. 1970a, Wisconsin 
SCHOETTGER, R. A. and E. W. STEUCKE, 

Jr. 1970b, Wisconsin 
SCI II 1 rZ, F. H. 1 956, Saskatchewan 
SCHl \1.\W.G. (). 1963 
Ml \KP. R. W„ L. II. BENNETT and E. C. 

S \LUGLING 1952, Minnesota. Urn a 
S1MONTACCHI, C, C. BOITI, N. 
BONALDO, P.COLOMBO 
BELEVEDERE and L. COLOMBO 1983, 
ltal> 
SKIBINSKI. L. 1910, Poland 
SMISEK, J. 1967a, Czechoslovakia 
SMISEK, J. 1967b, Czechoslovakia 
SMISEK. J. 1968a, Czechoslovakia 
SMISEK. J. 1968b, Czechoslovakia 
SORENSON. L.. K. BUSS and A. D. BRAD- 
FORD 1966. Pennsylvania 
STRZELECKI. J. 1929. Poland 
SL'RBER. E. E. 1929 
SZCZERBOWSKI. J. A. 1963. Poland 
TIMMERMANS.G. A. 1979 
URBANOWSKI. W. 1937. Poland 
U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 1974. 

USA 
VOUGA. M. 1939 
WALKER. K. W. 1968 
WEBSTER. J.. A. TRANDAHL and J. LEO- 
NARD 197X. USA 
WESTERS. H. 1979. Michigan H 
WIKTOR. J. and C. ZUKOWSKI 1962. 

Poland 
WILLEMSEN. J. 1958, Netherlands 
WONDRA, K. 1 981, Germany 
WOYNAROVICH, E. 1955. Hungary 
WOYNAROVICH, E. 1963. Hungary 



DISTRIBUTION AND RANGE 

ACKERMAN. B. 1955. USA 
AGASSIZ. J. L. R. 1854, Alabama 
VGASSIZ, L. 1X50. Great Lakes 
ALLISON. D. and H. HOTHEM 1975. Ohio 
ALT. K.T. 1977. Alaska 
ALT. K.T. 19X0. Alaska 
ANDERSON. R. M. 1913, Yukon 



ANONYMOUS 1961a, Quebec 

B \CKl S, R. 11. I9S7. Labrador 

B.YIKOV. A. 1927. Alberta 

BE \N.T. II. 1X92. Pennsylvania 

Bl \N. T. II. 1903b, New York 

mcil.. I. P.andC.G. SCALET 1977. South 

Dakota 
BLANC. M.. P. BANARESCUJ. I.. GAU- 

DETand L.-C. HUREAU 1971. Europe 
BODALY, R. A. and C. C. LINDSEY 1977. 

Yukon 
BUSS. K., and J. MILLER, n.d., Pennsylvania 
CARL. C. G. and W. A.CLEMENS 1948, 

British Columbia 
CARL, C. G., W. A. CLEMENS and C. C. 

LINDSEY 1959. British Columbia 
CARLANDER, K. D. 194X. Minnesota 
CARUFEL, L. H. I95X. North Dakota 
CHAMBERS. K. J. 1963. Ontario 
CHAMPEAU. A.. A. GREGOIRE and G. 

BRUN 1978, France 
CLARK, G. 1955. Canada 
CLARKE, C. H. D. 1940 
CLEAR Y.R. E. 1956, Iowa 
CLEMENS. W. A., R. V. BOUGHTON and J. 

A. RATTENBURY 1945, British Columbia 
CONNECTICUT BOARD OF FISHERIES 

AND GAME 1959, Connecticut 
COOPER, G. P. 1941, Maine 
COPE, E. D. 1X64, Miehigan 
COPE, E. D. 1X65, Miehigan 
COPE, E. D. 1X70. North Carolina 
COPE. E. D. 1X77, North Carolina 
CORKUM, L. D. and P. J. MCCART 19X1, 

Northwest Territories, Yukon 
COWARD, T. A. 1914, England 
COX. P. 1X99, Quebee 
GROSSMAN, E. J. 1978, Ontario 
CUERRIER, J. P. 1962. Quebee 
CUERRIER. J. P.. F. E. J. FRY and G. PRE- 

FONTAINE 1946. Quebee 
DALL. W. H. 1X70. Alaska 
DAY. F. 1XX4. England. Ireland 
DEMEL. K. 1933. Poland 
DICK. M. M. 1964 
DICKINSON, W. E. I960. Wisconsin 
DUKRAVETS.G. M. and Y. A. BIRYUKOV 

1976. USSR 
DULMA, A. 1973. USSR 
1)1 NBAR, M.J. and H. H. I III .1)1 -BR AND 

1952. Canada 
DURBAN. W. S. M. 1X59. Quebec 
DVMOND.J. R. 1922. Great Lakes 



347 



DYMOND. J. R. 1923. Ontario 
DYMOND. J. R. 1926. Ontario 
DYMOND. J. R. 1936. British Columbia 
DYMOND. J. R. 1937. Ontario 
DYMOND. J. R. 1939. Ontario 
DVMOND. J. R. 1947. Canada 
DYMOND, JR. 1964. Canada H 
DYMOND. J. R. and J. L. HART 1927. 

Ontario 
DYMOND. J. R.. J. L. HART and A. L. 

PRITCHARD 1929. Great Lakes 
DYMOND. J. R. and W. B. SCOTT 1941. 

Ontario 
EDDY, S. and T. SURBER 1947, Minnesota 
EDDY, S. and T. SURBER I960, Minnesota 
EDDY, S., R. C. TASKER and J. C. 

UNDERHILL 1972, Minnesota 
EDDY, S. and J. C. UNDERHILL 1978, Min- 
nesota 
EGERMAN, F. F. 1936, USSR 
EIGENMANN, C. H. 1894, Canada, 

USA 
EVERMANN, B. W. 1916, Kentucky, 

Tennessee 
EVERMANN, B. W. and E. L. GOLDSBOR- 

OUGH 1901, New York 
EVERMANN, B. W. and E. L. GOLDSBOR- 

OUGH 1902, New York 
EVERMANN, B. W. and E. L. GOLDSBOR- 

OUGH 1907a, Alaska 
EVERMANN, B. W. and E. L. GOLDSBOR- 

OUGH 1907b, Canada 
EVERMANN, B. W. and W. C. KENDALL 

1896, Vermont 
EVERMANN, B. W. and W. C. KENDALL 

1902a, Great Lakes 
EVERMANN, B. W. and W. C. KENDALL 

1902b, New York 
EVERMANN, B. W. and W. C. KENDALL 

1902c, New York 
FAGO, D. 1983. Wisconsin 
FAGO, D. 1985, Wisconsin 
FORBES, S. A. and R. E. RICHARDSON 

1908, Illinois 
FORTIN,P. 1864 
FOWLER, H. W. 1915, Canada 
FOWLER, H. W. 1918a. USA 
FOWLER, H. W. 1919 Pennsylvania 
FOWLER, H. W. 1948, Northwest Territories 
FRY, F. E. J. and V. B. CHAPMAN 1948, 

Ontario 
FRY, F. E. J. and J. P. CUEkRIER 1941, 

Quebec 



GARRARD, J. 1886. Wisconsin 
GEE, A. S. 1978. England 
GEORGE. C. J. 1980. New York 
GERKING. S. D. 1945. Indiana 
GERKING.S. D. 1959 
GILL, T.. ed. 1898. New York 
GRAY.T. E. 1850. Yukon 
GREELEY. J. R. 1934. New York 
GREELEY, J. R. 1938. New York 
GREELEY, J. R. 1939a. New York 
GREELEY. J. R. 1939b. New York 
GREELEY. J. R. 1940. New York 
GREELEY. J. R. and S. C. BISHOP 1932. 

New York 
GREENBANK.J. 1954 
GREENBANK.J. 1957 
GREENE. C. W. 1935. Wisconsin 
HAAS, R. L. 1943. Illinois 
HALKETT. A. 1898. Arctic 
HALKETT, A. 1913, Canada 
HANKINSON.T. L. 1908, Michigan 
HANKINSON. T. L. 1916. Michigan 
HANKINSON, T. L. 1920. Michigan 
HANKINSON, T. L. 1929. North Dakota 
HARKNESS, W. J. K. and J. L. HART 1927. 

Ontario 
HARPER, F. 1948. Northwest Territories 
HARPER, F. 1961. Quebec 
HARRISON, J. S. 1963 
HEARD, W. R.. R. L. WALLACE and W. L. 

HARTMAN 1969, Alaska 
HENDERSON, N. E. and R. E. PETER 1969, 

Alberta 
HOKE, R. A., M. J. NORROCKY and B. L. 

PRATER 1975. Ohio 
HOLT, P. C, ed. 1972 
HUBBS, CARL L. 1926. Great Lakes 
HUBBS, CARL L. 1979. California 
HUBBS, CARL L. and D. E. S. BROWN 

1929, Ontario 
HUBBS, CARL L. and C. W. GREENE 1928. 

Great Lakes 
HUBBS, CARL L. and K. F. LAGLER 1941, 

Great Lakes 
HUBBS, CARL L. and K. F. LAGLER 1949, 

Great Lakes 
HUBBS, CARL L. and K. F. LAGLER 1957, 

Great Lakes 
HUBBS, CARL L. and K. F. LAGLER 1958, 

Great Lakes 
HUBBS. CARL L. and A. M. WHITE 1923, 

Minnesota 
HUBBS. CLARK 1972. Texas 



348 



III! T. \1..A. Ll-:i I K.J. LIBOSVARSKY 

and M. PEN AX 1969, Czechoslovakia 
111 \ ER, C. W. I960, Connecticut 

J ASKOWSKI. J. W62, Poland 

JENKINS. R. E„ E. A. LACHNER and F.J. 

SCHWARTZ 1972 
JONES. A.N. [972. Wales 
JORDAN. D. S. ISSN 
JORDAN. D. S. IS^O. L'SA 
JORDAN. D. S. 1905b 
JORDAN. D. S. and B. W. LVERMANN 

1902. North America 
JORDAN. D. S., B. W. EVERMANN and H. 

W. CLARK 1930. North America 
KENDALL. W. C. 1895, Maine 
KENDALL, W. (\ 1909, Labrador 
KENDALL. W. C. 1920. Saskatchewan 
KOSSWIG.C. 1969, Asia 
KOSTER. W. J. 1957. New Mexico 
KOZHOV. M. 1963. USSR 
KRULL, J.N. 1968, New York 
LAWLER. G. H. and N. H. F. WATSON 

1958. Manitoba 
LEFEBRE. P. 1977. Quebec 
LEGENDRE. V. 1954. Quebec 
LINDBERG. G. U. 1936. USSR 
LINDEBORG. R. G. 1941. Ontario 
LIVINGSTONE. D. A. 1951. Nova Scotia 
LOW. A. P. 1895a. Labrador 
LOW. A. P. 1895b. Labrador 
MACOUN. J. 1888. Northwest Territories 
MAGNIN. E. 1964. Quebec 
MARLBOROUGH. D. 1969. England 
MAY. S. P. 1858. Ontario 
MCALLISTER, D. E. 1962b. Arctic 
MCALLISTER. D. E. and B. W. COAD 
. 1974. Ontario 

MCCARRAHER. I). B. 1961b. North Amer- 
ica 
MCCORMICK. L. M. 1892. Ohio 
MEEK. A. 1916 
MEEK.S. E. 1899. Ontario 
MEEK. S. E. and H. W. CLARK 1902, 

Ontario 
MILLER. R. B. 1946. Northwest Territories 
MILLER. R. B. 1949. Alberta 
MONGEAU. J.. A. ( OURTEMANCHE. G. 

MASSE and B. VINCENT 1974. 

Quebec 
MONGEAU, J.R.. J. LECLERC and J. . 

BRISEBOIS 1980, Quebec 
NEEDHAM.J.G. 1922. New York 
NELSON. E. W. 1887. Alaska 



NELSON, M. N and A. I). HASLER 1943. 
Wisconsin 

NLWDICK.J. 1979. England 

ODLLL. T. T. 1931. Neu York 

OMAND. D. N. 1950. Ontario 

ORTENBURGER, A. I. and C. L. HUBBS 
1926. Oklahome 

PAGEAU. G.. Y. GRAVEL and V. LEGEN- 
DRE 1979. Quebec 

PARSONS. R. F. n.d., Labrador 

PEARSON. W. D. and L. A. KRUMHOLZ 
1984, Tennessee 

PECZALSKA, A. 1953, Poland 

PECZALSKA. A. 1954. Poland 

PENCZAK.T. 1969a. Poland 

PENCZAK.T. 1969b, Poland 

PFLIEGER. W. L. 1971, Missouri 

POTVIN.C. 1973. Quebec 

PREBLE, E. A. 1908, Northwest Territories 

PREFONTAINE, G. 1941, Quebec 

QUEBEC MINISTERE DES PECHERIES 
ET DE LA CHASSE 1961. Quebec 

QUEBEC MINISTERE DU TOURISME. DE 
LA CHASSE. ET DE LA PECHE 1966. 
Quebec 

RADFORTH, I. 1944, Ontario 

RANEY, E. C. and W. H. MASSMAN 1953. 
Virginia 

RAWSON, D. S. 1947a, Northwest Terri- 
tories 

RAWSON, D. S. 1947b, Northwest Terri- 
tories 

RAWSON, D. S. 1949, Saskatchewan 

RAWSON, D. S. 1960b, Saskatchewan 

REICHENBACH-KLINKE, H. H. 1970, Aus- 
tria 

REMBISZEWSKI, J. M. and H. ROLIK 
1975. Poland 

RICHARDSON, L. R. 1935. Quebec 

RICHARDSON. L. R. 1944, Quebec 

RUDNICKI. A. 1965. Poland 

RYDER. R. A., W. B. SCOTT and E. J. 
CROSSMAN 1964, Ontario 

SCOTT, W. B. 1958. Canada. Alaska 

SCOTT. W. B. and E. J. CROSSMAN 1969. 
Canada 

SMALL. H. B. 1883. Ontario 

SMITH. H. M. 1893. North Carolina 

SMITH. H. M. 1907. North Carolina 

SMITH. H. M.andT. A. BEAN 1899. DC. 

SMITH-VANIZ. W. F. 1968. Alabama. 

SOI JAN. T. 1946. Hal) 

SOOT-RYLN.T. 1926. Finland 



349 



STORER. D. H. 1848. Vcrmonl 

SYMINGTON. D. F. 1959, Saskatchewan 

SZCZERBOWSKI. J. A. 1972. Poland 

TACK. E. 1972 

THOMPSON, E. S. 1898, Manitoba 

THOMPSON. Z. 1853, Vermont 

THORPE. L. M. and D. A. WEBSTER . Con- 
necticut 

TONER, G.C. 1943, Ontario 

TRAUTMAN. M. B. 1957. Ohio H 

TUBB. R. A., F. A. COPES and C. JOHNS- 
TON 1965. North Dakota 

TURNER. L. M. 1886, Alaska 

UNDERHIEE. J. C. and J. B. MOYEE 1968. 
Great Lakes 

VASILIU, G. D. and C. SOCA 1968, USSR 

VLADYKOV, V. D. 1958. Quebec 

VLADYKOV. V. D. and D. E. MCALLIS- 
TER 1961, Quebec 

WALECKI, A. 1889. Poland 

WALKER, C. E., R. F. BROWN and D A. 
KATO 1974 

WALKER. S.J. 1931, Manitoba 

WALTERS, V. 1953, Arctic 

WALTERS, V. 1955. Arctic 

WEBSTER, D. A. 1942, Connecticut 

WEED, A. C. 1922 

WENT, A. E.J. 1957, Ireland 

WHEELER, A. 1977, British Isles 

WHITWORTH, W. R., P. L. BERRIEN and 
W. T. KELLER 1968, Connecticut. 

WILIMOVSKY, N. J. 1954, Alaska 

WILKENS, H. and A. KOEHLER 1977, West 
Germany 

WILLIAMS, M. Y. 1922, Northwest Terri- 
tories 

WILLOCK, T. A. 1969, Canada 

WITHLER, I. L. 1956, British Columbia 

WOOLMAN, A. J. 1896. Minnesota, North 
Dakota 

WRIGHT, A. H. and A. A. ALLEN 1913. 
New York 

WYNNE-EDWARDS. V. C. 1947, Northwest 
Territories 

WYNNE-EDWARDS. V. C. 1952, Arctic 

ZHUKOV. P. I. 1968, USSR 



EARLY DEVELOPMENT 

BALON, E. K. 1974. Ontario 



BALON.E. K. 1984, Ontario 
BALVAY,G. 1983 
BILLARD. R. 1980, France 



BLAXTER.J. U.S. 1986 
BRYAN. J. E. 1967. Minnesota 
BUYNAK. G. L. and H. W. MOHN. JR. 

1979. Pennsylvania 
CHICEWICZ, M. and I. MANKOWSKA 

1970. Poland 
CTHAR. J. 1956. Czechoslovakia 
DAMURAT, J. n.d.. Poland 
DANIL'CHENKO. O. P. 1982. USSR 
DANIL'CHENKO. O. P. and N. S. STRO- 

GANOV 1975. USSR 
DEVILLERS, C. 1947. France 
DOM U RAT. J. 1966. Poland 
DORIER. A. 1938 
DORIER. A. 1939 

DURAND. J. -P. and J.-M. GAS 1976. France 
FRANKLIN. D. R. 1960. Minnesota 
FRANKLIN. D. R. and L. L. SMITH. Jr. 

1960b, Minnesota 
FRANKLIN. D. R. and L. L. SMITH. Jr. 

1960c, Minnesota 
FUIMAN, L. 1982, Great Lakes 
GALAT, D. L. 1973 
GIHR. M. 1957 

GRODZINSKLZ. 1971, Poland 
GULIDOV. M. V. 1969a. USSR 
GULIDOV, M. V. 1969b. USSR 
HAKKILA. K. and A. NIEMI 1973. Finland 
HASSLER, T. J. 1970. South Dakota 
HASSLER. T. J. 1982, South Dakota 
HOKANSON, K. E. P.. J. H. MCCORMICK 

and B. R. JONES 1973. Minnesota 
HUBBS. CARL L. 1922, Michigan 
IGNAT'EVA, G. M. 1974b 
IGNATEVA, G. M. and N. N. ROTT 1970 
IGNATIEVA.G. M. 1976a 
IGNATIEVA.G. M. 1976b 
IVLEV, V.S. 1939a, USSR 
KENNEDY, M. 1969. Ireland 
KERNEHAM.R. J. 1976 
KOSTOMAROVA, A. A. 1959, USSR 
KOSTOMAROVA, A. A. 1961, USSR 
KOTLYAREVSKAYA. N. V. 1969. USSR 
KUZNETSOV, V. A. 1972, USSR 
LEBEDEVA. O. A. and M. M. MESHKOV 

1968. USSR 
LECYK, M. 1965. Poland 
LEREBOULLET. A. 1853. Fiance 
LEREBOULLET. A. 1854. Fiance 
LEREBOULLET, A. 1861. Fiance 
LEREBOULLET, D. A. 1854. Fiance 
LEREBOULLET, D. A. 1862a, Fiance 
LEREBOULLET, D. A. 1862b. Fiance 









350 



LEYCK, M. 1965 
LYUBITSKAY A. A. 1. 1961 

\1 WSl 111. R. 1954, Maryland 

\1 ATM I \ A. R. P. 1955, USSR 

MONTEN, E. 1948 

01 IPHAN, 1.. V. 1940. USSR 

PITKYANEN, Ci. B. and Y. A. /All SI A 

1974 
PIWERNETZ, D. 1968a 
PIWERNETZ, I). 1968b 
PRICE, J. W. 1957. Ohio 
REZNICHENKO, P. N. 1958, USSR 
SCHAPERCLAUS, W. 1 940, Germany 
SCHOOTS, A. F. M., P. A. C. M. EVERTSE 

and J. M. DENUCE 1 983 
SIEFERT, R. E., W. A. SPOOR and R. F. 

SYRETT 1973. Minnesota 
SMITH, L. L., Jr. and D. M. OSEID 1974. 

Minnesota 
STROGANOV. N. S. and O. P. 

DANILCHENKO 1973. USSR 
STUDNICKA. E. K. 1944 
SZLAMINSKA. M. 1980, Poland 
VOEODIN. V. M. I960. USSR 
WINNICKI. A. and J. DOMURAT 1964. 

Poland 
WURTZ. A. 1945 
WYDALL1S. E. A. I960. Ohio 
ZALACHOWSKI. W. 1970, Poland 



FOOD AND FEEDING HABITS 

AGAPOV. J. D. and V. N. ABROSOV 1967. 

USSR 
ALLEN. K. R. 1939. England 
ANONYMOUS 1934. Poland 
ANTONESCU. C. S. 1933 
ANTOSIAK. B. 1961. Poland 
ANWAND. K. 1966a 
ARKHIPTSEVA. N. T. 1974. USSR 
BAGENAL. T. B. 197 1 . England 
BALVAY. G. 1983 
BEYERLE. G. B. 1971c, Michigan 
BEYERLE. G. B. 1973a. Michigan 
BIALOKOZ. W, and T. KRZYWOSZ 1976b. 

Poland 
BIALOKOZ. W. and T. KRZYWOSZ 1979. 

Poland 
BILLARD. R. 1980. France 
BLAXTER.J. H.S. 1986 
BODNIEK, V. M. 1976. USSR 
BRAUM. E. 1963. West Germany 
BR AIM. E. 1967, Germany 



BRUYENKO, V P. 1970. I SSR 

BUBINAS, A. I). 1976. USSR 

BUBIN \S. V P. 1976. USSR 

Bl CKE, 1). 1971 

CHRISTIANSEN, 1). G. 1976. Norlhwesl 

Tcrrilorics 
CIHAR.J. 1955, Czechoslovakia 
CLEMENS, W. A.. J. R. DYMOND and N 

K. BIGELOW 1924. Ontario 
COPLAND. W. (). 1956, Scotland 
GORBIN.G. B. 1873, England 
CUERRIER.J. L. and A.COUR- 

TEMANCHE 1954, Quebec 
DABROWSKI. K. R. 1982 
DENCE. W. A. 1938. New York 
DIANA. J. S. 1979a. Alberta 
DIANA. J. S. 1979c, Alberta 
DZIEKONSKA.J. 1954 
FORBES. S. A. 1878. Illinois 
FORBES. S. A. 1888, United States 
FORBES, S. A. 1890, Illinois 
FROST. W. E. 1954. England 
FROST. W. E. and C. KIPLING 1970. Eng- 
land 
FUHRMANN.O. 1934a 
GRIMAS, U. and N.-A. NILSSON 1965, 

Sweden 
GUTIERREZ-CALDERON, E. 1957. Spain 
HARTLEY. P. H. T. 1940. England 
HARTLEY. P. H. T. 1948, England 
HELSTROM. N. 1978. Finland 
HUNT. B. P. and W. F. CARBINE 1951. 

Michigan 
HUNT. R. L. 1965, Wisconsin 
HYSLOP, E. J. 1980 
IVANOVA, M. N. 1959. USSR 
IVANOVA. M. N. 1963. USSR 
IVANOVA. M. N. 1966. USSR 
IVANOVA. M. N. 1970. USSR 
IVANOVA, M. N. and A. N. LOPATKO 

1983. USSR 
IVANOVA. M. N. and A. N. LOPATKO 

1983. USSR 
IVLEV. VS. 1961. USSR 
JOHNSON. L. 1966c, England 
JOHNSON. L. D. 1959. Wisconsin 
JOHNSON. L. D. 1961a. Wisconsin 
JOHNSON. L. D. 1962b, Wisconsin 
JOHNSON. L. D. 1969. Wisconsin 
JOHNSON. L. I), n.d.. Wisconsin 
KARZINKIN.G. S. 1939. USSR 
KEAST. A. and D. WEBB 1966. Ontario 
KEDLECJ. 1952. Michigan 



351 



KOKESJ. 1977 

KUPCHINSKAYA, E. S. 1985. USSR 
LARSEN, K. 1951a, Denmark 
LARSEN, K. 1966, Denmark 
LAWLER, G. H. 1965. Manitoba 
LEONARD. V.J. 1963 
LIPSIT. J. H. 1976a. Great Lakes 
LUGOVAYA. T. V. 1971b. USSR 
LUX, F. E. and L. L. SMITH. Jr. I960. Min- 
nesota 
MA MANZUDU, B. 1984, Belgium 
MANN, R. H. K. 1976. England 
MANN. R. H. K. 1982. England 
MARSHALL, W. S. and N. C. GILBERT 

1905, Wisconsin 
MARTYNIAK, A., J. TERLECKI and J. A. 

SZCZERBOWSKI 1976, Poland 
MATHERS, R. A. and P. H. JOHANSEN 

1985, Ontario 
MATVEEVA, R. P. 1955, USSR 
MCCARRAHER, D. B. 1959c, Nebraska 
MCNAMARA, F. 1937. Michigan 
MELLEN.I. 1927 
MISRA, P. M. 1966 

NURNBERGER, P. K. 1930, Minnesota 
OBER, R. D. 1976, North Dakota 
OMAROV, O. P. and O. A. POPOV A 1985, 

USSR 
ORLOVA, E. L. and G. K. AZHIGALIYEVA 

1984, USSR 
PENN.G. H. 1950, USA 
PIKHU, E. K. and E. R. PIKHU 1969, USSR 
PUPYRNIKOVA, A. V. 1953, USSR 
QUEIRAZZA, G., E. SMEDILE and E. 

TIBALDI 1969 
RIDENHOUR, R. L. 1960, Iowa 
SALMI, J. 1982, Finland 
SEABURG, K. G. 1957 
SEABURG, K. G. and J. B. MOYLE 1964, 

Minnesota 
SIBLEY, C. K. 1922, New York 
SIBLEY, C. K. and V. RIMSKY- 

KORSAKOFF 1931, New York 
SJOBERG, G. 1983, Sweden 
SOKOLOV, L. I. 1962, USSR 
SOROKINA, A. A. 1977, USSR 
SPANOVSKAYA, V. D. 1963, USSR 
SPRULES, W. M. 1946, Manitoba 
TEPLOVA, V. N. and V. P. TEPLOV 1953, 

USSR 
TURNER, L.J. 1984, Alberta 
VOLKOVA, L. A. 1973, USSR 
VOSTRADOVSKY, J. 1971, Czechoslovakia 



VOSTRADOVSKY, J. 1980. Czechoslovakia 
WAINIO. A. 1966b. Great Lakes 
WILLEMSEN. J. 1965, Netherlands 
WILLEMSEN. J. 1967a, Netherlands 
WILLEMSEN. J. 1967b. Netherlands 
WILLEMSEN. J. 1978. Netherlands 
WILLIAMS. J. E. 1962c, Michigan 
WILSON. C. B. 1920, Indiana 
WOLFERT, D. F. and T. J. MILLER 1978. 
Great Lakes 



FOSSILS AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

AGASSIZ. L. 1842 

BALON, E. K. 1968a, Czechoslovakia 

BERG.L. S. 1947. USSR 

BLAND. J. K. and D. BARDACK 1973. 

Great Lakes 
BOISAUBERT, J.-L. and J. DESSE 1975. 

Switzerland 
BRINKHUIZEN, D. C. 1979, Netherlands 
CAVENDER, T. M., J. G. LUNDBERG and 

R. L.WILSON 1970 
CROSSMAN, E. J. and C. R. HARINGTON 

1970, Yukon, Ontario 
DRIESCH, A. VON DEN 1982, West Ger- 
many 
FREY, D. G. 1964 

HEINRICH, D. 1981, West Germany 
LEBEDEV, V. D. 1961, USSR 
MCALLISTER, D. E. 1959, Ontario 
MCALLISTER, D. E. 1962a, Ontario 
MCALLISTER, D. E. 1963, Yukon 
MCALLISTER, D. E. 1968, Ontario 
MCALLISTER, D. E. 1975, Quebec 
MCALLISTER, D. E. and D. ST-ONGE 

1981, Northwest Territories 
MOHL-HANSEN, U. 1954 
MORALES, A. 1980, Spain 
MURCHISON, C, ed. 1868, England 
NIKOLSKY,G. 1946, USSR 
OSBORNE, P. J. and F. W. SHOTTON 1968, 

England 
PAUL. A. 1980. Germany 
ROSENLUND. K. 1976. Denmark 
SLOKA.J. 1977, USSR 
SMITH, C. L. 1962, Kansas. Oklahoma, 

Nebraska 
SOKOLOV. L. I. and E. A. TSEPKIN 1969, 

USSR 
SPENCER, P. J. 1979, England 
SYTCHEVSKAYA, E. C. 1974, USSR 
SYTCHEVSKAYA, E. C. 1976, USSR 



352 



TELLER, S. and D. BARDACK 1974, Grcal 

Lakes 
tsepkin, E. \. 1972. USSR 

isl PKIN, E. A. 1981, USSR 
\ ORONONKOVA. L. D. 1964. USSR 
WHEELER, A. 1978, England 
WILSON, M. V. H. 1980. Canada 
WILSON. M. V. H. 1981, Colorado 
WINTI MBLRG. W.J. 1936. Ontario 
WINTEMBERG. W. J. 1946 
ZHITENEVA, L. D. 1969. USSR 



GENERAL ACCOUNTS 

ALDINGER. H. 1965 

ALTMAN. P. L. and D. S. DITTMER, eds. 
1972 

ANONYMOUS 1964. Poland 

ANONYMOUS 1973b. Poland 

BAJKOV. A. 1930. Canada 

BLAIR. F. W. 1957. USA 

BULLER. F. 1971. England 

BULLER. F. 1981. England H 

BURN AND. T. 1963. Italy 

CARLANDER. K. D. 1950. Iowa 

CARLANDER, K. D. 1953. Iowa 

CARLANDER. K. D. 1969, Canada. USA H 

CHOLMONDLEY-PENNEL, H. 1865. Eng- 
land 

CLARK. C. F. 1958. Canada. USA 

CROSS. F. B. 1967, Kansas 

CVANCARA. V. and C. PONTO 1981 

CVANCARA, V. A. 1977 

CVANCARA. V. A. 1978 

CVANCARA. V. A. 1979 

CVANCARA. V. A. 1980 

CVANCARA. V. A. and L. P. PAULUS 1976 

DEBOISSET. L. 1948. France 

EDDY. S. and T. SURBER 1943. Minnesota 

EDDY. S. and J. C. UNDERHILL 1974, Min- 
nesota 

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZA- 
TION OF THE UNITED NATIONS 1959 

FORBES. S. A. and R. E. RICHARDSON 
1920. Illinois 

FOURMER. H. 1980. Quebec 

FREEMAN. R. B. 1980. England 

FROST. W. and C. KIPLING 1967. England 

HAKOKONGAS. M. 1971. Finland 

HARLAN. J. R. and E. B. SPEAKER 1956.. 
Iowa 

HARTLEY. P. H. T. 1947a. England 

HARTLEY. P. H. T. 1947b. England 



HEARTWELL.C. and L. Ill SS 1977. Wesl 

Virginia II 
HEGEMANN, M. 1 964, Germany 

HLNSHALL. J. A. 1919 

HERBERT, II. W. 1851. North America 

IIOLCIK. J. and. I. MIIIALIK 1968 

Ml NTERJ.G. 1968. Quebec 

INSKIP. P. I). 1982a 

JARDINE, A. 1898 

JENNINGS. J. T. 1954. British Isles 

JORDAN. I). S. 1877a. North America 

JORDAN. D. S. 1907 

KARVELIS. E. G. 1964. North America 

KENDALL, R. L., ed. 1978 

KENDALL, W. C. 1919. USA 

KOSHINSKY, G. D. 1979, Saskatchewan 

LAGLER, K. F., J. E. BARDACH and R. R. 

MILLER 1962 
LANGLOIS,T. H. 1954. Great Lakes 
LAWLER.G. H. 1964a. Manitoba 
LEACH, G.C. 1927 
LELEK. A. 1980, Europe 
LINCOLN, R. P. 1953 
LINDBERG.G. U. 1974 
LINDROTH. A. 1946. Sweden 
LIPSIT, J. H. 1976b. Great Lakes 
LUNDSTROM, D. L. n.d. 
MACKAY, H. H. 1963, Ontario 
MCALLISTER. D. E. and E. J. CROSSMAN 

1973. Canada 
MCCARRAHER, D. B. 1957b. Nebraska 
MCPHAIL. J. D. and C. C. LINDSEY 1970. 

Canada 
MELANCON.C. 1958. Quebec 
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 1965 
NIKOLSKILG. V. 1961. USSR 
NIKOLSKY. G. V. 1963, USSR 
OPUSZYNSKI. K. 1979, Poland 
PAETZ, M. J. and J. S. NELSON 1970. 

Alberta 
PEN A, J. C. 1985. Europe 
PINCHER.C. 1948, USA 
PLISZKA. F. 1964, Poland 
PORTER, L. R. 1977. Minnesota 
PRATT. H. S. 1935. I SA 
PRAWOCHENSKI. R. 1976. Poland 
RAAT, A. J.P. 1987 
REECE. M. 1963 
REGAN, C. T. 191 I. British Isles 
ROZWADOWSKI. J. 1904. Poland 
kl ONICKI. A. 1951. Poland 
SCOTT, W. B. 1954. Canada 
SCOII. W. B. 1967. Canada 



353 



SCOTT. W. B. and E. J. GROSSMAN. 1973. 

Canada 
SEKUTOWICZ. S. 1938, Poland 
SPEIRS. J. M. 1952, Great Lakes 
STANGENBERG. M. 1966. Poland 
STARMACH. K. 1951a. Poland 
STEFFENS. W. 1961 
STERBA.G. 1963 
TOMLIN, W. D. 1892 
TONER. E. D. 1966 

TONER, E. D. and G. H. LAWLER 1969 
UMINSKI.W. 1917. Poland 
VAN OOSTEN. J. 1946. USA 
VAN OOSTEN. J. I960. USA 
VARLEY, M. E. 1967, England 
VESEY-FITZGERALD. B. and F. LAMONT 

cds.. n.d. 
ZALACHOWSKI, W. 1973, Poland 



GENETICS 

BARTHOLOMEW, M. A., J. DIVALL and J. 

E. MORROW 1962, Alaska 
BEAMISH, R. J., M. J. MERRILEES and E. 

J.CROSSMAN 1971, Ontario 
BHUSHANA RAO, K. S. P. and C. GER- 

DAY 1973a 
BHUSHANA RAO, K. S. P. and C. GER- 

DAY 1973b 
CAINE. L. S. 1949a 
COHEN-SOLAL. L., M. LE LOUS, J. C. 

ALLAIN and F. MEUNIER 1981 
DAV1SSON, M. T. 1972, Pennsylvania H 
DRILHON, A., J. M. FINE and E. MAGNIN 

1961 
DUFOUR, D. and D. BARRETTE 1967, Que 

bee 
ECKROAT, L. R. 1969, Pennsylvania 
ECKROAT, L. R. 1974, Pennsylvania 
FERGUSON, A. and F. M. MASON 1981. 

Ireland 
FICKLING.N. 1982b, England 
FOCANT, B. and F. HURIAUX 1976 
FOCANT, B., F. HURIAUX and I. A. 

JOHNSTON 1976 
FRANKENNE. F., L. JOASSIN, J. CLOS- 

SETandC. GERDAY 1971, Belgium 
FRANKENNE. F., L. JOASSIN and C. GER- 
DAY 1973, Belgium 
GIBB, B., I. BECKER and M. KRAEMER 

1974 
GOLD. J. R., W. J. KAR£L and M. R. 

STRAND 1980 



GOSSEL1N-REY. C. G. HAMOIR and R. K. 

SCOPES 1968 
HAEN. P. J. and F. J. OROURKE 1969a. Ire- 
land 
HA EN. P. J. and F. J. OROURKE 1969b. 

Ireland 
HEALY. J. A. and M. F. MULCAHY 1979. 

Sweden 
HEALY. J. A. and M. F. MULCAHY 1980 
HUNN, J. B.. R. A. SCHOETTGER and E. 

W. WHEALDON 1968 
KIRSIPUU. A. 1975 
KREUZER, R. O. and J. G. SIVAK 1984. 

Ontario 
KUZNETSOV. V. A. 1975. USSR 
LOCASCTO. N. J. 1969, Pennsylvania 
LYSLOVA, E. M.. T. P. SEREBRENIKOVA 

and N. A. VERZHBINSKAYA 1975 
MASSARO, E. J. and C. L. MARKERT 1968 
MULCAHY. M. F. 1969. Ireland 
MULCAHY. M. F. 1970a, Ireland 
NOGUSASHY.S. 1960 
NYGREN, A., P. EDLUND, U. HIRSCH and 

L. AHSGREN 1968, Sweden 
PERRIER, H.. J. P. DELCROIX. C. PER- 

RIERandJ.GRAS 1974 
PRAKKEN, R., J. BEKENDAM and G. A. 

PIETERS 1955 
ROSSI. A.. P. DAMIANI and E. DONATI 

1973, Italy 
SCHOOTS, A. F. M. and J. M. DENUCE 

1981, Netherlands 
SCHOOTS, A. F. M., B. J. A. JANSSEN and 

J. M. DENUCE 1981, Netherlands 
SVARDSON, G. and T. WICKBOM 1939, 

Sweden 
UTHE. J. F., E. ROBERTS, L. W. CLARKE 

and H. TSUYUKI 1966. British Columbia 
VASILYEV, V. P. 1980, USSR 
WEISS. D. G., V. KRYGIER-BREVART, G. 

W. GROSS and G. W. KREUTZBERG 

1978. West Germany 



HABITAT AND KNVIRONMKNTAL 
FACTORS 

ADELMAN. I. 1969, Minnesota 
ADELMAN. I. R. and L. L. SMITH. Jr. 

1970b 
AHOKAS, J. T., N. T. KARKI, A. OIKARI 

and A. SOI VIC 1976. Finland 
ANNETT, C. S. and F. M. DITRI 1978. 

Michigan 



354 



INTONESCU.C. S. 1933 
ARMSTRONG. I . A. J. and I). P. SCOTT 

1979. Ontario 
ARRIGNON,J. 1966, France 
fVSH.G. R„ N. R.CHYMKOand I). N. 

GALLt P 1974. Alberta 
A 1 ION. F. M.. R. P. JOHNSON and N. W. 

SMITH 1974. Saskatchewan 
B \l DWIN. R. I-.. D. H. STRONG and J. II. 

TORRIE 1961, Wisconsin 
B VI 1.. R. C. 1950, Michigan 
B VI ON. E. K. 1974, Ontario 
BARTEHLMES, I), and H. WALDOW 1978. 

German) 
IEARD,T. D. 1971, Wisconsin 
BENSON, N.G. 1980, Montana 
BERNATOWICZ, S. 1955, Poland 
BEVELHIMER, M. S., R. A. STEIN and R. 

F.CARLINE 1981, Ohio H 
BILLARD, R. 1983, France 
BODALY. R. A. and L. F. W. LI-SAC K. 

1984, Manitoba 
BONIN.J. D. and J. R. SPOTILA 1978, New 

York H 
BOUCHER, R. and E. MAGN1N 1979. Que- 
bec 
POYTSOV. M. P. 1974. USSR 
BRETT. J. R. 1979 

BRINKHL RST. R. O. 1969. deal Lakes 
BRYAN. J. E. 1967. Minnesota 
( VRLANDER, K. D.. J. S. CAMPBELL and 

R. J. MUNCY 1978a. North America 
CARLANDER, K. D.. J. S. CAMPBELL and 

R. J. MUNCY 1978b. North America 
CARLSON. R. M. and R. CAPLE 1980. 

Great Lakes 
CASSELMAN. J. M. 1972. Ontario 
CASSELMAN. J. M. 1978a. Ontario 
CASSELMAN. J. M. 1978b. Ontario 
CASSELMAN. J. M. and H. H. HARVEY 

1975. Ontario 
CHAPMAN. C. A. and W. C. MACKAY 

1984a. Alberta 
CHAPMAN. C. A. and W. C. MACKAY 

1984b. Alberta 
CHUMAKOV, K. A. 1963. USSR 
CIEPIELEWSKI. W. 1970. Poland 
CLARK. E. R. and J. A. L. ERASER 1983 
COOPER, (i. P. and G. N. WASHBURN 

1949. Michigan 
CRAIG. J. F. andC. KIPLING 1983. 

England 
CROOKS. S. 1972. Ontario 



(A VNCAR V, \ \ .. S. I SHI 10 R and B 

A. (A VNC VRA 1977 
DABROWSKI, K. R 1982 
1)1 Al TRY.. II. 1970. England 

DOAN, K. II. 1964, Manitoba 

DOl DOROFF, P. and I). 1.. Sill M\\ \> 

1970 
DRYDEN, R L. and C. S..II.SSOP 1974. 

Northwest Territories 
DUNNING. IX. I... I. I I \ VNSand M.J. 

TARBY . New York 
EDDY, S. 1938. Minnesota 
EDDY, S. and K. I). CARLANDER 1940. 

Minnesota 
EUROPEAN INLAND FISHERIES 

ADVISORY COMMITTEE 1968 
FORTIN, R..P. DUMON'I and H. FOUR- 

NIER 1983, Quebec 
EROST. S.. R. I. COLLINSON and M. P. 

THOMAS 1978 
FROST, W. E. and C. KIPLING 1968b. Eng- 
land 
PRY. F. E.J. 1947, Ontario 
FRY. F. E.J. I960. Ontario 
GABOURY, M. N. and J. W. POTALAS 

1982. Manitoba 
GARDNER. J. A. 1926. England 
GEE, J. IL. R. F. TALLMAN and H. J. 

SMART 1978. Manitoba 
GOETHBERG, A. 1976 
GREGORY, R. W., A. A. ELSER and T. 

LENHART 1984 
GROEN, C. L. and T. A. SCHROEDER 

1978. Kansas 
GULIDOV, M. V. 1969a. USSR 
GUTIERREZ-CALDERON. E. 1955. 

Spain 
HAKANSON. L. 1980 
HALL. D. J. and E. E. WERNER 1977. 

Michigan 
HALLOCK. C. 1886. Australia. Java 
HANNON. M. R., Y. A. GREK HIS. R. L. 

APPLEGATE and A. C. EOX 1970. South 

Dakota 
HARRISON. E. J. and W. F. HADLEY 1978. 

New York 
HARTMANN, J. 1978. West Germany 
HARVEY. H. H. 1980. North America 
HARVEY. H. H. and J. F. COOMBS 1971, 

Ontario 
II \SSI.1 ROT. I. B. 1968. Suede. i 
HENLEY, D T. and R. L. APPL1 GAT1 

1982. South Dakota H 



1SS 



HICKS, D. E., K. COOK and P. MAUCK 
1970. Oklahoma 

HILDEN. W., R. HUDD and H. LEHTONEN 
1982, Finland 

HILL. K. 1974. Iowa 

HOK ANSON, K. E. F. 1977, Minnesota 

HOKANSON, K. E. F., J. H. MCCORMICK 
and B. R. JONES 1973, Minnesota 

HOLCIK. J. and I. BASTL 1973, Czechoslo- 
vakia 

HOLCIK. J. and I. BASTL 1976, Czechoslo- 
vakia 

HOLLAND, L. E. and M. L. HUSTON 1984. 
Wisconsin 

HOOPER, F. F. 1951, Minnesota 

HURLEY, D. A. and W. J. CHRISTIE 1977, 
Great Lakes 

INSKIP, P. D. 1982b 

JENKINS, R. M. 1968 

JENKINS, R. M. 1969 

JENKINS, R. M. and D. I. MORAIS 1971 

JOHNSON. L. D. 1962c. Wisconsin 

JOHNSON, M. G., J. H. LEACH, C. K. 
MINNS and C. H. OLVER 1977, 
Ontario 

JUNE, F. C. 1976, South Dakota 

KAMPS, L. R.. R. CARR and H. MILLER 
1972, D.C. 

KENNEDY. W. A. 1947, Northwest Terri- 
tories 

KLYSZEJKO, B. 1973. Poland 

KOSHELEV, B. W. 1961. USSR 

KULIKOV, N. V. and V. G. KULIKOVA 
1977, USSR 

LAPITSKII, I. I. 1958, USSR 

LAPK1N, V. V., A. G. PODDUBNYY and A. 
M.SVIRSKIY 1983, USSR 

LECYK. M. 1965, Poland 

LEHTONEN, H. and M. HILDEN 1980, Fin- 
land 

LEINERTE, M. P., D. R. VADZIS, Z. K. 
KALNINYA and Y. Y. SLOKA 1974, 
USSR 

LEVIN, A. A. 1970, Ohio 

LEWINGTON, J. 1973a, Northwest Terri- 
tories 

LEWINGTON, J. 1973b, Northwest Terri- 
tories 

LEYCK, M. 1965 

LILLELUND. K. 1967, West Germany 

LINDSEY, C. C, K. PATALAS, R. A. 
BODALY and C. P. ARCHIBALD 1 98 1 , 
Yukon 



LUX. E. E. and L. L. SMITH. Jr. I960. Min- 
nesota 
LYUBITSKAYA. A. I. 1961 
MACAN.T. T. 1970, England 
MACHNIAK. K. 1975 
MACHON. A.. M. J. NORTH, N. C. PRICE 

andD. E.WELLS 1984 
MACKENTHUN, K. M. and E. F. HERMAN 

1948. Wisconsin 
MAGNUSON. J. J. and D. J. KARLEN 1970, 

Wisconsin 
MAGNUSON. J. J. and B. PETROSKY 1973. 

Wisconsin 
MAKOWECKI.R. 1973a. Alberta 
MAKOWECKI. R. 1973b. Alberta 
MALININ. L. K. 1971a. USSR 
MALININ.L. K. 1971b. USSR 
M ALLEY, M. W. and S. M. BROWN 1983. 

Ireland 
MAREAN. J. B. 1976, Great Lakes 
MARKOV, V. I. 1962, USSR 
MATHER, F. 1881 

MCCARRAHER, D. B. 1962. Nebraska 
MCCARRAHER. D. B. 197 1 , Nebraska 
MCCAULEY, R. W. and J. M. CASSEL- 

MAN 1981, Ontario 
MCGOVERN, S. P. 1983b. Manitoba 
MILLER, R. B. and M. J. PAETZ 1959. 

Alberta 
MOORE, W.G. 1942a 
MOORE, W.G. 1942b 
MORAWSKA. B. 1968. Poland 
MOREAU, G. and L. LEGENDRE 1979 
MOSKALENKO, B. K. 1956. USSR 
MOSSIER, J. N. 1971. North Dakota 
MOYLE, J. B. and W. D. CLOTHIER 1959. 

Minnesota 
MULLER. H. 1966. Germany 
NELLEN.W. 1965, Germany 
NETH. P. C. 1978. New York 
NETSCH, N. F. 1975, Alaska 
NORTH, E. 1980 
NUORTEVA, P., M. LODENIUS and S.-L. 

NUORTEVA 1979. Finland 
ODELL. T. T. 1932. New York 
OIKARI, A. 1975a. Finland 
OIKARI, A. 1975b. Finland 
OLSSON. M. and S. JENSEN 1975. 

Sweden 
OSBORN, T. C, D. B. ERNST and D. H. 

SCHUPP 1981. Minnesota 
PAGEAU. G., Y. GRAVEL and L. 

LEVESQUE 1971, Quebec 



356 



PARSONS. R. F. n.d., Labrador 
PATRIARCHE, M. H. 1963. Michigan 
PATRIARCHE, M. II. 1966, Michigan 
PATRIARCHE, \1. H. and H. GOWING 

1961, Michigan 
PATRIARCHE, M. H. and II. GOWING 

1962b, Michigan 
PATRIARCHE, M II. and J. W. MERNA 

1970, Michigan 

persson. p. e. 1980 

PI I IRK A.J. J. 1972, North Dakota 
PETERKA, J. J. and J. S. KENT 1976, North 

Dakota 
PETIT, G. D. 1973. Ohio 
PETROSKY, B. R. and J. J. MAGNUSON 

1973, Wisconsin 
PETERSEN. S. 1980. Nor\\a\ 
PHILLIPS. G. R. and R. W. GREGORY 

1979, Montana 
PHILLIPS. G. R., T. E. LENHART and R. W. 

GREGORY 1980. Montana 
PIETERS. H., J. SPEUR and P.O. 

WASSENAAR-SCHOLTZ 1983. Nether- 
lands 
PRIVOLNEV.T. I. 1963, USSR 
PRIVOLNEV.T. I. 1964a. USSR 
PRIVOLNEV. T. I. and N. V. KOROLEVA 

1933. USSR 
RAWSON. D. S. 1948. Manitoba 
RAWSON, D. S. and J. E. MOORE 1944. 

Saskatchewan 
ROSS. M. J. and D. B. SINIEE 1980 
ROSS. M.J. and J. D. WINTER 1981. Min- 
nesota 
RUNDBERG. H. 1977. Sweden 
SACKMAUEROVA. M.. O. PALUSOVA 
. and A. SZOKOLAY 1977. Czechoslovakia 
SCHLESINGER. D. A. and H. A. REGIER 

1983 
SCHL LTZ. F. H. 1955. Saskatchewan 
SCIDMORE, W. J. 1970 
SCOTT. D. P. 1964. Ontario H 
SLDLAR. J. 1969. Czechoslovakia 
SELBIG. W. 1970 

SHCHERBUKHA, A. Y. 1971, USSR 
SIEFERT. R. E., W. A. SPOOR and R. F. 

SYRETT 1973. Minnesota 
SPRl LES, W. M. 1947. Manitoba 
STELLA. E.. L. FERRERO and F. G. MAR 

GARITORA 1978. Ital) 
STRELTSOVA. S. V. 1970, I SSR 
STROGANOV, N. S. and V. G. KHO 

BOTJIEV 1968, USSR 



SI OMINEN, II. I9S0. Finland 

S\ ARDSON, G. and G. MOLIN l c )8l. 

Sweden 
SWIFT, D. R. 1965, England 
SYCHEVA, V. N. 1965, USSR 
SZMANIA, D. 1973. Wisconsin 
THREINI N.( . W. . Wisconsin 
THREINEN, C. W. 1969, Wisconsin 
TRESSLER, W . I... L. II. TIFFANY and W . 

P. SPENCER 1940. Ohio 
TRIPLET!. J. R., D. A. CULVER and G. B. 

WATERFIELD 1981. Ohio 
TROCHERIE, F. and B. MIGEON 1984. 

France 
TSVETKOV, V. I. 1969. USSR 
TURNER. L.J. 1984. Alberta 
U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 1976, 

New York 
U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 1981 
VOINO-YASENETSKII. A. V. 1958. USSR 
VOLKOVA. L. A. 1973. USSR 
VOLODIN. V. M. I960. USSR 
VUORINEN. P. and M. B. AXELL 1980. 

Finland 
WAJDOWICZ. Z. 1958. Poland 
WHEELER. A. 1969. England 
WITCOMB.D. 1966 
WOODBURY. L. A. 1942. Wisconsin 
ZIMAKOV. I. E. 1978. USSR 



HISTORICAL ACCOUNTS 

ANON. W.T. 1884. Ontario 
ANONYMOUS 1550. England 
BAGENAL, T. B. 1970a. England 
BALDWIN, N. S.. R. W. SAALFELD. M. A. 

ROSS and H. J. BUETTNER 1979. Great 

Lakes 
BAUMANN. P. C. J. F. KITCHELL. J. J. 

MAGNUSON and T. B. KAYES 1974. 

Wisconsin 
BENSON. N. G. 1968. Montana 
BIGGAR. H. P.,ed. 1922 
BIGGAR. H. P..ed. 1925 
BIGGAR. H. P.ed. 1929 
BIGGAR. H. P.ed. 1932 
BILLINGS, E. 1857. Canada 
BULLER, I . I ( >8I. England II 
CLINTON, I). 1815. Neu York 
CROSSMAN, E.J. 1971, Ontario 
[)l BRAVIl S.J. 1547 
I NDRES. A l l ^> ( '. France 
GESN1 R 1558. German) 



357 



HEDERSTROM, H. 1959, Sweden 

HEINRICH. D. 1980, East German) 

MARSTON, R. B. IKS 1 ). Ireland 

MATHER, F. I SSI 

MEYER, P.,ed. 1901, France 

NECKHAM, A. 1863, England, Scotland, Ire 
land 

NORMAN, JR. 1930 

NORRIS, T. IS64. USA 

PERGAMINUS, N. 1480 

RADCLIFFE, W. 1921 

RULEWICZ, M. 1974. Poland 

SHANDON 1889, Ireland 

SMITH, H. M. and M.-M. SNELL 1891, 
Great Lakes 

SMITT. F. A. 1892. Sweden 

SOLMAN. V. E. E. 1950. Vermont 

TURRELL, W. J. 1910. England 

VINCENT OF BEAUVAIS 1624 

WEBSTER. J.. A. TRANDAHL and J. LEO- 
NARD 197S. USA 

WENT. A. E.J. 1957. Ireland 



HYBRIDS 

ANDERSON, R. O. 1973, Missouri H 
ANONYMOUS 1952. H 
ARMBRUSTER. D. 1966 
BEVELHIMER. M.S. 1983, Ohio H 
BEVELH1MER. M. S.. R. A. STEIN and R. 

F. CARLINE 1981. Ohio H 
BEVELHIMER. M. S.. R. A. STEIN and R. 

F. CARLINE 1985. Ohio H 
BEVELHIMER. M. S.. R. A. STEIN and R. 

F. CARLINE n.d., H 
BEYERLE.G. B. 1973b, Michigan H 
BEYERLE.G. B. 1981 . Michigan H 
BEYERLE. G. B. 1984, Michigan H 
BLACK, J. D. and L. (). WILLIAMSON 

1947, H 
BONIN. J. D. and J. R. SPOTILA 1978. New 

York H 
BULLER. F. 1981. England H 
BUSS. K. 1960. Pennsylvania H 
BUSS. K. 1963. Pennsylvania H 
BUSS. K. 1966a. Pennsylvania H 
HI SS. K.. J. MEADE III and D. R. GRAFF 

1978. Pennsylvania H 
BUSS. K. and J. MILLER 1967. Pennsylvania 

H 
CAMERON. G. S. 1948. Ontario H 
CARLANDER, K. I). 1969. Canada. USA H 



CASSELMAN. J. M. and E. J. CROSSMAN 

1986. Ontario H 
CASSELMAN. J. M., E. J. CROSSMAN. 

P. E. IHSSEN, J. D. REIST and H. E. 

BOOKE 1986. Ontario H 
CLARK. T. L. 1975. Pennsylvania H 
COPELAND, J. 1975. H 
CROSSMAN. E.J. 1965. Ontario H 
CROSSMAN. E. J. and K. BUSS 1965. North 

America H 
CROSSMAN. E. J. and J. W. MEADE 1977, 

North America H 
DAVISSON, M. T. 1972, Pennsylvania H 
DYMOND, J. R. 1964, Canada H 
EDDY, S. 1941a. Minnesota H 
EDDY, S. 1941b, Minnesota H 
EDDY, S. 1944. Minnesota H 
EMBODY, G.C. 1918. H 
GIBSON, M. B. and J. W. MACPHERSON 

1954. Ontario H 
GILLEN, A. L.. R. A. STEIN and R. F. CAR- 
LINE 1981. Ohio 
GODDARD. J. A. and L. C. REDMOND 

1978, Missouri H 
GODFREY, J., Jr. 1945, H 
GRAFF, D. R. 1968, Pennsylvania 
GRAFF, D. R. 1978, Pennsylvania H 
GRAFF, D. R. and L. SORENSON 1969, 

Pennsylvania H 
GRAFF, D. R. and L. SORENSON 1970. 

Pennsylvania H 
HEARTWELL, C. and L. HESS 1977. West 

Virginia H 
HENLEY. D. T. and R. L. APPLEGATE 

1982, South Dakota H 
HESS, L. 1980a, West Virginia H 
HESS, L. and C. HEARTWELL 1977. West 

Virginia H 
HESS, L. and C. HEARTWELL 1979. 

Pennsylvania H 
HESSER. R. B. 1978. Pennsylvania H 
HOTTELL. H. E. 1976, Georgia H 
HUBBS.CARLL. 1955. H 
HUBERT. W. A. 1980, Iowa H 
JENNINGS, T. L. and F. FRANK 

1965 H 
JOHNSON. L. D. 197S, Wisconsin H 
JOHNSON, R. E. 1945. Minnesota H 
MCCABE, B. C. 1958. Massachusetts H 
MCCARRAHER, B. I960. Nebraska H 
MCCARRAHER, D. B. I960. Nebraska H 
MEADE. J. and D. R. GRAFF 1978, Pennsyl- 
vania H 



358 



MEADE. J. W., W. F. KRISE and I . ORT 

1983, Pennsylvania H 
NANSEN.C. 1973, H 
NIKOLYUKIN.N. 1. 1935, H 
NIKOLYUKIN, N. I. 1963, USSR H 
OEHMCKE, A. A. 19? I. Wisconsin H 
OEHMCKE, A. A.. L. JOHNSON. J. KLING 

BILL and C. W1STROM 1965, Wisconsin 

II 
ORME. L. E. 1978. South Dakota H 
PECOR. C.H. 1978. Michigan H 
PECOR.C. H. 1979. Michigan H 
RANEY. E. C. 1955. Massachusetts H 
SANDERSON, C. H. and Z. BEAN 1974. H 
SCHWARTZ. F.J. 1962. Maryland H 
SCHWARTZ, F. J. 1972. Maryland H 
SCOTT. D. P. 1964. Ontario H 
SERNS. S. L. and T. C. MCKNIGHT 1977. 

Wisconsin H 
SLASTENENKO. E. P. 1956, H 
SLASTENENKO. E. P. 1957, H 
STEIN. R. A. 1979. Ohio H 
STEIN. R. A.. R. F. CARLINE and R. S. 

HAYWARD 1981. H 
STEIN. R. A.. R. F. CARLINE and R. S. 

HAYWARD 1982. Ohio H 
TOMCKO. C. M. 1982. Ohio H 
TOMCKO. C. M.. R. A. STEIN and R. F. 

CARLINE 1984. Ohio H 
TRAUTMAN. M. B. 1957. Ohio H 
UNDERHILL, A. H. 1939. New York H 
VANOOSTEN.J. 1957. H 
WAHL. D. H. and R. A. STEIN 1985. Ohio 

H 
WEBB. P. W. 1978a. Michigan H 
WEBB. P. W. 1978b. Michigan H 
WEBB. P. W. 1980, Michigan H 
WEBB. P. W. 1982. Michigan H 
WEBB. P. W. 1984a. Michigan H 
WEBB. P. W. 1984b. Michigan H 
WEBB. P. W. and J. M. SKADSEN 1980, 

Michigan H 
WEBSTER J.. A. TRANDAHL and J. LEO- 
NARD 1978. USA 
WEITHMAN. A. S. 1975. Missouri H 
WEITHMAN. A. S. and R. O. ANDERSON 

1976. Missouri H 

WEITHMAN. A. S. and R. O. ANDERSON 

1977. Missouri H 
WESTERS. H. 1978. H 
WESTERS. H. 1979. Michigan H 
WICH. K. and J. W. MULLAN 1958. Mas- 
sachusetts H 



IDENTIFICATION 

ARMBRUSTER, D. 1966 

CASSELMAN, J. M. 1980. Ontario 
CASSELMAN, J. M.. E. J. CROSSMAN, P. 

E. IHSSLN.J. D. REISTand II. E. 

BOOK!-; 1986. Ontario II 
DECKER, I). J.. R. A. HOWARD. JR. and 

W. H. EVERHART 1978. New York 
FICKLINCN. 1982b, England 
FUIMAN, L. 1982. Great Lakes 
HUBBS.CARL L. and K. F. LAGLER 1939. 

Great Lakes 
KELSEY, P. M. 1968. New York 
LAWLER.G. H. 1960b. Manitoba 
LAWLER.G. H. 1961b, Manitoba 
LAWLER.G. H. 1961c, Manitoba 
LESLIE. J. K.. and GORRIE, J. F. 1985. 

Ontario 
LOPINOT. A. , Illinois 
LOPINOT. A. C.n.d.. Illinois 
MACK AY. H. H. 1931. Ontario 
MCALLISTER. D. E. and E. J. CROSSMAN 

1973. Canada 
MILLER. J. and K. BUSS 1962. Pennsylvania 
SEAMAN, W. 1968 
WAINIO. A. 1978, Ontario 
WHITWORTH, W. R., P. L. BERRIEN and 

W. T. KELLER 1968, Connecticut. 
WOODLING, J. 1984, Colorado 



INTRODUCTIONS AND STOCKING 

ANDERSON, R. O. 1973, Missouri H 

ANONYMOUS 1965a. Morocco 

ANONYMOUS 1966, Wisconsin 

ANONYMOUS 1975a. Oklahoma 

AN WAND. K. 1965b 

AN WAND. K. 1967a 

BAXTER, G. T. and J. R. SIMON 1970. 

Wyoming 
BERNATOWICZ, S. 1938. Poland 
BEVELHIMER. M. S.. R. A. STEIN and R. 

F. CARLINE 1985. Ohio H 
BEYERLE. G. B. 1970a. Michigan 
BEYERLE. G. B. 1973b. Michigan H 
BEYERLE. G. B. 1978. Michigan 
BEYERLE. G. B. 1980. Michigan 
BEYERLE. G. B. 1984. Michigan H 
BEYERLE. G. B. and J. E. WILLIAMS 1972. 

Michigan 
BEYERLE. G. B. and I. E. WILLIAMS 1 97 V 

Michigan 



*59 



BORTKIEWICZ, K. 1967. Poland 

BRY, C. 1980, Fiance 

BRY, ( '.. V. SOUCHON, G. NEVEU and L. 

TREBAOL 1983b, France 
BRY. C. and Y. SOUCHON 1982, France 
BRY. C, Y. SOUCHON. G. NEVEU and L. 

TREBAOL 1983a, France 
BUSS, K. 1968 

CARLANDER, K. D. 1957. Iowa 
CARLANDER, K. D. and J. G. ERICKSON 

1953. Iowa 
CARLANDER. K. D. and R. RIDENHOUR 

1955, Iowa 
CARLINE, R. F. 1979. Ohio 
( HABAN.R. 1973. Morocco 
CHAUDERON. L. 1969 
CHENEY. A. N. 1885, New York 
CLARK. C. F. I960. Ohio 
CLARK. J. (1) 1908. England 
COOK. K. D. 1978. Oklahoma 
DES CLERS. S. and J. ALLARDI 1983. 

France 
FLICKINGER, S. A. and J. H. CLARK 1978. 

Colorado 
GIERALTOWSKI, M. 1938. Poland 
GREGORY. R. W. and T. G. POWELL 1969. 

Colorado 
GRIMM. M. P. 1982a, Netherlands 
GRIMM. M. P. 1982b. Netherlands 
GRIMM. M. P. 1983b 
GUTIERREZ-CALDERON, E. 1952, Spain 
GUTIERREZ-CALDERON. E. 1969. Spain 
GUTIERREZ-CALDERON, E. and E. 

SCAPARDINI-ANDREU 1950, Spain 
HARRISON, H. M., C. OTARRELL and T. 

E. MOEN 1961. Iowa 
HEADRICK. M. R., M. S. BEVELHIMER. 

R. F. CARLINE and R. A. STEIN 1981, 

Ohio 
HEADRICK, M. R. and R. F. CARLINE 

1980. Ohio 
HESSEN.D. O. 1985, Norway 
HICKS. D. 1972a. Oklahoma 
HICKS. D. 1972b. Oklahoma 
HOTTELL, H. E. 1976, Georgia H 
HUBBS, CLARK 1972. Texas 
HUNER, J. V. and (). V. LINDQUIST 1983, 

Finland 
JOHNSON. L. D. 1971. Wisconsin 
JOHNSON. L. D. 1978. Wisconsin H 
KEMPINGER. J. J. 1966a. Wisconsin 
KEMPINGLR. J. J. l967a, % Wisconsin 
KLEBERT, E. 1904. Poland 



KLEINFRT. S. J. 1967b. Wisconsin 
KLEINERT. S. J. and D. F. MRAZ 1965a. 

Wisconsin 
KLUPP. R. 1978. West Germany 
KROHN. D. C. 1968a. Wisconsin 
KROHN, D. C. 1969. Wisconsin 
KUHNE. E. R. 1939. Tennessee 
LEHTONEN. H. 1981. Finland 
LEHTONEN, H. and M. PETTFRSSON 

1973. Finland 
LELOUARN, H. 1983. France 
LEWIS. S. A. 1975, Oklahoma 
LYNCH, T. M. 1957. Colorado 
MALONEY, J. and D. SCHUPP 1977. Min- 
nesota 
MARSHALL, T. L. and R. P. JOHNSON 

1971, Saskatchewan 
MCCABE. B. C. 1943, Massachusetts 
MCCARRAHER, D. B. 1959a, Nebraska 
MCCARRAHER, D. B. 1961b. North Amer 

ica 
MORRIS. J. W. 1972. Nebraska 
MORRIS, J. W. 1973, Nebraska 
MORRIS, J. W.I974. Nebraska 
MOULTON, J. 1975. Connecticut 
MOULTON, J. C. 1978. Connecticut 
MRAZ, D. F. 1961. Wisconsin 
MRAZ, D. F. 1962a, Wisconsin 
MRAZ, D. F. 1963, Wisconsin 
MULLER, H. 1959, Germany 
NASH.C. W. 1913, Ontario 
PATTERSON. R. R. 1971. New Mexico 
PEARSON. W. D. and L. A. KRUMHOLZ 

1984, Tennessee 
PENA. J. C. n.d.. Spam 
POWELL, T. G. 1972a, Colorado 
POWELL. T. G. 1972c. Colorado 
POWELL, T. G. 1973, Colorado 
PRIEGEL. G. R. 1965, Wisconsin 
PRIEGEL. G. R. 1967. Wisconsin 
RAJAD, M. nx\., Morocco 
RUNNSTROM, S. 1950. Sweden 
SAKOWICZ. L. 1939. Poland 
SCHWARTZ, F. J. 1960b, Maryland 
SMITH, H. M. 1896, California 
SNOW. H. E. . Wisconsin 
SNOW, H. E. 1967a, Wisconsin 
SNOW. H. E. 1967b, Wisconsin 
SNOW, H. E. 1974, Wisconsin 
SOUCHON, Y. 1980. France 
STEIN. R. A. 1979, Ohio H 
STEIN, R. A.. R. F. CARLINE and R. S. 

HAYWARD 1981. H 



360 



SHIN. R. A.. R. F.CARLINEand R. S. 
HAYWARD 1982, Ohio 11 

STEUCKE, W. 1975, North Dakota 

SIM ARI, (). and K. WESTMAN 1969b, Fin- 
land 

THREINEKC. W. and A. OEHMCKE 1950, 
Wisconsin 

n MOW SKI. J. 1951, Poland 

VASEY.F. W. 1968, Missouri 

\ VSI Y. F. VV. 1974, Missouri 

VOOREN, C. M. 1972. Netherlands 

\\ MIL. D. H. and R. A. STEIN 1985, Ohio 
H 

WELCOMME,R. L. 1979 

WESLOH, M. L. and D. E. OLSON 1962. 
Minnesota 

W1LLEMSEN. J. 1955. Netherlands 

\\ ^ DOSKI, R. S. and D. H. BENNETT 1981 
I SA 



i ,ength-weight relationships 

ALESSIO. G. 1975b. Italy 
ANTOSIAK. B. 1961. Poland 
BALON. E. K. 1964. Czechoslovakia 
BALON. E. K. 1965. Czechoslovakia 
BECKMAN. W. C. 1948. Michigan 
BROWN. E. H.. Jr. and C. E. CLARK 1965, 

Ohio 
BUSS. K. and J. MILLER 1961 . Pennsylvania 
CARBINE. VV. F. 1945. Michigan 
CARLANDER. K. D. 1943. Minnesota 
CARLANDER. K. D. 1944. Minnesota 
CASSELMAN. J. M. 1982. Ontario 
CIHAR. J. 1955. Czechoslovakia 
FROST. VV. E. and C. KIPLING 1967. Eng- 
land 
GREENBANK.J. 1950 
GREENBANK.J. 1957 
KUEHN.J. H. 1949. Minnesota 
KULEMIN, A. A.. I. I. MAKKOVEYEVE 

and M. I. SOLOPOVA 1971. USSR 
KUPCHINSKAYA. E. S. 1985, USSR 
LAARMAN, P. VV. 1964b. Michigan 
FIND. E. A. 1974. Finland 
M \( HMAK.K. 1975 
M ACKENTHUN. K. M. 1948. Wisconsin 
Ml ENCH, B. 1963. Illinois 
\[ ( RASOV, O. 1968 
OLIVA.O. 1956. Czechoslovakia 
SCUM IE. J. and I). FOURNIER 19X0 



SIICIII RIH KM A. A. Y. 1971, USSR 
STRAUB, M. 1984. Swit/erland 
VOSTRADOVSKY, J. 1970b. C/.eehoslo- 

\ akia 
Wll 1.1 WIS.. I. F. 1960c 
WILLIAMS..). [•. 1963c. Michigan 
WILLIAMSON. L. (). 1940. Wisconsin 



LIFE HISTORY AND HABITS 

ANONYMOUS 1903. Poland 
BAGFNAF, I. B. 1971. England 
BALFOUR-BROWNE, F. 1906. England 
BREGAZZI, P. R. 1978. England 
BUSS. K. 1961a, Pennsylvania 
CARBINE, W. F. 1942a. Michigan 
CARBINE, W. F. and V. C. APPLEGATE 

1948, Michigan 
CHENEY. W. L. 1971. Alaska 
CHENEY, W. L. 1972. Alaska 
EMBODY, G. C. 1910. New York 
FIN NELL, L. 1 984, Colorado 
FINNFLL. L. 1985, Colorado 
FISH. M. P. 1932. Great Lakes 
FRANKLIN. D. R. 1959. Minnesota 
FRANKLIN. D. R. and L. L. SMITH, Jr. 

1963. Minnesota 
FROST. W. E. and C. KIPLING 1967. Eng- 
land 
HARRISON. E. J. 1978. New York 
HARRISON, E. J. and W. F. HADLEY 1983, 

New York 
HAWDY. P. W. . Arizona 
HOLCIK. J. 1968. Czechoslovakia 
IVANOVA, M. N. 1970. USSR 
KENDALL. A. W.. Jr. and J. B. MARLIAVE. 

eds. 1985 
KENDALL. W. C. 1918. Maine 
LEPAN.S. R. 1985, New York 
OEHMCKE. A. A.. L. JOHNSON. J. KLING- 

BIEL and C. WISTROM 1965. Wisconsin 

H 
RANEY, E.G. 1959, New York 
RUTLEDGE, W. P. and J. A PRENTICE 

1973. Texas 
SAMOKHVALOVA, L. K 1974, USSR 
SCHINDLER 1946 
THREINEN,C. W .. C. A WISTROM, B. 

APELGREN and II I SNOW 1966, 

Wisconsin 

V \SI.Y. 1 W. I l )7l. Missouri 

VI 1 \/ Dl Ml DR WO. L. 1949, Spain 



161 



MANAGEMENT 

ANDERSON. R. O. 1973. Missouri H 
ANDERSON, R. O. and A. S. WEITHMAN 

1978 
ANONYMOUS 1958. Poland 
ANONYMOUS n.d.b 
ANONYMOUS n.d.c 
ANTOSIAK, B. 1958, Poland 
BAGENAL. T. B. 1982. England 
BALDWIN, N. S. 1946. Ontario 
BARTA. A. 1877, Poland 
BASTL. I., J. HOLCIK and A. KIRKA 1975. 

Czechoslovakia 
BENNETT, G. W. 1962a 
BENNETT, G. W. 1962b 
BENSON, N. G. 1976, Montana 
BENSON, N. G., J. R. GREELEY, M. 1. 

HUlSHandJ. H. KUEHN 1961, Canada, 

USA 
BEUKEMA.J.J. 1970 
BEVELH1MER. M.S. 1983, Ohio H 
BEYERLE, G. B. 1970b, Michigan 
BEYERLE, G. B. 197 Id, Michigan 
BEYERLE, G. B. 1980, Michigan 
BEYERLE, G. B. and J. E. WILLIAMS 1965, 

Michigan 
BEYERLE, G. B. and J. E. WILLIAMS 1968, 

Mighican 
BEYERLE, G. B. and J. E. WILLIAMS 1972, 

Michigan 
BEYERLE, G. B. and J. E. WILLIAMS 1973. 

Michigan 
BILLARD. R., cd. 1983a, France 
BOUCHER, R. and E. MAGNIN 1979, Que- 
bec 
BOUQUET, H. G. J. 1979 
BREGAZZI, P. R. 1978, England 
BROUGHTON, N. M. and K. A. M. FISHER 

1981, England 
BRY, C. 1980, France 
BRY, C, V. SOUCHON, G. NEVEU and L. 

TREBAOL 1983b, France 
BRY. C. and Y. SOUCHON 1982, France 
BRY, C, Y. SOUCHON, G. NEVEU and L. 

TREBAOL 1983a, France 
BRY, C, Y. SOUCHON and G. NEVEU 

1984, France 
BRYNILDSON, C. 1958, Wisconsin 
BRYNILDSON, C. 1970, Wisconsin 
BUSS, K. 1961a, Pennsylvania 
CARLANDER, K. D. 1957, Iowa 
CARLANDER. K. D. and L. E. HINER 

1943b. Minnesota 



CARLANDER. K. D. and J. W. PARSONS 

1949. Iowa 
CARTER. E. R. 1955, Kentucky 
CASSELMAN. J. M. 1969. Ontario 
CASSELMAN. J. M. 1974a. Ontario 
CASSELMAN. J. M. 1975, Ontario 
CASSELMAN. J. M. 1978b. Ontario 
CASSELMAN. J. M. and H. H. HARVEY 

1975, Ontario 
CHAPLEAU, D. and G. THELLEN 1979, 

Quebec 
CHRISTENSEN, K. E. 1959, Michigan 
CHRISTENSEN, K. E. 1960a, Michigan 
CHRISTENSEN. K. E. 1960b 
CHRISTENSEN, K. E. 1961a, Michigan 
CHR